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# Turbo Machinery

## Donga Ramesh kumar

Turbo Machinery
A turbo machine is a device which converts the energy stored by a fluid
into mechanical energy or vice versa

## The energy stored by a fluid mass appears in the form of

a) Potential energy
b) Kinetic energy
c) Intermolecular.

## The mechanical energy, on the other hand, is usually transmitted by a

rotating shaft
Rotodynamic Machines
Rotodynamic machine (turbine, pump, compressor.. ), in general, is a rotor
consisting of a number of vanes or blades

There always exists a relative motion between the rotor vanes and the fluid.

The fluid has a component of velocity tangential to the rotor and hence of
momentum in a direction tangential to the rotor.

## The rate at which this tangential momentum changes corresponds to a

tangential force on the rotor

## In a turbine, the tangential momentum of the fluid is reduced and therefore

work is done by the fluid to the moving rotor.

## But in case of pumps and compressors there is an increase in the tangential

momentum of the fluid and therefore work is absorbed by the fluid from the
moving rotor.
Eulers equation for work done in Rotodynamic
Machines
Newton 's Laws of Motion

Assumptions :

1) The flow is steady, that is, the mass flow rate is constant across any
section (no storage or depletion of fluid mass in the rotor).
2) The heat and work interactions between the rotor and its
surroundings take place at a constant rate.
3) Velocity is uniform over any area normal to the flow. This means
that the velocity vector at any point is representative of the total
flow over a finite area. This condition also implies that there is no
leakage loss and the entire fluid is undergoing the same process.
Eulers equation for work done in Rotodynamic
Machines
Fluid enters the rotor at 1, passes through the rotor by any path and
is discharged at 2

## The points 1 and 2 are radius r1 and

r2 from the centre of the rotor and
the directions of fluid velocities at 1
and 2 may be at any arbitrary
angles.

## The velocity at any point may be resolved into

three mutually perpendicular components
1) The axial component (Va)
3) The tangential component (Vw)
Eulers equation for work done in Rotodynamic
Machines

## The change in magnitude of the axial velocity components through

the rotor causes a change in the axial momentum. This change gives
rise to an axial force, which must be taken by a thrust bearing to the
stationary rotor casing.

## The change in magnitude of radial velocity causes a change in

momentum in radial direction. However, for an axisymmetric flow,
this does not result in any net radial force on the rotor.

## The tangential component only has an effect on the angular motion

of the rotor.
Eulers equation for work done in Rotodynamic
Machines

## In consideration of the entire fluid body within the rotor as a control

volume, we can write from the moment of momentum theorem

T=m(Vw2r2-Vw1r1)

## m is the mass flow rate of fluid through the rotor.

The subscripts 1 and 2 denote values at inlet and outlet of the rotor
respectively
Eulers equation for work done in Rotodynamic
Machines
The rate of energy (power) transfer to the fluid is given by

## U= r represents the linear velocity of the rotor

Classification of Fluid Machines
Classification of Hydraulic Machines

## Based on Direction of Energy Conversion

The device in which the kinetic, potential or intermolecular energy held
by the fluid is converted in the form of mechanical energy of a rotating
member is known as a turbine
The machines, on the other hand, where the mechanical energy from
moving parts is transferred to a fluid to increase its stored energy by
increasing either its pressure or velocity are known as pumps,
compressors, fans or blowers
Incompressible Compressible
Fluid Fluid
Power Generating Hydraulic Turbines Steam/Gas/wind
Machines Turbines
Power Consuming Pumps Fan/blowers/
Machines Compressors
Classification of water turbine
Based on the type of energy at inlet

## Impulse turbine Reaction turbine

The energy transfer in the rotor takes The energy transfer in the rotor takes
place only by the change in dynamic place by the change in static head and
(P1>P2)
The change in static head in the rotor Water enters the rotor at high
is zero (P1=P2) pressure and this pressure energy is
transformed into kinetic energy by a
nozzle which is a part of the rotor
itself.

## (Pelton turbine) (Francis turbine

Kaplan turbine, propeller turbine)
Classification of water turbine
Based on the direction of flow through runner

Tangential flow turbine (old Francis turbine)
(Pelton wheel turbine)

## Mixed flow turbine Axial flow turbine

(Modern Francis turbine) (Kaplan turbine and propeller turbine)
Classification of water turbine
Based on the head at inlet of the turbine

## 1) High head turbine (Pelton turbine)

2) Medium head turbine (Francis turbine)
3) Low head turbine (Kaplan turbine, propeller turbine)
Classification of water turbine
Based on the specific speed of the turbine

## 1) High specific speed turbine (Kaplan turbine)

2) Medium specific speed turbine (Francis turbine)
3) Low specific speed turbine (Pelton turbine)
General layout of a hydraulic power plant
Dam constructed across a river to store water
Pipes of large diameters called penstocks, which carry water under pressure
from the storage reservoir to the turbines.
Turbines having different types of vanes fitted to the wheels.
Head race, the surface of water in the reservoir
Tail race, the surface of water in the tail race channel.
Definitions of head and efficiency of a turbine
The difference between the head race level and tail race level
The head available at the inlet of the turbine.

## Power deliver to runner

Hydraulic efficiency =
Power Supplied at inlet

## Power at the shaft of the turbine

Mechanical efficiency =
Power delivered by water to runner
Definitions of head and efficiency of a turbine

## Volume of water actually striking the runner

Volumetric efficiency =
Volume water supplied to the turbine

## Power available at the shaft of the turbine

Overall efficiency =
Power Supplied at inlet of the turbine
Specific speed of a turbine
Specific speed is the speed of a geometrically similar turbine working
under unit head and delivering unit brake horse-power

## If Pt is in kW, Ns is in S.I units

If Pt is in BHP, Ns is in M.K.S units
( M.K.S units)