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Turbo Machinery

A turbo machine is a device which converts the energy stored by a fluid

into mechanical energy or vice versa

a) Potential energy

b) Kinetic energy

c) Intermolecular.

rotating shaft

Rotodynamic Machines

Rotodynamic machine (turbine, pump, compressor.. ), in general, is a rotor

consisting of a number of vanes or blades

There always exists a relative motion between the rotor vanes and the fluid.

The fluid has a component of velocity tangential to the rotor and hence of

momentum in a direction tangential to the rotor.

tangential force on the rotor

work is done by the fluid to the moving rotor.

momentum of the fluid and therefore work is absorbed by the fluid from the

moving rotor.

Eulers equation for work done in Rotodynamic

Machines

Newton 's Laws of Motion

Assumptions :

1) The flow is steady, that is, the mass flow rate is constant across any

section (no storage or depletion of fluid mass in the rotor).

2) The heat and work interactions between the rotor and its

surroundings take place at a constant rate.

3) Velocity is uniform over any area normal to the flow. This means

that the velocity vector at any point is representative of the total

flow over a finite area. This condition also implies that there is no

leakage loss and the entire fluid is undergoing the same process.

Eulers equation for work done in Rotodynamic

Machines

Fluid enters the rotor at 1, passes through the rotor by any path and

is discharged at 2

r2 from the centre of the rotor and

the directions of fluid velocities at 1

and 2 may be at any arbitrary

angles.

three mutually perpendicular components

1) The axial component (Va)

2) The radial component (Vf)

3) The tangential component (Vw)

Eulers equation for work done in Rotodynamic

Machines

the rotor causes a change in the axial momentum. This change gives

rise to an axial force, which must be taken by a thrust bearing to the

stationary rotor casing.

momentum in radial direction. However, for an axisymmetric flow,

this does not result in any net radial force on the rotor.

of the rotor.

Eulers equation for work done in Rotodynamic

Machines

volume, we can write from the moment of momentum theorem

T=m(Vw2r2-Vw1r1)

The subscripts 1 and 2 denote values at inlet and outlet of the rotor

respectively

Eulers equation for work done in Rotodynamic

Machines

The rate of energy (power) transfer to the fluid is given by

Classification of Fluid Machines

Classification of Hydraulic Machines

The device in which the kinetic, potential or intermolecular energy held

by the fluid is converted in the form of mechanical energy of a rotating

member is known as a turbine

The machines, on the other hand, where the mechanical energy from

moving parts is transferred to a fluid to increase its stored energy by

increasing either its pressure or velocity are known as pumps,

compressors, fans or blowers

Incompressible Compressible

Fluid Fluid

Power Generating Hydraulic Turbines Steam/Gas/wind

Machines Turbines

Power Consuming Pumps Fan/blowers/

Machines Compressors

Classification of water turbine

Based on the type of energy at inlet

The energy transfer in the rotor takes The energy transfer in the rotor takes

place only by the change in dynamic place by the change in static head and

head of the fluid. (V1>>V2) dynamic head of the fluid. (V1>V2)

(P1>P2)

The change in static head in the rotor Water enters the rotor at high

is zero (P1=P2) pressure and this pressure energy is

transformed into kinetic energy by a

nozzle which is a part of the rotor

itself.

Kaplan turbine, propeller turbine)

Classification of water turbine

Based on the direction of flow through runner

Tangential flow turbine (old Francis turbine)

(Pelton wheel turbine)

(Modern Francis turbine) (Kaplan turbine and propeller turbine)

Classification of water turbine

Based on the head at inlet of the turbine

2) Medium head turbine (Francis turbine)

3) Low head turbine (Kaplan turbine, propeller turbine)

Classification of water turbine

Based on the specific speed of the turbine

2) Medium specific speed turbine (Francis turbine)

3) Low specific speed turbine (Pelton turbine)

General layout of a hydraulic power plant

Dam constructed across a river to store water

Pipes of large diameters called penstocks, which carry water under pressure

from the storage reservoir to the turbines.

Turbines having different types of vanes fitted to the wheels.

Head race, the surface of water in the reservoir

Tail race, the surface of water in the tail race channel.

Definitions of head and efficiency of a turbine

Gross Head

The difference between the head race level and tail race level

Net Head

The head available at the inlet of the turbine.

Hydraulic efficiency =

Power Supplied at inlet

Mechanical efficiency =

Power delivered by water to runner

Definitions of head and efficiency of a turbine

Volumetric efficiency =

Volume water supplied to the turbine

Overall efficiency =

Power Supplied at inlet of the turbine

Specific speed of a turbine

Specific speed is the speed of a geometrically similar turbine working

under unit head and delivering unit brake horse-power

If Pt is in BHP, Ns is in M.K.S units

( M.K.S units)

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