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Fifth SI Edition

CHAPTER MECHANICS OF
MATERIALS
6 Ferdinand P. Beer
E. Russell Johnston, Jr.
John T. DeWolf Shearing Stresses in
David F. Mazurek
Beams and Thin-
Lecture Notes: Walled Members
J. Walt Oler
Texas Tech University

2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.


Edition
Fifth
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Contents
Introduction
Shear on the Horizontal Face of a Beam Element
Example 6.01
Determination of the Shearing Stress in a Beam
Shearing Stresses txy in Common Types of Beams
Further Discussion of the Distribution of Stresses in a ...
Sample Problem 6.2
Longitudinal Shear on a Beam Element of Arbitrary Shape
Example 6.04
Example 6.04
Shearing Stresses in Thin-Walled Members
Plastic Deformations
Sample Problem 6.3
Unsymmetric Loading of Thin-Walled Members
Example 6.05
Example 6.06
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Edition
Fifth
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Introduction
Transverse loading applied to a beam
results in normal and shearing stresses in
transverse sections.

Distribution of normal and shearing


stresses satisfies
Fx x dA 0
M x y t xz z t xy dA 0
Fy t xy dA V M y z x dA 0
Fz t xz dA 0 M z y x M

When shearing stresses are exerted on the


vertical faces of an element, equal stresses
must be exerted on the horizontal faces

Longitudinal shearing stresses must exist


in any member subjected to transverse
loading.
2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 6- 3
Edition
Fifth
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Shear on the Horizontal Face of a Beam Element


Consider prismatic beam
For equilibrium of beam element
Fx 0 H D C dA
A
M D MC
H y dA
I A
Note,
Q y dA
A
dM
M D MC x V x
dx

Substituting,
VQ
H x
I
H VQ
q shear flow
x I

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Edition
Fifth
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Shear on the Horizontal Face of a Beam Element


Shear flow,
H VQ
q shear flow
x I
where
Q y dA
A
first moment of area above y1
2
I y dA
A A'
second moment of full cross section

Same result found for lower area


H VQ
q q
x I
Q Q 0
first moment wit h respect
to neutral axis
H H

2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 6- 5


Edition
Fifth
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Example 6.01

SOLUTION:
Determine the horizontal force per
unit length or shear flow q on the
lower surface of the upper plank.

Calculate the corresponding shear


force in each nail.
A beam is made of three planks,
nailed together. Knowing that the
spacing between nails is 25 mm and
that the vertical shear in the beam is
V = 500 N, determine the shear force
in each nail.

2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 6- 6


Edition
Fifth
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Example 6.01

SOLUTION:
Determine the horizontal force per
unit length or shear flow q on the
lower surface of the upper plank.
VQ (500 N)(120 106 m3 )
q
I 16.20 10-6 m 4
Q Ay
3704 N
0.020 m 0.100 m 0.060 m m

120 106 m3
Calculate the corresponding shear
1 0.020 m 0.100 m 3
I 12 force in each nail for a nail spacing of
2[121 0.100 m 0.020 m 3 25 mm.
F (0.025 m)q (0.025 m)(3704 N m
0.020 m 0.100 m 0.060 m 2 ]
6 4 F 92.6 N
16.20 10 m

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Determination of the Shearing Stress in a Beam


The average shearing stress on the horizontal
face of the element is obtained by dividing the
shearing force on the element by the area of
the face.
H q x VQ x
t ave
A A I t x
VQ

It

On the upper and lower surfaces of the beam,


tyx= 0. It follows that txy= 0 on the upper and
lower edges of the transverse sections.

If the width of the beam is comparable or large


relative to its depth, the shearing stresses at D1
and D2 are significantly higher than at D.

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Shearing Stresses txy in Common Types of Beams


For a narrow rectangular beam,
VQ 3 V y 2
t xy 1 2

Ib 2 A c
3V
t max
2A

For American Standard (S-beam)


and wide-flange (W-beam) beams
VQ
t ave
It
V
t max
Aweb

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Further Discussion of the Distribution of


Stresses in a Narrow Rectangular Beam
Consider a narrow rectangular cantilever beam
subjected to load P at its free end:
3 P y 2 Pxy
t xy 1 2 x

2 A c I

Shearing stresses are independent of the distance


from the point of application of the load.
Normal strains and normal stresses are unaffected by
the shearing stresses.
From Saint-Venants principle, effects of the load
application mode are negligible except in immediate
vicinity of load application points.
Stress/strain deviations for distributed loads are
negligible for typical beam sections of interest.

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Edition
Fifth
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Sample Problem 6.2

SOLUTION:
Develop shear and bending moment
diagrams. Identify the maximums.

Determine the beam depth based on


allowable normal stress.
A timber beam is to support the three
Determine the beam depth based on
concentrated loads shown. Knowing
allowable shear stress.
that for the grade of timber used,
all 12 MPa t all 0.8 MPa Required beam depth is equal to the
larger of the two depths found.
determine the minimum required depth
d of the beam.

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Edition
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Sample Problem 6.2


SOLUTION:
Develop shear and bending moment
diagrams. Identify the maximums.

Vmax 14.5 kN
M max 10.95 kNm

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Edition
Fifth
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Sample Problem 6.2


Determine the beam depth based on allowable
normal stress.
M max
all
S
10.95 103 Nm
12 10 Pa 6

0.015 m d 2
d 0.246 m 246mm

I 121 b d 3 Determine the beam depth based on allowable


I 1 2 shear stress.
S 6 bd 3 Vmax
c t all
16 0.09 m d 2 2 A
3 14500
0.015 m d 2 0.8 106 Pa
2 0.09 m d
d 0.322 m 322 mm

Required beam depth is equal to the larger of the two.


d 322 mm

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Fifth
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Longitudinal Shear on a Beam Element


of Arbitrary Shape
We have examined the distribution of
the vertical components txy on a
transverse section of a beam. We now
wish to consider the horizontal
components txz of the stresses.
Consider prismatic beam with an
element defined by the curved surface
CDDC.
Fx 0 H D C dA
a
Except for the differences in
integration areas, this is the same
result obtained before which led to
VQ H VQ
H x q
I x I

2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 6- 14


Edition
Fifth
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Example 6.04

SOLUTION:
Determine the shear force per unit
length along each edge of the upper
plank.

Based on the spacing between nails,


determine the shear force in each
nail.

A square box beam is constructed from


four planks as shown. Knowing that the
spacing between nails is 44 mm and the
beam is subjected to a vertical shear of
magnitude V = 2.5 kN, determine the
shearing force in each nail.

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