SHEARING STRESS

© All Rights Reserved

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SHEARING STRESS

© All Rights Reserved

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CHAPTER MECHANICS OF

MATERIALS

6 Ferdinand P. Beer

E. Russell Johnston, Jr.

John T. DeWolf Shearing Stresses in

David F. Mazurek

Beams and Thin-

Lecture Notes: Walled Members

J. Walt Oler

Texas Tech University

Edition

Fifth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Contents

Introduction

Shear on the Horizontal Face of a Beam Element

Example 6.01

Determination of the Shearing Stress in a Beam

Shearing Stresses txy in Common Types of Beams

Further Discussion of the Distribution of Stresses in a ...

Sample Problem 6.2

Longitudinal Shear on a Beam Element of Arbitrary Shape

Example 6.04

Example 6.04

Shearing Stresses in Thin-Walled Members

Plastic Deformations

Sample Problem 6.3

Unsymmetric Loading of Thin-Walled Members

Example 6.05

Example 6.06

2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 6- 2

Edition

Fifth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Introduction

Transverse loading applied to a beam

results in normal and shearing stresses in

transverse sections.

stresses satisfies

Fx x dA 0

M x y t xz z t xy dA 0

Fy t xy dA V M y z x dA 0

Fz t xz dA 0 M z y x M

vertical faces of an element, equal stresses

must be exerted on the horizontal faces

in any member subjected to transverse

loading.

2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 6- 3

Edition

Fifth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Consider prismatic beam

For equilibrium of beam element

Fx 0 H D C dA

A

M D MC

H y dA

I A

Note,

Q y dA

A

dM

M D MC x V x

dx

Substituting,

VQ

H x

I

H VQ

q shear flow

x I

Edition

Fifth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Shear flow,

H VQ

q shear flow

x I

where

Q y dA

A

first moment of area above y1

2

I y dA

A A'

second moment of full cross section

H VQ

q q

x I

Q Q 0

first moment wit h respect

to neutral axis

H H

Edition

Fifth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Example 6.01

SOLUTION:

Determine the horizontal force per

unit length or shear flow q on the

lower surface of the upper plank.

force in each nail.

A beam is made of three planks,

nailed together. Knowing that the

spacing between nails is 25 mm and

that the vertical shear in the beam is

V = 500 N, determine the shear force

in each nail.

Edition

Fifth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Example 6.01

SOLUTION:

Determine the horizontal force per

unit length or shear flow q on the

lower surface of the upper plank.

VQ (500 N)(120 106 m3 )

q

I 16.20 10-6 m 4

Q Ay

3704 N

0.020 m 0.100 m 0.060 m m

120 106 m3

Calculate the corresponding shear

1 0.020 m 0.100 m 3

I 12 force in each nail for a nail spacing of

2[121 0.100 m 0.020 m 3 25 mm.

F (0.025 m)q (0.025 m)(3704 N m

0.020 m 0.100 m 0.060 m 2 ]

6 4 F 92.6 N

16.20 10 m

Edition

Fifth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

The average shearing stress on the horizontal

face of the element is obtained by dividing the

shearing force on the element by the area of

the face.

H q x VQ x

t ave

A A I t x

VQ

It

tyx= 0. It follows that txy= 0 on the upper and

lower edges of the transverse sections.

relative to its depth, the shearing stresses at D1

and D2 are significantly higher than at D.

Edition

Fifth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

For a narrow rectangular beam,

VQ 3 V y 2

t xy 1 2

Ib 2 A c

3V

t max

2A

and wide-flange (W-beam) beams

VQ

t ave

It

V

t max

Aweb

Edition

Fifth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Stresses in a Narrow Rectangular Beam

Consider a narrow rectangular cantilever beam

subjected to load P at its free end:

3 P y 2 Pxy

t xy 1 2 x

2 A c I

from the point of application of the load.

Normal strains and normal stresses are unaffected by

the shearing stresses.

From Saint-Venants principle, effects of the load

application mode are negligible except in immediate

vicinity of load application points.

Stress/strain deviations for distributed loads are

negligible for typical beam sections of interest.

Edition

Fifth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

SOLUTION:

Develop shear and bending moment

diagrams. Identify the maximums.

allowable normal stress.

A timber beam is to support the three

Determine the beam depth based on

concentrated loads shown. Knowing

allowable shear stress.

that for the grade of timber used,

all 12 MPa t all 0.8 MPa Required beam depth is equal to the

larger of the two depths found.

determine the minimum required depth

d of the beam.

Edition

Fifth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

SOLUTION:

Develop shear and bending moment

diagrams. Identify the maximums.

Vmax 14.5 kN

M max 10.95 kNm

Edition

Fifth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Determine the beam depth based on allowable

normal stress.

M max

all

S

10.95 103 Nm

12 10 Pa 6

0.015 m d 2

d 0.246 m 246mm

I 1 2 shear stress.

S 6 bd 3 Vmax

c t all

16 0.09 m d 2 2 A

3 14500

0.015 m d 2 0.8 106 Pa

2 0.09 m d

d 0.322 m 322 mm

d 322 mm

Edition

Fifth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

of Arbitrary Shape

We have examined the distribution of

the vertical components txy on a

transverse section of a beam. We now

wish to consider the horizontal

components txz of the stresses.

Consider prismatic beam with an

element defined by the curved surface

CDDC.

Fx 0 H D C dA

a

Except for the differences in

integration areas, this is the same

result obtained before which led to

VQ H VQ

H x q

I x I

Edition

Fifth

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Example 6.04

SOLUTION:

Determine the shear force per unit

length along each edge of the upper

plank.

determine the shear force in each

nail.

four planks as shown. Knowing that the

spacing between nails is 44 mm and the

beam is subjected to a vertical shear of

magnitude V = 2.5 kN, determine the

shearing force in each nail.

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