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Different types of manufacturing

process

PRODUCTION SYSTEMS
• The production system of an organization is
that part, which produces products of an
organization.
• It is that activity whereby resources, flowing
within a defined system, are combined and
transformed in a controlled manner to add
value in accordance with the policies
communicated by management.

What is a Production System? • Production System are those activities of an organization where – resources flowing within a defined system – are combined and transformed – in a controlled manner – to add value – in accordance to the policies communicated by the management. .

Types of Production Systems • The types of production processes / systems are classified on the basis of – Product / Output Variety and – Product / Operations / Output Volume • They are broadly classified as: – Continuous Production Process • Process / Flow Production • Mass Production – Intermittent Production Process • Batch Production • Job Shop Production .

• This is because manufacturer cannot anticipate what each customer wants. – Made to stock production process • These firms make items that are completed and placed in stock before customer order is received. Types of Production Systems Production processes or manufacturing operations may broadly be divided into two categories. . – Made to order production process • These complete the end item only after receiving a customer order.

E. Types of Production Systems There is yet another type of production process • The third type of production process is one where – The company produces standard modules and – assembles these modules – according to the specifications of a customer order • This type of production process is Assemble-to-Order production process.g. – modular kitchen board assemblers. . – PVC window assemblers. etc.

Types of Production Systems Another way to define the type of production process is based on the extent to which a factory has the flexibility to produce a variety of products. • This can be categorized as follows – Continuous Production System • Flow Production System • Mass Production System – Intermitted Production System • Batch Production System • Job-shop Production System • Project Production System .

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• The manufacturing happens in Automated. • These are mass production facilities that produce high volumes of the same products. special-purpose equipments.Continuous Manufacturing System These are also referred to as Repetitive Manufacturing Systems. . • They are usually make-to-stock producers.

• Product(s) follow the same path: . Repetitive Manufacturing WIP is low because the items move quickly in the plant. radio. and telephone producers. • Examples are television.

• These types of operations are called continuous flow (flow shop) operations. Continuous flow (flow shop) Some products flow continuously through a linear process. • Usually the products are not discrete .

• Examples are – Chemical plant. etc. – Oil and Gas. Continuous flow (flow shop) Continuous flow operations are sometimes also called process type operations – (as opposed to discrete operations). – Sugar mills. – Petroleum refineries. .

automated. – Involves high initial . – Product differentiation is limited. – Highest capacity utilization – Process follows a due to line balancing predetermined sequence of – Manpower is not required for operations material handling. Process Production / Flow Production • When is it used: • Advantages: – Dedicated plant and – Standardization of product equipment with zero and process sequence flexibility – Higher rate of production – Material handling is fully with reduced cycle time. – Planning and scheduling is a – Unit cost is low due to high routine action volume of production . – Component material cannot – Persons with limited skills can be readily identified with final be used for production product process.

– Material handling can be completely automatic – Higher investment in production facilities . • Limitations – Balanced production lines – Break-down of one machine – Material and parts flow is may stop entire production continuous without backtracking line. – Large volume of products – Low process inventory – Shorter cycle time – Manufacturing cost per unit is – Lower in process inventory low. – Line layout needs major – Production planning and control is easy changes with changes in product design. Mass Production Process When is it used: • Advantage: – Standardization of product and – Higher rate of production process sequence with reduced cycle time. – Dedicated special purpose – Higher capacity utilization machines having high due to line balancing production capacities and – Less skilled operators are output rates required.

custom products in accordance with design supplied by the customer. – Generally produces make-to-order. – Each job may be unique and may require a special set of production steps. – Needs general-purpose production equipment . Intermitted Production Process • In this type of production process – The volume of each product is low. – Products may follow different paths. each job may require a particular routing. – There are no standard routings. – Further.

• Work in Process is the inventory that accumulates in between process stages. Job Shop Production Process Job shop production process are used in – woodworking shops. here the largest percentage of the inventory is Work in Process (WIP). . – metal fabrication shops. • BUT. • May require an inventory of a few type of the raw materials. etc.

Job Shop Production Process .

Capacities for each work centers and order priority • Limitations: – Production planning is complicated – Larger space requirement.tools and be utilized parts – Opportunity exists for – Detailed planning is essential for creative methods and sequencing of each product innovative ideas. . Job Shop Production Process When is it used: Advantages: – High variety of products with low – A large variety of products volume can be produced with the – Use of general purpose machines and general purpose machines facilities – Operators become more skilled and competent with – Highly Skilled Operators who take up each job each job as a challenge – Full potential of operators can – Large inventory of materials.

. These are called batch manufacturing. – It may be less than 100 units OR up to a few 1000 units. Batch Manufacturing Many manufacturing operations fall between job shops and repetitive manufacturing. – Batch means a single production run – Batch size means the quantity produced in a single production run.

• Examples are small hand tools (e. Batch Manufacturing • The batch manufacturing company makes a batch of one product.g. • Production equipment should be more flexible than repetitive manufacturing and it is generally less flexible than job shops. • Here. screw driver). drill. and hand mixers. .. then may switch over (set up) the equipment and make a batch of another item. products having same or similar processes may be grouped into a product family.

Batch Production Process • When is it used: Advantages: – There is a shorter production run – Lower manufacturing lead time and – Plant and machinery are flexible cost as compared to job order – Every batch of production production process. – Job Satisfaction to operators – WIP inventory is higher than continuous production process. machinery • Limitations: – Promotes functional specialization – Material handling is complex – Lower investment in plant and – Production planning & control is machinery complex – Flexibility to accommodate and – High set-up cost due to frequent process number of products changes in set ups. requires changes in the plant – Better utilization of plant and and machinery set-up. .

– bridge construction. Project type A project is a highly flexible and low volume type operation. • Usually the item to be produced stays in a fixed place and all the resources come to it. – buildings and – large machines. • At the end of production. resources leave the place. • Examples are – ship construction. .

• Example: – Developing a software package may be a project type of service operation. • These involve a team of people over a period of time and then the people leave the project. . Project type Some types of service operations may also be called as Projects.