You are on page 1of 31

Network Fundamentals

Abdelkhalik Elsaid Mosa


abdu.elsaid@yahoo.com
http://abdelkhalik.staff.scuegypt.edu.eg/

Suez Canal University Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Introduction
The Application layer provides the interface to the user.
The Transport layer is responsible for dividing and managing
communications between the processes running in the two end
systems.
The Network layer protocols organize our communication data so
that it can travel across internetworks from source to destination
Packets do not have a way to directly access different media.
OSI Data Link layer prepares Network layer packets for
transmission and controls access to the physical media.
The Data Link layer provides a means for exchanging data over a
common local media, hop to hop delivery.
Suez Canal University Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Data Link Layer terms and services
Frame: The Data Link layer PDU.
Node: The Layer 2 notation for a device on a network.
Media/medium (physical): The physical means for the transfer
of information between two nodes.
Network (physical): Two or more nodes connected to a common
medium, also called Network segment.

The Data Link layer performs two basic services:


1. Allows the upper layers to access the media using techniques
such as Framing.
2. Controls how data is placed onto and received from the media
using techniques such as Media Access Control and error
detection.
Suez Canal University Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Upper Layer Access to media

Suez Canal University Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Creating a frame

Suez Canal University Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Connecting upper layer services to media

Suez Canal University Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Data Link Layer sublayers

IEEE 802.2

IEEE 802.3

Separating the Data Link layer into sublayers allows for one type of frame
defined by the upper layer to access different types of media defined by the
lower layer.
Suez Canal University Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Placing data on the media
Media Access Control equivalent to traffic rules: Regulating the placement
of data frames onto the media. MAC techniques define if and how the nodes
share the media.

The method of media access control used depends on


1. Media sharing: If and how the nodes share the media.
2. Topology: How the connection between the nodes appears to the Data Link layer.
Suez Canal University Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Media Access control for shared media
Media access control methods for shared media:
1.Controlled scheduled access or deterministic: Each node has
its own time to use the medium.

Suez Canal University Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Media Access control for shared media
Media access control methods for shared media:
2. Contention-based non-deterministic: All nodes compete for
the use of the medium.

Suez Canal University Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Media Access control for non-shared media

Media access control protocols for non-shared media require little


or no control before placing frames onto the media.

Suez Canal University Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Logical topology vs. physical topology
Physical Topology: is an arrangement of the nodes and the
physical connections between them.
Logical Topology: is the way a network transfers frames from
one node to the next.
The Data Link layer "sees" the logical topology of a network
when controlling data access to the media.
The logical topology influences the type of network framing
and media access control used.
Logical and physical topologies typically used in networks are
1. Point-to-Point
2. Multi-Access
3. Ring
Suez Canal University Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Point to Point Topology
Point-to-Point topology: connects two nodes directly/ Indirectly together.
The media access control protocol can be very simple.
The end nodes communicating in a point-to-point network can be physically
connected via a number of intermediate devices.

Suez Canal University Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Multi-Access Topology

A logical multi-access topology enables a number of nodes to


communicate by using the same shared media.
Data from only one node can be placed on the medium at any
one time.
CSMA/CD or CSMA/CA Access Control methods can be used.
Token passing methods can also be used.

Suez Canal University Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Ring Topology
In a logical ring topology, each node in turn receives a frame. If
the frame is not addressed to the node, the node passes the
frame to the next node.
Uses a controlled media access control called token passing.

Suez Canal University Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Data Link Layer Protocols The frame
There are many different Data Link layer protocols that describe
Data Link layer frames.

Suez Canal University Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Addressing Requirements
Data Link layer addressing depends on the logical topology.

Suez Canal University Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Data Link Layer Protocols The frame
The L2 protocol used depends on the logical topology of the
network and the implementation of the Physical layer.
Ex: Ethernet , PPP, HDLC, Frame Relay, ATM.
The Layer 2 protocol used for a particular network topology is
determined by the technology used to implement that topology.
These technologies are
1. LAN Technology
2. WAN Technology
These technologies are determined by the size of the network,
the number of hosts and the geographic scope, and the services
to be provided over the network.
Suez Canal University Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Ethernet Protocol for LANs
A family of networking technologies , IEEE 802.2 and 802.3.
Define both the Layer 2 protocols and the Layer 1 technologies.
Provides unacknowledged connectionless service over a shared
media using CSMA/CD as the media access methods.

Suez Canal University Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Point-to-Point Protocol for WANs
PPP is a protocol used to deliver frames between two nodes.
PPP standard is defined by RFCs.

Suez Canal University Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Wireless Protocol for LANs
802.11, Wi-Fi, is an extension of the IEEE 802 standards. It uses
the same 802.2 LLC and 48-bit addressing scheme.
Contention-based system using CSMA/CA media access process.
uses Data Link acknowledgements to confirm that a frame is
received successfully.

Suez Canal University Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Suez Canal University Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Follow data through an Internetwork
1

Suez Canal University Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Follow data through an Internetwork
3

Suez Canal University Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Follow data through an Internetwork
5

Suez Canal University Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Follow data through an Internetwork
7 Data Link Layer of Router B gets data of the media

Suez Canal University Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Follow data through an Internetwork
9 Data Link Layer of Router B puts data on the media

10 Data Link Layer of Router A gets data off the media

Suez Canal University Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Follow data through an Internetwork
11

12 Data Link Layer of Router A puts data on the media

Suez Canal University Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Follow data through an Internetwork
13 Physical Layer transports data across the media

14

Suez Canal University Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Follow data through an Internetwork
15

16

Suez Canal University Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy
Follow data through an Internetwork

17

Suez Canal University Faculty of Computers & Informatics - Cisco Local Academy