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SHE 1315

Chemistry I

CHAPTER 1:
Keys to the Study of Chemistry

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Why study chemistry?
The study of Chemistry is important as it involves our daily lives
every single thing is fundamentally chemistry What is the
chemistry involved in the change of seasons? Phase changes:
solidification/freezing, melting, condensation, vaporization, sublimation, deposition

can find out what is going on at microscopic level (molecular)


as well as macroscopic level
can expand the application of science & medicine to improve
the qualify of life dietary supplements, medicine & healthy
lifestyle
can explore the horizon outer space
can apply mathematical & problem solving skills
can predict the ozone problem before ozone depletion occurs!

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An element worth learning about

Among others, chlorine is an element that is useful in many


ways
a yellow-green gas at room temp; Cl2
Usually not found in the elemental form Cl but as a compound
(combined with other elements) e.g. table salt NaCl

Many uses:
Disinfectant
Flame retardant
Bleach; Chlorox
Pesticide; DDT
Drugs; pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (Panadol CF) and
diphenhydramine hydrochloride (Benadryl)
Solvent
Plastics ; PVC

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Key Terms in Chemistry

Chemistry: A study of the composition, structure, and properties


of matter and of changes that occur in matter
Matter: Anything that has mass and occupies space (has
volume) states of matter are solid, liquid and gas
Mass: the quantity of matter in an object
Volume: amount of space occupied
Macroscopic level: at a level where matters are large enough to
be seen w/ the unaided eyes
Microscopic level: at a level where matters are too small that
they can only be seen through sophisticated instruments
microscope, X-ray, mass spectrometer, IR etc

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Key Terms in Chemistry

Atoms: the smallest (indivisible) distinctive units in a sample of


matter

Molecules: the larger units in which 2 or more atoms are


joined together

Composition: the types of atoms & the relative proportions of


the different atoms in a sample of matter

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Properties of Matter

Physical prop a characteristic displayed by a sample of matter


w/o undergoing any change in its composition*

Chemical prop a characteristic displayed by a sample of matter


as it undergoes a change in composition

*evaporation of ethanol is a phy prop because the composition


remains the same while the arrangement of the molecules
changes w/ time. The change at microscopic level is subtle
compared to the change at the macroscopic level

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Properties of Matter

Physical prop
1. Color
2. Odor
3. Solubility
4. Hardness
5. Electrical conductivity
6. Mass
7. Temperature
8. Melting/freezing points
9. Density

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Properties of Matter

Chemical prop
1. Combustion/burning
2. Acid-base rxn
3. Redox rxn
4. Explosion

And rxn w/ other chemicals

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Classifying Matters

1. Substance: matter that has a definite/fixed composition that does


not vary from 1 sample of the substance to another (a specific
matter is referred to)

2. Element: substance that cannot be broken down into simpler


substances by chemical rxns. E.g. O, N, C and P
O2 is a molecule

3. Compound: substance made up of atoms of 2 or more elements


w/ the different kinds of atom combined in fixed proportions. E.g.
H2O, CFC and NaCl

4. Mixture: contains more than one substance. Does not have a


fixed composition. E.g. mixture of water and table salt

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Classifying Matters

5. Homogeneous mixture/Solution: mixture that has the same


composition & properties throughout (interspersed). E.g. mixture
of gases in air, saline (the saltiness is constant throughout the
whole mixture)

6. Heterogeneous mixture: varies in composition & has


distinguishable phases. E.g. a glass of ice water, a mixture of oil
and water

Mixtures can be separated by chemical (rxn) or physical


(distillation, evaporation, crystallization) means and there is no
redistribution of valence electrons (i.e. the components retain
their individual chemical prop)

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Scientific Methods

1. Hypothesis: tentative explanation/prediction concerning


some phenomenon. i.e. an educated guess that can be
tested

2. Data: facts or measurements obtained through careful


observation or made during an experiment

3. Scientific laws: statements that identify patterns in a


large collection of data

4. Theory: explains & predicts an observed phenomenon


that can be further tested

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Scientific Methods

No hypothesis or theory can ever be proven Completely True;


it can only be disproved.

Scientific knowledge is always growing & changing. There is


no end to it

Well-established theories, such as the atomic nature of matter,


may be modified but is highly unlikely to be discarded because
this theory is the basis of many of the existing theories out
there.

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Scientific Measurements

SI Base Units
1. Length meter (m)
2. Mass kilogram (kg)
3. Time second (s)
4. Amount of substance mole (mol)
5. Temperature Kelvin (K)
6. Electric current Ampere (A)
7. Luminous intensity candela (cd)
All measured quantities can be expressed in terms
of these 7 base units
SI stands for International System of Units

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Common SI Prefixes
Multiple Decimal equivalent Prefix Symbol English

109 1,000,000,000 giga- G billion

106 1,000,000 mega- M million

103 1,000 kilo- k thousand

102 100 hecto- h hundred

101 10 deca- da ten

100 1 NA NA NA

10-1 0.1 deci- d tenth

10-2 0.01 centi- c hundredth

10-3 0.001 milli- m thousandth

10-6 0.000001 micro- (mu) millionth

10-9 0.000000001 nano- n billionth

10-12 0.000000000001 pico- p trillionth

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Common SI Prefixes

Length
1km = 103 m = 105 cm
1cm = 10-2 m = 10-5 km
1mm = 10-1cm = 10-3m

Area
1cm2 = (10-2m)2 = 10-4m2
1mm2 = (10-3m)2 = 10-6m2
Volume
1cm3 = (10-2m)3 = 10-6m3
1dm3 = (10-1m)3 = 10-3m3
=1000 cm3
=1000 mL
=1L

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Common SI Prefixes

Mass
1kg = 103g
1mg = 10-3g

Time
Long time intervals: Minute, hour, day, year
Short time intervals: millisecond, microsecond etc

Density how compact an object is or how close the


atoms/molecules of an object is within its volume
kg/m3 or sometimes g/cm3 or g/mL

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Common SI Prefixes

Temperature a measure of heat flow


Freezing point of water is 32oF or 0oC or 273.15K
The difference in oC and K is the same

TF 32
TC
1.8

TF 1.8TC 32

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Precision & Accuracy

Precision of a set of measurements/data refers to how closely


individual measurements agree w/ one another good/high
precision if each measurement is close to the average of the
set
Accuracy of a set of measurements refers to how close the
average of the set comes to the true/ most probable value

E.g. throwing darts


Significant figures are used to reflect the precision of a set of
measurements

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Errors in Measurements
There are 2 types of errors: Systematic & Random
Systematic error have a definite value, an assignable cause, and
of the same magnitude for replicate measurements made in the
same way. Leads to bias in the measurement technique.
Sources of systematic error:
1. Instrument - From contaminants on the inner surfaces of the
containers
2. Method - Use of an indicator requires small excess of the reagent
to cause a color change that signals the completion of reaction.
Errors inherent in a method are often difficult to detect & are
serious of the three types of systematic errors
3. Personal reading off the level of solution in a graduated cylinder
or determining the endpoint of titration

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Errors in Measurements
Random error: An error that causes readings to take random-like
values about the mean value.
The concepts of probability and statistics are used to study
random errors and to determine if a set of data are reliable or
otherwise. A normal distribution curve is often handy.
When we think of random errors we also think of repeatability or
precision.

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Significant Figures
Rules for counting sig figs
1. Nonzero integers always count as sig figs

2. There are 3 classes of zeroes:


a. Leading zeroes are zeroes that precede all the nonzero
digits. These DO NOT count as sig fig. e.g. 0.0025

b. Captive zeroes are zeroes b/w nonzero digits. These


ALWAYS count. E.g. 1.006

c. Trailing zeroes are zeroes at the right end of the number.


They are significant ONLY IF the number contains a decimal
point. E.g. 1.00

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Significant Figures

3. Exact numbers are numbers that are not obtained from


measurements. They are assumed to have infinite sig fig and
therefore DO NOT count. E.g. unit conversion factors and other
constants like the gravitational acceleration

Rules of sig figs in mathematical operations


1. For multiplication or division, the number of sig figs in the result
is the same as the number in the least precise measurement
used in the calculation

4.56x 1.4 6.38 corrected


to
6.4

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Significant Figures

2. For a addition or subtraction, the result has the same


number of decimal places as the least precise
measurement used in the calculation

12.11 18.0 1.013 31.123 corrected


to
31.1

3. BODMAS still applies Bracket, Of, Division,


Multiplication, Addition, Subtraction

Unit Conversion
Simple unit conversions are important and students should
know how to convert b/w common units either by using the
calculator or by referring to the conversion table

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CHAPTER SUMMARY

1. Must know key terms atom, molecule etc


2. Phy vs Chem prop
3. Different classes of matter elements,
compounds and mixtures
4. Familiar w/ scientific methods
5. SI units
6. Common SI prefixes
7. Sig fig
8. Unit conversion

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