V A Zeithaml & L L Berry in 1988 .SERVQUAL  One of the first methods developed to measure service quality  Multi-dimensional scale to capture Multi- customer perceptions and expectations of service quality  Developed by A Parasuraman.

responsiveness.SERVQUAL  21 service attributes are covered  Grouped into five service quality dimensions: reliability. empathy and tangibles  7-point Likert Scale used to record feedback from Strongly agree to Strongly disagree . assurance.

two ratings on each attribute are obtained from respondents: their expectations from excellent service providers in the sector and their perception of service delivered by a specific company in that sector  Difference between expectation and perception: quantified measure of service quality .SERVQUAL  Often.

SERVQUAL (Perceptions) Reliability dimension 1. ABC Company keeps customers informed about when the service will be performed . it does so 2. ABC Company performs the service right the first time 4. ABC Company shows a sincere interest in solving it 3. ABC Company provides its services at the time it promises to do so 5. When ABC Company promises to do something by a certain time. When you have a problem.

SERVQUAL (Perceptions) Responsiveness dimension 1. Employees in ABC Company are always willing to help you 3. Employees in ABC Company give you prompt service 2. Employees in ABC Company are never too busy to respond to your request .

You feel safe in your transactions with ABC Company 3. Employees answer your questions . Employees with you 4.Employees of ABC Company are consistently courteous 3.The behaviour of employees of ABC Company instils 1.You 2.SERVQUAL (Perceptions) Assurance dimension 1. The confidence in you 2.Employees of ABC Company have the knowledge to 4.

Employees of ABC Company understand your specific needs . ABC Company has your best interests at heart 4. ABC Company gives you individual attention 2. ABC Company has employees who give you individual attention 3.SERVQUAL (Perceptions) Empathy dimension 1.

ABC Company has modern looking equipment 2.SERVQUAL (Perceptions) Tangibles dimension 1. Materials and documents at ABC Company are visually appealing 5. ABC Company has convenient business hours . ABC Company s employees appear neat 4. ABC Company s physical facilities are visually appealing 3.

SERVQUAL (Expectations) When customers have a problem. excellent firms will show a sincere interest in solving it 7-point Likert Scale is used. from Strongly disagree to Strongly agree .

how would you rate Company A on the following service features?  Sincere. how would you rate Company A s performance on the following?  Sincere.SERVQUAL (Expectations) Referent expectations formats Considering a world class company to be at 7. interested employees  Service delivered right the first time (7(7-point Likert Scale from Low to High ) . interested employees  Service delivered right the first time Compared with the level of service your expect from an excellent company.

SERVQUAL data can be used to:  Determine average gap score between customer perceptions and expectations for each service attribute  Assess service quality along each of the five dimensions  Track customers expectations & perceptions over time  Compare company with competitors  Identify & examine customer segments that differ significantly in their assessments about the company s service performance  Assess internal service quality service rendered by one department to another .

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