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WORK STUDY

Work Study is a field under Industrial


Engineering which is based on techniques,
particularly, Method Study and Work
Measurement (Time Study), which are used in
the examination of Human Work in all its
contexts, and which leads to systematic
investigation of all the resources and factors
which affect the efficiency, effectiveness, and
economy of the situation being reviewed, in

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order to effect improvement.
Monday, December 11,
Work Study and Methods Engineering
WORK STUDY
Work Study has two main branches:
A) Method Study
B) Work Measurement
Method Study: The systematic recording and critical
examination of the factors and resources involved in
the existing and proposed ways of doing work, as a
means of developing and applying easier and more
effective methods and reducing costs.

Work Measurement: The application of techniques

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designed to establish the time for a qualified worker to
carry out a specified job at a defined level of
performance.
Work Study and Methods Engineering Monday, December 11, 2017
METHOD STUDY
What METHOD STUDY is
it is a step-by-step procedure for improvements of
methods of work,
starting with the objectives,
the selection of the activity to be studied,
the collection and recording of the facts,
the critical examination of the facts is the crux of
the method study
followed by development and installing of an
improved method and the attainment of assured

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results - in terms of greater output, cost savings, and
other benefits.
Work Study and Methods Monday, December 11,
METHOD STUDY

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Work Study and Methods Monday, December 11,
METHOD STUDY SELECT PHASE
SELECT
Method study means a change for the better.
The first step in METHOD STUDY is to decide where is the
change required i.e. to select the work to be studied under
method study i.e. choice of the job to be studied.
Following factors should be kept in mind to SELECT:
Economic considerations (cost is the usual basis for the
selection of operations, sections, departments likely to
benefit from method study)

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Technical considerations
Human reactions
Work Study and Methods Monday, December 11,
METHOD STUDY SELECT PHASE
Following situations/ problems in the organization indicate
where method study can be beneficial/ or can bring savings:

a. Poor use of resources resulting in high scrap/ rework.


Inconsistencies in Quality.
b. Bad layout resulting in unnecessary material
movement.
c. Any work resulting in high fatigue.
d. Any work which has been demanding excessive
overtime.

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e. Employees complaining about their work without
logical reasoning.
f. Existence of bottlenecks.
Work Study and Methods Engineering Monday, December 11, 2017
METHOD STUDY
Terms of reference
Capital expenditure limits for the
implementation of the new method
Aspects of the manufacturing process not to be
challenged
Conditions of Collective Bargaining related to
labour retrenchment as a result of study.
Time line of the study

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Work Study and Methods Engineering Monday, December 11, 2017
METHOD STUDY RECORD PHASE

In order that the activities selected for


investigation may be visualized in their
entirety, with a view to improve them by
subsequent critical analysis, it is essential
to place on record all the necessary facts of
the existing method.

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Also essential for, before and after
comparison.
Monday, December 11,
Work Study and Methods Engineering
METHOD STUDY RECORD PHASE
Some commonly used graphical tools for recording are as follows:

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Work Study and Methods Monday, December 11,
METHOD STUDY RECORD PHASE
PROCESS CHARTS

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Work Study and Methods Monday, December 11,
METHOD STUDY

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Work Study and Methods Monday, December 11,
METHOD STUDY RECORD
Outline Process Charts
Introduction of Materials
Sometimes the chart may involve various
materials, components and subassemblies.
There can be a main process being charted but
this main process may be taking help of some
subsidiary processes also. In such cases, the
main process is charted towards the RHS and
subsidiary processes are charted to its left.
The introduction of materials to the main
process and also from subsidiary to main
process is shown by horizontal lines (containing
an arrow) at appropriate places in the chart.
Above the arrow line, name/ description of the

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material/component can be added (e.g. lock nut,
mild steel), and below the arrow, a description
of its condition/ specifications etc. can be added
(e.g. 5/16; hexagonal).
Work Study and Methods Monday, December 11,
METHOD STUDY
The Two-Handed Process Chart (THPC)
Jobs that are completed at a single work place often
consist of a series of activities of the worker's two
hands and occasionally the other parts of the body.
THPC gives a synchronized and graphical
representation of the sequence of manual activities
of the worker (activities of workers two hands).
"The two-handed process chart is a process chart
recording the work of the operator's hands (limbs) in

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relation to another.

Work Study and Methods Engineering Monday, December 11, 2017


METHOD STUDY
Construction
A two-handed process chart is made up of two columns in
which the activities of the left hand and right hand and the
appropriate symbols are respectively recorded in
sequence
The activities of the two hands are inter-related by
aligning the symbols on the chart so that simultaneous
movements by both hands appear opposite to each other.
The two-handed process chart generally employs the
same symbols as the other process charts.
The storage symbol implies "hold" instead of storage.
The transport symbol represents movements of hands,

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the operation symbol, pick up, positioning, etc., and the
delay symbol denotes the waiting of one hand for the
completion of work by the other.
Monday, December 11,
Work Study and Methods Engineering
Two Handed Process Chart
Job: Assembling washer and nut to bolt
Chart Begins: Hands empty, materials in bins
Chart Ends: Completed assembly aside to bin

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Work Study and Methods Monday, December 11,
METHOD STUDY
Simultaneous Motion Cycle Chart (Simo-Chart)

Simo Chart is a refinement over the two-handed process chart.

Two handed process chart makes use of process chart symbols and is
essentially a macro-motion study tool.

Simo chart is used for micro-motion study a technique for recording and
timing an activity, and consists of taking motion pictures of the operation with
a motion picture camera operating at a constant speed. It makes use of
Therbligs (elemental motions) to record motions of the hands or other body
members.

used to record simultaneously on a common time scale the activities of the


two hands or other parts of the workers body member during the

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performance of a single cycle of the operation being investigated.

Short cycle and highly repetitive jobs are suited for this type of recording.

Work Study and Methods Engineering Monday, December 11, 2017


METHOD STUDY
Therbligs are 18 kinds of elemental motions (basic motion elements)
used in the study of motion economy in the workplace. A workplace
task is analysed by recording each of the therblig units for a process,
with the results used for optimization of manual labour work content
by eliminating un-needed movements.

A basic motion element is one of a set of fundamental motions


required for a worker to perform a manual operation or task.

Therbligs comprise a system for analysing the motions involved in


performing a task. The identification of individual motions, as well as

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moments of delay in the process, was designed to find unnecessary or
inefficient motions and to utilize or eliminate even split-seconds of
wasted time. Frank and Lillian Gilbreth invented and refined this
system, roughly between 1908 and 1924.
Work Study and Methods Monday, December 11,
METHOD STUDY
Through various methods of Motion Study (Micro-Motion Study
(movie film) and the Chronocyclegraph) the Gilbreths were able
to examine the smallest of motions.

However, to make the process uniform, between practitioners,


they needed a method of categorizing the types of motions. The
method would also have to be a system that could easily apply to
all types of activities and yet still allow identification of what the
Gilbreths viewed as unnecessary or fatigue producing motions.

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Work Study and Methods Monday, December 11,
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Monday, December 11,
Work Study and Methods Engineering
METHOD STUDY

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Monday, December 11,
Work Study and Methods Engineering
METHOD STUDY

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Work Study and Methods Engineering Monday, December 11,
WORK STUDY & METHODS
ENGINEERING
Cycle graph and Chrono-cycle graph
These are recording techniques to enable comparatively
short motion patterns to be recorded on a photograph
using a still camera.
These are the techniques of analyzing the paths of motion
made by an operator and were originally developed by the
Gilbreths.

Used for
recording movements which are very fast and very difficult for
the human eye to trace; for their subsequent improvement.
training purposes, in that two cycle graphs/ chrono-

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cyclegraphs may be shown with one indicating a better motion
pattern than the other.

Monday, December 11,


Work Study and Methods Engineering
Multiple Activity Charts (MAC)
Multiple Activity Chart is utilized to record activities where a number of
workers work in a group or an individual operator handles several machines
simultaneously.

MAC is necessary whenever it is required to consider on the same document


the activities of a subject in relation to one or more entities. Generally, depicts
the relationship of activities between Man and the Machine.

MAC is required to improve coordination of activities taking place


simultaneously, for achieving better results.
Multiple activity chart records simultaneously the activities of all the workers
and machines on a common time scale and thus shows the inter-relations
between them.

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MAC allots separate bars placed against a common time scale to represent the
activities of each worker and/ or machine during a process.
Through Multiple Activity Charts it is easy to depict clearly the periods of
ineffective time within the process.
Monday, December 11,
Work Study and Methods Engineering
Construction of Multiple Activity Chart
1. A separate vertical bar/ column is made to
represent each subject (machine(s), or/and
operator(s)).
2. A common time scale is provided for all the
subjects.
3. Activities of each subject in relation to those of
the others are marked in the respective
columns.

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4. Previously conducted time studies provide time
values for each activity.
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Work Study and Methods Engineering
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Work Study and Methods Engineering Monday, December 11, 2017
METHOD STUDY
Flow Diagrams and String Diagrams
A Process Chart mainly shows the sequence and
nature (left or right) of movements. It does not
clearly show the paths of movement. i.e. the
information given regarding the (patterns of)
movements involved is very little.

There are often undesirable features like back-


tracking, congestion, long distances (unnecessary
long movements) etc.

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Flow diagrams and String diagrams record and
highlight these unnecessary features in the paths of
movement.
Monday, December 11,
Work Study and Methods Engineering
METHOD STUDY Flow Diagram
Flow Diagram
Flow diagram is a drawing or a diagram which is drawn to
scale and shows the relative position of production
machines, racks, benches, gangways etc. and marks the
paths followed by men or materials in their work area.
Steps to draw Flow Diagram:
1. Draw to scale the plan of the work area.
2. Mark the relative positions of machine tools, benches,
store racks, inspection booths, etc.
3. Draw the actual paths, movements of the

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material/workers on the diagram and indicate the
direction of movement. Different movements can be
marked in different colours.
Monday, December 11,
Work Study and Methods Engineering
METHOD STUDY

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Monday, December 11,
Work Study and Methods Engineering
METHOD STUDY String Diagram
When the paths are many and also repetitive, if a flow diagram is used, it
becomes congested and it is neither easy to understand it nor to trace it. Thus,
when there is too much of movement involved, a flow diagram becomes
incomprehensible. In such cases, a String Diagram is used.
CONSTRUCTION OF STRING DIAGRAM:

1. Draw to scale the plan of the work area. Mark the relative positions of
machine tools, benches, store racks, inspection booths, etc. on this drawing.

2. Mount this scaled drawing on a soft board and strike pins at all places which
form the path of workers/ materials.

3. A continuous coloured un-stretchable string, taken from the first pin to the
last pin, is wound along the pins to mark the path followed by
workers/materials (a string can be taken around a pin as many as upto 15

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times, and yet it will not be difficult to comprehend the various movements;
the string when measured gives approximately the total distance travelled by
a worker or material).

Work Study and Methods Engineering Monday, December 11,


METHOD STUDY

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Monday, December 11,
Work Study and Methods Engineering
METHOD STUDY- Critical Examination

CRITICAL EXAMINATION
This is root or heart of the method study
procedure.
Each activity is questioned and challenged
thoroughly with a view to improving the
situation.
Critical Examination consists of a well designed
questioning pattern in an impartial and objective

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manner.

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Work Study and Methods Engineering
EXAMINE
Examine means subjecting each activity to a Select
systematic and progressive series of questions.
Grouping of activities: Five sets of activities Record
can be grouped in two categories:
Those in which something actually happens to
Examine
the work-piece (it is moved, worked upon, or Develop
examined). DO ACTIVITIES.
Those in which it is not being touched (in Evaluate
storage or in delay). NON PRODUCTIVE
ACTIVITIES. Define
Install

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Objective is to maximize proportion of do
activities. All other activities, however maintain
necessary, are considered non-productive.
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Work Study and Methods Engineering
Which activity should be examined first?
Maximum improvements are obtained by
examining the operations and inspections first.
Any changes effected in the operations and
inspections will either automatically eliminate
the connected transports, storages and delays, or
will atleast improve them.

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Work Study and Methods Engineering Monday, December 11,
METHOD STUDY Critical
Examination Step
Questions relate to Governing Factors:
Purpose, Place, Sequence, Person, D) Person:
Means. - Who does it?
(SECONARY QUESTIONS marked in RED) - Why that person?
- Who else might do it?
A) Purpose: - Who should do it?
What is actually done?
Why is it necessary?
What else might be done?
E) Means:
What should be done? - How is it done?
- Why is it done that way?
B) Place: - How else might it be done?
Where is it done? - How should it be done
Why is it done there?
where else might it be done?
Where should it be done?
With a view to:
C) Sequence:

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When is it done?
Why is it done then?
Eliminate
when might it be done? Combine or Rearrange
When should it be done?
Simplify
METHOD STUDY
Examination stage
Under each governing consideration like
purpose, means, sequence, place, and person -
alternatives are evolved for each activity.

In developing the new method use systems


approach i.e. the economics and productivity of
these suggestions when the job is viewed as a

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whole must be determined.
METHOD STUDY
Develop
Key operations and inspections in the existing method which are
found to be essential may form the framework around which the
improved method could be built up using data from critical
examination Purpose, Place, Means, Person, Sequence.

Each alternative is evaluated for its advantages and


disadvantages and an order of merit is prepared.

The alternatives generated under each examination factor


would be assessed in the search of the best alternative. If this is
found to be not feasible the next best alternative as per the
preference" is selected and so on.

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This procedure is continued till all the governing factors have
been covered.
METHOD STUDY
Strategies for developing improved method
Principles of Plant Layout and Materials Handling
Principles of Motion Economy
Rules related to ergonomics and working
conditions.

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PRINCIPLES OF MOTION ECONOMY

The principles of motion economy are a set of


principles developed in order to achieve economy
in movements and reduction in fatigue on the
part of the operator.

These principles are applicable and useful for


developing improved methods at the workplace.
Are useful in both shop floor and offices (or any

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workplace), and help in developing an effective
new method.
Principles of Motion Economy
Prof. Ralph M. Barnes classified the Principles of
Motion Economy under three broad categories.
These included, principles of motion economy as
related to:

1. USE OF THE HUMAN BODY

2. ARRANGEMENT OF THE WORKPLACE

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3. DESIGN OF TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT
Principles of Motion Economy
Use of the Human Body Arrangement of the Workplace Design of Tools and Equipment

1. The two hands should begin and 1. Locate tools and materials in fixed 1. The hands should be relieved of all
complete their movements at the positions within the work area. work that can be done more
same time. 2. Locate tools and materials close to advantageously by a jig, fixture, or
2. The two hands should not be idle where they are used. a foot-operated device.
at the same time. 3. Locate tools and materials to be 2. Combine multiple functions into
3. Motions of the arms should be consistent with sequence of work one tool, wherever possible
symmetrical and in opposite elements. 3. Perform multiple operations
direction and should be made 4. Use gravity feed bins to deliver simultaneously rather than
simultaneously. small parts and fasteners . sequentially.
4. Hand and body motions should be 5. "Drop deliveries" should be used 4. Hand tools and portable power
made at the lowest classification at wherever possible. tools should be designed for
which it is possible to do the work 6. Provisions should be made for operator comfort & convenience.
satisfactorily. adequate conditions for seeing. 5. Design equipment controls for
5. Momentum should be employed to Good illumination is the first operator convenience and error
help the worker, and it should be requirement for satisfactory visual avoidance.
reduced to a minimum whenever it perception.

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must be overcome by muscular
effort.

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Principles of Motion Economy
Use of Human Body Arrangement of Workplace Design of Tools & Equipment

6. Continuous curved motions are to be 7. The height of the work 6. Where feasible, perform operation
preferred to straight line motion involving place and the chair should on multiple parts simultaneously.
sudden and sharp changes in direction. preferably be arranged so 7. Mechanize or automate manual
7. Ballistic movements are faster, easier, and that alternate sitting and operations if economically and
more accurate than restricted or fixation or standing at work are easily technically feasible.
controlled movements. possible. A chair of the 8. Where each finger performs some
8. Rhythm is essential to the smooth and type and height to permit specific movement, such as in
automatic performance of a repetitive good posture should be typewriting, the load should be
operation. The work should be arranged to provided for every worker. distributed in accordance with the
permit an easy and natural rhythm 8. The colour of the inherent capacities of the fingers.
whenever it is possible. workplace should contrast 9. Handles such as those used on
9. Work should be arranged so that eye- with that of the work and cranks and large screw drivers
movements are confined to a comfortable thus reduce eye fatigue should be designed to permit as
area, without the need for frequent much of the surface of the hand to

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changes of the focus. come in contact with the handle as
possible.

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[A] USE OF HUMAN BODY
Prof. Barnes suggested that the first three principles can be examined and discussed
simultaneously.
He illustrated this with the example of bolt and washer assembly.
In the old (existing) method, the bolt is picked up by the left hand and then a lock washer is
picked up by the right hand, and placed on the bolt. Next, the right hand picks up a steel washer
and places it on the bolt. Then, a rubber washer is picked up by the right hand and is placed on
the bolt. The completed assembly is disposed off in a container placed at the left side of the
operator.
Here, in the existing old method, the two hands are NOT moving simultaneously. One is
holding the bolt and the other hand is doing the picking and assembling operations.
In the new revised method, a fixture (with a recess) is made that holds two bolts. The operator
has seven bins before him. The operator picks up one bolt each by each hand from bin no. 4 and
places them (the two bolts) on the fixture. He first picks up a rubber washer from bins (bin no.
1) on extreme left and extreme right respectively. Actually, the bottom of the bins are made to
slope towards the work area at an angle of 300, so that materials are fed onto the work area by
gravity. The operator (as mentioned above) slides the washers into the recesses of the fixture.

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Then steel washers are slided and then the lock washer is slided into position. Two bolts are
picked and dropped into the fixture. Then both bolts are removed and disposed of in bins
placed on the right side as well as left side. In the return motion, each hand picks the new
rubber washers.

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[A] USE OF HUMAN BODY

Figure: Bolt and washer assembly Figure: The hole in the rubber washer is slightly
A- Special Rubber Washer, smaller than the outside diameter of the bolt so
B- Flat Steel Washer , that when the bolt is forced through the hole , it is
gripped, thus preventing the washer from falling
C- Lock Washer, off the bolt.
D- 3/8 inch X 1-inch bolt

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Figure: Poorly designed Figure: Properly designed Gravity-feed, bins and
containers
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[A] USE OF HUMAN BODY
4. Hand and body motions should be made at the lowest
classification at which it is possible to do the work satisfactorily.
Classification of Movements: The movements of the Human Body have been
classified under five groups, based on the pivots under which the body
members move:
CLASS PIVOT BODY PARTS MOVED

1 Knuckle Finger

2 Wrist Hand + Finger

3 Elbow Forearm + Hand + Finger

4 Shoulder Upper arm + Forearm + Hand + Finger

5 Trunk Torso + Upper arm + Forearm + Hand + Finger

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Basic Body Motions
The lowest classification of movement results in maximum economy and least
fatigue. Thus the workplace layout should be arranged in such a way that the
movements involved conform to lower classifications.
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[A] USE OF HUMAN BODY
9. Work should be arranged so that eye-movements are
confined to a comfortable area, without the need for
frequent changes of the focus.
In work situations where hand-eye coordination is required, the eyes are
used to direct the actions of the hands.

Eye xations should be as few and as close together as possible.

Eye focus occurs when the eye must adjust to a change in viewing
distance (say, from 25 in. to 10 in.) with little or no change in line of sight.

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Eye travel occurs when the eye must adjust to a change in line-of-sight
(e.g. from one location in the workplace to another), but the distances
from the eyes are the same.

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[A] USE OF HUMAN BODY
Since eye focus and eye travel
each take time, it is desirable to
minimize the need for the
worker to make these
adjustments as much as possible.

This can be accomplished by


minimizing the distances
between objects (e.g., parts and
tools) that are used in the
workplace.

Visual field is defined by a cone.

Head movements are minimized


if eye fixations are limited to a
single cone.

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With practice, eye fixations come
down and the time required also
comes down accordingly.
Figure: Schematic diagram of Eye Sight.
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METHOD STUDY
INSTALL AND MAINTAIN
study does not cease at the development stage
but extends to install - the introduction of new
method, and
to maintain - to ensure, by periodic checks that
it continues to operate as planned.
must 'define' the new method and make a
proposal for approval of higher management.

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prepare a written standard practice Operating
instruction sheet
METHOD STUDY
MAINTAIN
when the new method is operating, detailed
supervision is necessary until management is
satisfied that the scheme is operating
satisfactorily

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WORK MEASUREMENT
(TIME STUDY)
Work Measurement
Work measurement is the application of
techniques designed to establish the time for a
qualified worker to carry out specified jobs at a
defined level of performance.

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Monday, December 11,
Work Study and Methods Engineering
Method Study is the principal technique used to
reduce the work content in the manufacturing of
a product. Method Study focuses on eliminating
unnecessary movements by
workers/materials/equipment.
Even after applying Method Study, ineffective
time may surface because of many reasons.
Work Measurement is concerned with

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investigating, reducing and eliminating
ineffective time, whatever may be the cause.
Monday, December 11,
Work Study and Methods Engineering
Work Measurement is the means of measuring the
time taken in the carrying out an operation or a
series of operations in such a way that the
ineffective time shows up and can be filtered out.

Work Measurement is also used to set Standard


Time to carry out the work. Any ineffective time
shows up as excess time over and above the
standard time. Standard times are set for all

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activities through Work Measurement.

Monday, December 11,


Work Study and Methods Engineering
WORK MEASUREMENT

Work measurement refers to a set of four


techniques that are concerned with the evaluation
of a task in terms of the time that should be allowed
for an average worker to perform that task:
(1) direct time study,
(2) predetermined motion time systems,
(3) standard data systems, and
(4) work sampling,
The objective of these work measurement

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techniques is to determine a standard time for the
task. Because of its emphasis on time, work
measurement is often called time study.
Monday, December 11,
Work Study and Methods Engineering
WORK MEASUREMENT
Most workers are paid on the basis of time. The common work
shift is 8 hours per day, and the worker is paid an hourly rate.

The standard time for a given task is the amount of time that
should be allowed for an average worker to process one unit
using the standard method and working at a normal pace.

The standard time includes some additional time, called the


allowance, to provide for the workers personal needs, fatigue,
and unavoidable delays during the shift.

The standard time is sometimes referred to as the allowed time,


because it indicates how much time is allowed for the worker to

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process each unit so that by the end of the shift a fair days
workload has been accomplished, despite the various
interruptions that may occur.
Monday, December 11,
Work Study and Methods Engineering
WORK MEASUREMENT
Methods to Determine Time Standards

A) Estimation:
The department foreman or other persons familiar with the jobs that are
performed in the department are asked to judge how much time should be
allowed for the given task.

B) Historical records of previous production runs


In this method, the actual times and production quantities from records of
previous identical or similar job orders are used to determine the time
standards.

C) Work measurement techniques


Direct Time Study, Predetermined Motion Time Systems, Standard Data

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Systems, and Work Sampling.
The work measurement techniques are more time consuming to
implement but they are more accurate than estimation or historical
records
Monday, December 11,
Work Study and Methods Engineering
WORK MEASUREMENT
Prerequisites for valid Time Standards
The time to perform one work cycle of a given
manual task depends on the
worker (his physical size and strength, as
well as his mental abilities and skill),
the workers pace,
the method used (hand and body motions,
tooling, equipment, and work environment),
the work unit

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As a prerequisite for establishing a standard time for
a task, all of these factors must be standardized
Monday, December 11,
Work Study and Methods Engineering
WORK MEASUREMENT
As a prerequisite for establishing a standard time
for a task, all of these factors must be standardized
The standardized factors are the following:
The task is performed by an average
qualified worker
The workers pace (speed) represents
standard performance
The worker uses the standard method
The task is performed on a standard output

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unit that is defined before and after
processing.
Monday, December 11,
Work Study and Methods Engineering
Work Measurement
Factors that must be standardized before a time standard can be set:

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Work Study and Methods Engineering Monday, December 11, 2017
Work Measurement
Approach to Standard Performance
The work shift is usually considered to be an 8-hour workday
during which the worker is allowed periodic rest breaks and may
experience other interruptions.
Standard performance is a pace of working that can be
maintained by the qualified worker throughout an entire work
shift without harmful effects on the workers health or physical
well-being.

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Work Study and Methods Engineering Monday, December 11, 2017
Work Measurement
Allowances in Time Standards
In all of the work measurement techniques, the normal
time is adjusted (increased) by an allowance factor to
obtain the standard time.

Allowances are used because there will be periods


during the regular work shift when the worker is not
working e.g. tea break, rest to overcome fatigue during

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the normal shift.

Work Study and Methods Engineering Monday, December 11, 2017


Work Measurement
Reasons for Lost Time at Work
Work-related interruptions Non-work-related interruptions

Machine breakdowns Personal needs (restroom breaks)


Waiting for materials or parts Talking to co-workers about matters
unrelated to work
Receiving instructions from foreman Lunch break
Talking to co-workers about work- Smoke break
related matters
Rest breaks for fatigue Beverage break

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Cleaning up at end of shift Personal telephone calls

Monday, December 11,


Work Study and Methods Engineering
WORK MEASUREMENT
How to Allow for Lost Time
Two approaches used by companies:
1. Scheduled rest breaks during the shift
Scheduled breaks are planned periods set aside
during the shift as break time from work. Lunch
breaks (or supper break for evening and night shifts)
are almost always handled this way.
There is a specified rest break in the morning and
one in the afternoon. The duration of these breaks is

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typically 5 to 15 minutes. All workers take their
breaks during these specified times, and the workers
are paid during these breaks.
Work Study and Methods Engineering Monday, December 11,
2. A PFD allowance is added to the normal time .
Personal time
Rest room breaks, phone calls, water fountain stops, cigarette breaks (5% typical).

Fatigue Allowance
Rest allowance to overcome fatigue due to work-related stresses and conditions (5% or more).

Delays
Machine breakdowns, foreman instructions (5% typical).

Contingency Allowance
Additional allowance due to a problem with the task (e.g., raw material problem ) - not greater
than 5% .

Training allowance

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for workers whose responsibilities include teaching other new workers in their jobs.

Learning allowance
for workers who are learning a new task or new employees who are just beginning to work
Work Study and Methods Engineering Monday, December 11, 2017
The purpose of the allowance factor is to compensate for
this lost time by providing a small increment of
allowance time in each cycle. This way, even with the
time losses, the operator will still be able to complete a
days work during the hours of the shift.

Normal time is adjusted by an allowance factor Apfd to


obtain the standard time. pfd = personal time, fatigue, and
delays.

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Standard time: Tstd = Tn (1 + Apfd)

Work Study and Methods Engineering Monday, December 11, 2017


Performance Rating
One of the most important and the most difficult
part of time study is to evaluate the speed or the
tempo at which the person is working while the
time study is being made.
The time study analyst must judge the operators
speed while making the time study. This is called
Rating.
Rating is that process during which the time study
analyst compares the performance (speed or
tempo) of the operator under observation with the

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observers own concept of normal performance
(standard rating), and obtains a performance rating
factor.
Work Study and Methods Engineering Monday, December 11, 2017
STANDARD PERFORMANCE (Standard Rating)
The standard rating is the average rate at which qualified
workers will naturally work at a job, when using the correct
method and when motivated to apply themselves to their work.
This rate of working is called standard rating.

Standard Performance or Standard Rating is the rate of output


which qualified workers will naturally achieve without over-
exertion as an average over the working shift provided they
know and adhere to the specified method and, they are
motivated to apply themselves to their work

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Work Study and Methods Engineering Monday, December 11, 2017
Performance Rating of the worker
This performance is denoted as 100 on the
standard rating and on the performance scales.
Thus, if the analyst feels that average qualified
worker during time study is working at 80% of
the expected standard performance, the
performance rating factor will be 0.80.

Later, this rating factor is applied to the selected

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time value (observed time) to obtain the normal
time for the job.
Work Study and Methods Engineering Monday, December 11, 2017
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Work Study and Methods Engineering Monday, December 11, 2017
Question 1:
The observed time for a work cycle in a time study
was 4.00 min. The workers performance was rated
by the analyst at 80%. The company uses a PFD
allowance factor of 15%. What is the standard time
for this task?
Solution # 1
Normal time Tn = (Observed time)*(performance rating)
= 4.00(0.80) = 3.2 min

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Standard timeTstd = (Normal time)*(1+ allowances)
= 3.2 (1 + 0.15) = 3.68 min
Work Study and Methods Engineering Monday, December 11, 2017

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