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Introduction on

Computers
BIT 003
What is a computer?
C - Commonly
O - Operating
M - Machine
P - Particularly
U - Used for
T - Technical and
E - Education
R - Research
The word Computer comes from the word
compute which means to calculate. A computer
is an electronic device, which stores and
processes data to give meaningful information.

Processing is done with the help of instructions


given by the user, which are also stored within the
computer.
Information vs Data
Data
Data is raw, unorganized facts that need to be
processed. Data can be something simple and
seemingly random and useless until it is
organized.
Information
When data is processed, organized, structured or
presented in a given context so as to make it
useful, it is called information.
Characteristics of
Computer:
Speed
- It is capable of performing calculations of very large amount of data.
- Computer can process the day very fast at the rate of million
instructions for second.
Accuracy
- With very fast processing, computer are very accurate also. The
results are 100% error free.
Diligence
- The computer does not get any tiredness, if we use it whole day.
- It can also process repeater task with same speed and accuracy.
Storage capacity
- Computer can store large amount of data in it and we can retrieve that
data at any time when we required.
Reliability
- Computers are reliable and we can also protect the data of computer
in many ways.
Versatile
- Computer are versatile in nature.
- It may do multi tasking at a time.
Computer Capabilities
Speed of Data processing
Speed of Data communication
Speed of searching for Data
Undertake repetitive of processing
Data storage capacity
Greater Accuracy
Ability to produce different output formats
Limitations of a Computer
1. Programmed by human therefore dependent on
programs created by humans.

2. Not creative or imaginative.

3. Not have self care ability.

4. Unquestioning device.

5. Only process quantized information.


6. Cannot operate without power.

7. It is unnatural, therefore unintuitive.

8. Retrieval of memory is linear, whereas human


can think randomly.

9. It does not carry emotions.

10. It does not have self caring ability.


Computer Applications in
Different Industries
1. Education Industry
MS Office Applications
QuickBooks Pro
2. Health Care Industry
ECG (Electrocardiogram)
-Computer prints out electrical activity
of patients heart.
-Results of ECG can also be read by
the computer. Before this was done by
the doctor.
MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
-It is a body scanner that uses nuclear
magnets instead of x-rays.
-Can see tumours, blood moving
through the veins.
3. Military
Computer-Simulated Wargame
-Computer simulations allow the military
to train soldiers for severe combat
situations without actually having to put
them in harm's way.
Satellite Phones
-They can let you make phone call from
almost anywhere because they use
satellites directly orbiting earth.
->They are the communication
devices of choice in areas with minimal
or non-existent cell coverage.
4. Education
MS Office Applications
A.R.I.S (Academic
Registration and Information
Systems)
5. Engineering
AutoCAD
-AutoCAD is a commercial
software application for 2D
and 3D computer-aided
design (CAD) and drafting
Autodesk Civil 3D
-Used primarily in
Transportation and
environmental Engineering
6. Maritime

Sonar Radar Systems


-A system for the detection of
objects under water and for
measuring the water's depth
by emitting sound pulses and
detecting or measuring their
return after being reflected.
7. Transportation
G.P.S (Global Positioning
System)
-The Global Positioning System
(GPS) is a space-based
navigation system that
provides location and time
information in all weather
conditions, anywhere on or
near the Earth where there is an
unobstructed line of sight to
four or more GPS satellites.
8. Manufacturing
Robot Technology
-It is the use of robots for simplifications and
precise execution of work.
9. Law Enforcement

Biometrics
- refers to metrics related to
human characteristics.
Biometrics authentication
(or realistic
authentication) is used in
computer science as a
form of identification
and access control
10. Personal Uses

Applications that will make our day-to-


day lives easier.
Examples:
Merriam-Webster Dictionary (Android)
Budget Assistant (Android)
Dragon Speech Voice Recognition Software.
History of
Computers
Charles Babbage
English inventor
1791-1871
taught math at Cambridge
University
invented a viable mechanical
computer equivalent to
modern digital computers
Babbages first computer

built in early 1800s


special purpose
calculator
naval navigation charts

Difference Engine
Babbages second
computer Analytical engine
general-purpose
used binary system
punched cards as input
branch on result of
previous instruction
Ada Lovelace (first
programmer)
machined parts not
accurate enough
never quite completed

Analytical Engine, 1834


Invention of the light bulb,
1878
Sir Joseph Wilson Swan
English physicist and electrician
first public exhibit of a light bulb in 1878
Thomas Edison
American inventor, working independently of Swan
public exhibit of a light bulb in 1879
had a conducting filament mounted in a glass bulb from which the air
was evacuated leaving a vacuum
passing electricity through the filament caused it to heat up, become
incandescent and radiate light
the vacuum prevented the filament from oxidizing and burning up
Edisons legacy
Edison continued to experiment with light bulbs
in 1883, he detected electrons flowing through the vacuum of
a light bulb
from the lighted filament
to a metal plate mounted inside the bulb
this became known as the Edison Effect
he did not develop this any further
Invention of the diode
(late 1800s)
John Ambrose Fleming
an English physicist
studied Edison effect
to detect radio waves and to convert them to electricity
developed a two-element vacuum tube
known as a diode
electrons flow within the tube
from the negatively charged cathode
to the positively charged anode
today, a diode is used in circuits as a rectifier
The switching vacuum tube,
1906
Lee de Forest introduced a third
electrode into the vacuum tube
American inventor
the new vacuum tube was called
a triode
new electrode was called a grid
this tube could be used as both
an amplifier and a switch

many of the early radio transmitters were built by de


Forest using triodes
triodes revolutionized the field of broadcasting
their ability to act as switches would later be
important in digital computing
On/Off switches in digital
computers
earliest:
electromechanical relays
solenoid with mechanical contact points
physical switch closes when electricity animates magnet
1940s:
vacuum tubes
no physical contacts to break or get dirty
became available in early 1900s
mainly used in radios at first
1950s to present
transistors
invented at Bell Labs in 1948
John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley
Nobel prize, 1956
Photo of an
electromechanical relay
The integrated circuit (IC)

invented separately by 2 people ~1958


Jack Kilby at Texas Instruments
Robert Noyce at Fairchild Semiconductor (1958-59)
1974
Intel introduces the 8080 processor
one of the first single-chip microprocessors
ICs are fabricated many
at a time
Electrical Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC),
1940s

an early computer
developed at UPenn
Size: 30 x 50 room
18,000 vacuum tubes
1500 relays
weighed 30 tons
designers
John Mauchly
J. Presper Eckert
Intel 8088 microprocessor
(single chip)
used in first IBM personal computer
IBM PC released in 1981
4.77 MHz clock
16 bit integers, with an 8-bit data bus
transfers took two steps (a byte at a time)
Pentium 4 chip has
1 Mb of physical memory address limitation
42 million transistors
8-bit device-controlling chips
29,000 transistors
3-micron technology electrical paths now
speed was 0.33 MIPS as small as .13 micron
later version had 8 MHz clock
speed was 0.75 MIPS.
Example Of Early Computers

DEC
LSI-11,
Early 1980s

DEC
PDP-11,
mid 1970s

These 2 computers were functionally equivalent.


THANK YOU!

SOURCES:

http://worldcomputerarticle.blogsp
ot.com/2010/04/limitation-of-
computer.html

http://www.diffen.com/difference/
Data_vs_Information

http://www.computing.dcu.ie/~dfitz
pat/content/computers-strengths-
and-limitations

www.pcbasic.com