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By Sowmya bharathi Sree priya.V Saravanan.P Rakesh.G Sriram.V Sadeesh.C
Water (prevention and control of pollution) act, 1974. Air (prevention and control of pollution) act, 1981. The environment (protection) act, 1986
The Water (prevention and control of pollution) Act is enacted with the objective of prevention & control of pollution in India and Maintaining and restoring wholesomeness of water.
IMPORATANT DEFINITIONS Board occupier outlet Pollution Prescribed Sewage affluent Sewer Trade effluent New discharge .
fishery or industry or trade or any other interest Two persons to represent the companies or corporations owned Full-time member-secretary . to represent that Government Non-officials.CONSTITUTIONS OF CENTRAL/STATE BOARD A full-time chairman Maximum of 5 officials. not exceeding three to represent the interests of agriculture.
FUNCTIONS OF CENTRAL BOARD Advise the Central Government on any matter concerning the prevention and control of water pollution. Co-ordinate the activities of the State Boards and resolve disputes among them. control or abatement of water pollution on such terms and condition as the Central Board may specify Organize through mass media a comprehensive program regarding the prevention and control of water pollution. Provide technical assistance and guidance to the State Boards carry out and sponsor investigations and research relating to problems of water pollution and prevention. control of abatement of water pollution. Plan and organize the training of persons engaged or to be engaged in programs for the prevention. .
having regard to the quality of water. . codes or guides relating to treatment and disposal of sewage and trade effluents and disseminate information connected therewith Lay down. technical and statistical data relating to water pollution and the measures devised for its effective prevention and control and prepare manuals. the standards for a stream or well: Provided that different standards may be laid down for the same stream or well or for different streams or wells. compile an publish. control or abatement of water pollution Perform such other functions as may be prescribed. flow characteristics of the stream or well and the nature of the use of the water in such stream or well or streams or wells Plan and cause to be executed a nation-wide programme for the prevention. modify or annul. in consultation with the State Government concerned.CONTDu Collect.
conduct and participate in investigations and research relating to problems of water pollution and prevention. control or abatement thereof. To encourage. .FUNCTIONS OF A STATE BOARD To plan a comprehensive program for the prevention. To lay down. control or abatement of water pollution. control or abatement of water pollution. To advise the State Government on any matter concerning the prevention. modify or annul effluent standards for the sewage and trade effluents and for the quality of receiving waters. To collect and disseminate information relating to water pollution and the prevention. control or abatement of pollution of streams and wells in the State and to secure the execution thereof.
To inspect sewage or trade effluents. control or abatement of water pollution and to organize mass education programs relating thereof. climate and water resources of different regions and more especially the prevailing flow characteristics of water in streams and wells which render it impossible to attain even the minimum degree of dilution. . works for the purification thereof and the system for the disposal of sewage or trade effluents or in connection with the grant of any consent as required by this Act. having regard to the peculiar conditions of soils. specifications or other data relating to plants set up for the treatment of water.CONTDu To collaborate with the Central Board in organizing the training of persons engaged or to be engaged in programs relating to prevention. works and plants for the treatment of sewage and trade effluents and to review plans. To evolve economical and reliable methods of treatment of sewage and trade effluents.
control or abatement of discharges of waste into streams or wells. vary or revoke any order(i) for the prevention.CONTDu To evolve methods of utilisation of sewage and suitable trade effluents in agriculture To evolve efficient methods of disposal of sewage and trade effluents on land. . as are necessary on account of the predominant conditions of scant stream flows that do not provide for major part of the year the minimum degree of dilution To lay down standards of treatment of sewage and trade effluents to be discharged into any particular stream taking into account the minimum fair weather dilution available in that stream and the tolerance limits of pollution permissible in the water of the stream. after the discharge of such effluents To make.
CONTDu [ii] Requiring any person concerned to construct new systems for the disposal of sewage and trade effluents or to modify. be entrusted to it by the Central Board or the State Government. . modify or annul effluent standards for the sewage and effluents To advise the State Government with respect to the location of any industry the carrying on of which is likely to pollute a stream or well To perform such other functions as may be prescribed or as may. control or abate water pollution To lay down effluent standards to be complied with by persons while causing discharge of sewage or sullage or both and to lay down. alter or extend any such existing system or to adopt such remedial measures as are necessary to prevent. from time to time.
AIR (PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF POLLUTION) ACT. 1981 .
for the establishment. with a view to carrying out the aforesaid purposes. of boards.SCOPE AND OBJECT An act to provide for the prevention. control and abatement of air pollution. for conferring on and assigning to such boards powers and functions relating there to and for matters connected therewith .
. liquid or gaseous substance including noise present in the atmosphere in such concentration as may be or tend to be injurious to human beings or other living creatures or plants or property or environment.DEFINITIONS AIR POLLUTION: Means any pollutant that presence in the atmosphere. AIR POLLUTANT: Means any solid.
State Pollution Control Boards constituted under section 4 of the Water (Prevention and control of Pollution) Act. . 1974 was authorized to exercise the powers and performs the functions for the prevention and control of air pollution.BODIES CONSTITUTED TO ENFORCE THE ACT Central Pollution Control Board constituted under section 3 of the Water (Prevention and control of Pollution) Act. 1974 was authorized to exercise the powers and performs the functions for the prevention and control of air pollution.
The state board so constituted shall have the following members: A chairman. where. in any state there is no such state there is no such state board for prevention of water pollution. being a person having special knowledge or practical experience in respect of matters relating to environmental protection. to be nominated by the state government. the state government shall constitute a state board for prevention and control of air pollution. Under sec 5 of the act. .
fishery or industry or trade or labor. Number of persons. . not exceeding 3. Number of officials. to be nominated by the state government to represent the interest of agriculture. not exceeding 5. to be nominated by the state government from amongst the members of the local authorities. as the state government may think fit. Number of officials. to be nominated to represent the state government. as the state government may think fit. as the state government may think fit. not exceeding 5.
controlled or managed by the state government. . Two persons represent the companies or corporations owned. to be appointed by the state government. to be nominated by that government. A full-time member-secretary having practical experience in respect of matters relating to environmental protection and having administrative experience.
in any air pollution control area or part thereof. it may by notification in the official gazette. is of the opinion that the use of any fuel.PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION Under section 19. If the state government. . after consultation with the state board. may cause or is likely to cause air pollution. prohibit the use of such fuel in such area or part thereof with effect from such date as may be specified in the notification. the state government may. other than an approved fuel. declare in the prescribed manner by notification in the official gazette. any area or areas within the state as air pollution control area or areas for the purpose of act. after consultation with the state board.
Under section 20 of the act. prohibit the burning of such material in such area or part thereof. . is of the opinion that the burning of any material in any air pollution control area or part thereof may cause or is likely to cause air pollution. after consultation with the state board. give such instruction as it may deem necessary to the concerned authority in charge of registration of motor vehicles under the motor vehicles act. laid down by the state board are compiled with. with a view to ensuring that standards for emission of air pollutnts from automobiles. the state government shall. it may. in consultation with the state board. by notification in the official gazette. If the state government. 1939.
THE ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION ACT 1986 .
SECTION 1. by notification in the Official Gazette. SHORT TITLE. appoint and different dates may be appointed for different provisions of this Act and for different areas. It shall come into force on such date 1 as the Central Government may. . EXTENT AND COMMENCEMENT This Act may be called the Environment (Protection) Act. 1986. It extends to the whole of India.
liquid or gaseous substance present in such concentration as may be. "environment" includes water. and human beings. air and land and the interrelationship which exists among and between water. plants. other living creatures. or tend to be. micro-organism and property "environmental pollutant" means any solid. injurious to environment "environmental pollution" means the presence in the environment of any environmental pollutant . DEFINITIONS. air and land.SECTION 2.
. treatment. storage. the person in possession of the substance "Prescribed" means prescribed by rules made under this Act. micro-organism. conversion. transfer or the like of such substance "hazardous substance" means any substance or preparation which. plants. package. in relation to any factory or premises. means a person who has control over the affairs of the factory or the premises and includes in relation to any substance. is liable to cause harm to human beings. destruction. property or the environment "occupier". processing. means the manufacture. in relation to any substance. use. offering for sale. collection. other living creatures. by reason of its chemical or physico-chemical properties or handling. "handling". transportation.
The Central Government shall have the power to take all such measures for the purpose of protecting and improving the quality of the environment and preventing. . POWER OF CENTRAL GOVERNMENT TO TAKE MEASURES TO PROTECT AND IMPROVE ENVIRONMENT. controlling and abating environmental pollution. officers and other authorities planning and execution of a nation-wide programme for the prevention.SECTION 3. Such measures may include : Co-ordination of actions by the State Governments. control and abatement of environmental pollution.
or class of industries. operations or processes. operations or processes shall not be carried out or shall be carried out subject to certain safeguards. laying down procedures and safeguards for the prevention of accidents which may cause environmental pollution and remedial measures for such accidents. laying down standards for the quality of environment in its various aspects.CONTD. laying down standards for emission or discharge of environmental pollutants from various sources whatsoever. restriction of areas in which any industries... laying down procedures and safeguards for the handling of hazardous substances. .
control and abatement of environmental pollution. control and abatement of environmental pollution. by order. plant. officers or persons as it may consider necessary to take steps for the prevention. carrying out and sponsoring investigations and research relating to problems of environmental pollution. materials and substances as are likely to cause environmental pollution. equipment. preparation of manuals. . manufacturing or other processes. collection and dissemination of information in respect of matters relating to environmental pollution. establishment or recognition of environmental laboratories and institutes to carry out the functions entrusted to such environmental laboratories and institutes under this Act. inspection of any premises. materials or substances and giving. machinery. examination of such manufacturing processes. codes or guides relating to the prevention. of such directions to such authorities.
RULES TO REGULATE ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION. and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power. by notification in the Official Gazette. the procedures and safeguards for the handling of hazardous substances.SECTION 6. namely : the standards of quality of air. In particular. such rules may provide for all or any of the following matters. The Central Government may. make rules in respect of all or any of the matters referred to in section 3. the maximum allowable limits of concentration of various environmental pollutants (including noise) for different areas. . water or soil for various areas and purposes.
. the prohibition and restrictions on the location of industries and the carrying on of processes and operations in different areas. The procedures and safeguards for the prevention of accidents which may cause environmental pollution and for providing for remedial measures for such accidents. the prohibition and restrictions on the handling of hazardous substances in different areas.
ETC. OPERATION. NOT TO ALLOW EMISSION OR DISCHARGE OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS IN EXCESS OF THE STANDARDS. NO PERSON CARRYING ON ANY INDUSTRY.SECTION 7. OPERATION OR PROCESS SHALL DISCHARGE OR EMIT OR PERMIT TO BE DISCHARGED OR EMITTED ANY ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANT IN EXCESS OF SUCH STANDARDS AS MAY BE PRESCRIBED. PERSONS CARRYING ON INDUSTRY. .
SECTION 8. . PERSONS HANDLING HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES TO COMPLY WITH PROCEDURAL SAFEGUARDS. No person shall handle or cause to be handled any hazardous substance except in accordance with such procedure and after complying with such safeguards as may be prescribed.
premises or other place in such manner as may be prescribed. The Central Government or any officer empowered by it in this behalf. POWER TO TAKE SAMPLE AND PROCEDURE TO BE FOLLOWED IN CONNECTION THEREWITH. samples of air. shall have power to take. . for the purpose of analysis. soil or other substance from any factory. water.SECTION 11.
such other matters as may be necessary or expedient to enable that laboratory to carry out its function. . by notification in the Official Gazette. soil or other substance for analysis or tests. water. the form of the laboratory report thereon the fees payable for such report. make rules specifying the functions of the environmental laboratory. The Central Government may. by notification in the Official Gazette. ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORIES. the procedure for the submission to the said laboratory of samples of air. establish one or more environmental laboratories. The Central Government may.SECTION 12. recognise one or more laboratories or institutes as environmental laboratories to carry out the functions entrusted to an environmental laboratory under this Act.
the offender shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to seven years. Whoever fails to comply with or contravenes any of the provisions of this Act. or with both. . with additional fine which may extend to five thousand rupees for every day during which such failure or contravention continues after the conviction for the first such failure or contravention. ORDERS AND DIRECTIONS. PENALTY FOR CONTRAVENTION OF THE PROVISIONS OF THE ACT AND THE RULES. If the failure or contravention referred to in sub-section (1) continues beyond a period of one year after the date of conviction. and in case the failure or contravention continues.SECTION 15. will be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to five years or with fine which may extend to one lakh rupees.