Chapter 3 8/29


Water Supports All Life
y Organisms are composed of mostly water y Humans are 70% water y Life on earth began in water y 3 billion yrs before land y You can survive weeks without food, 1 wk without

water y Why? y Water is necessary in chemical reactions necessary to sustain life

y Most cells surrounded by water y Cells 70-95% water y 75% earth covered in water y Mostly liquid, also ice & vapor y Water is unique y Only substance exists in natural environment in all 3 physical states of matter y Solid, liquid, gas

Structure of Water
y Structure of water responsible for its unique

properties y Simple 2 H atoms joined to 1 O by single polar covalent bonds y Polar Molecule- opposite ends of the molecule have opposite charges Negative Charge

Positive Charge One Water Molecule

Positive Charge

Unique Properties arise from attractions between polar molecules.
y Hydrogen bonding (H bond) y Liquid- arrangement of

molecules constantly changing, many molecules are linked by multiple H bonds

4 Properties of Water
y 1. Cohesion y 2. Moderation of temperature y 3. Expansion upon freezing y 4. Versatility as a solvent

y Water molecules are attracted to each other due to H

bonds- stay very close together y Liquid- H bonds constantly breaking and re-forming
y At any instance a substantial % of all water molecules

are bonded together

y This makes water more structured than other liquids

y Contributes to transport of

water & dissolved nutrients against gravity in plants
y Water evaporates from leaves,

H bonding causes the water molecules leaving to pull up on the molecules below it
y Upward pull is transmitted through all the cells all the

way down to the roots

y Clinging of one substance to another y Water adheres to walls of the cells, countering the

downward pull of gravity

Surface Tension
y Interface between water & air

ordered arrangement of water molecules
y H-bonded to one another & water

below y Behaves like an invisible film

y Measure of how difficult it is stretch

or break the surface of a liquid y Water has a greater surface tension than most liquids

Moderation of Temperature
y Moderates air temperature by

absorbing heat from air that is warmer and releasing stored heat to air that is cooler
y Heat Bank- stores heat y Can absorb or release a large amount of heat with only a slight change in its own temperature

Heat and Temperature
y Kinetic energy- energy of motion y Atoms & molecules have kinetic energy- always in

motion y Faster a molecule moves, more kinetic energy it has
y Heat- total amount of kinetic energy due to molecular

motion in a body of matter y Temperature- measures the intensity of heat due to the average kinetic energy of molecules

y Average speed of molecules increase, temperature

y Heat and temperature are related but not the same y Heat -total amt of kinetic energy y Temperature- measure of the kinetic energy (how fast) y You have a higher temp than ocean, but ocean

contains far more heat than you b/c of its volume

Energy flows from [High] to [Low]
y Heat will always pass to the cooler object until the

two are the same temperature
y Cooler molecules speed up absorbing kinetic energy

from warmer molecules

y Ice cube does not add coolness to a drink y It absorbs the heat from the warm liquid y Liquid cools off

Measure of Temperature
y Celsius Scale (rC) y Water freezes 0 rC y Water boils

(32 rF) (212 rF) (98.6 rF)

100 rC

y Human body 37 rC y Room temp

20-25 rC (68 ± 77 rF)

Measure of Heat
y Calorie (cal)- amount of heat it takes to raise the

temp of 1 g of water by 1 rC
y Kilocalorie (kcal)- 1,000 cal quantity of heat required

to raise the temp of 1 kg of water by 1 rC
y Calories on food packages ± actually kcals

y Joule (j) y 1 j = 0.239 cal y 1 cal = 4.184 j

High Specific Heat
y Specific heat- amount of heat that must be absorbed

or lost for 1 g of that substance to change its temp by 1 rC y Cal- amt of heat that causes 1 g of water to change its temp by 1 rC y Water specific heat- 1 cal/g/rC
y Unusually high specific heat y Takes a lot of heat to raise the temp

y Ethyl alcohol (aka beer) 0.6 cal/g/rC

y Water can absorb a lot of heat and release a lot of

heat without changing its temperature much y Burn your hand on metal pot of lukewarm water
y Water isn¶t hot y Metal pot 0.1 cal/g/rC ± temp raises much faster than

water (hotter!)

Why is specific heat so high?
y H-bonding y Heat absorbed- break H-bonds y Heat released- forms H-bonds y Much of the heat absorbed 1st goes to breaking H

bonds, then molecules start moving faster
y Drop temperature of water, forming bonds, heat


y Large body of water absorbs & stores huge amount

of heat from sun in summer, temperature warm up a few degrees y Night/winter- water releasing heat, warming the air
y Stabilizes ocean temp, directly affects the air-

keeping the earth¶s temp within limits permit life
y You & all organisms- mostly water! y Resist large temperature changes in your own body

Evaporative Cooling
y Evaporation- liquid to gas y Liquid molecules all attracted to each other, molecules start moving fast enough, break all bonds, depart the liquid into the air as a gas y Temperature- AVERAGE kinetic energy of molecules y Have some molecules moving fast even at low temp y Glass of water is evaporating at room temp y Heat liquid (providing energy)- average kinetic energy increasing quicker

Heat of Vaporization
y Quantity of heat a liquid must absorb for 1 g of it to be

converted from the liquid to gas state
y Water has a high heat of vaporization y H-bonding, must break all those bonds 1st y Evaporate 1 g H2O at 25 rC you need 580 cal of heat y Double the heat needed for ammonia or alcohol

Heat of Vaporization
y Moderate Earth¶s climate y Tropical seas absorb a large amount of solar heat y Water evaporates- moist, warm tropical air y Circulates poleward- releasing heat y Lose heat, forming more H bonds y Gas- liquid- RAIN!

Heat of Vaporization
y Surface water that is evaporating- highest kinetic

energy- ³hottest´
y Evaporative Cooling y Average temperature drops y 100 fastest runners from UTA transfer them to TCU,

average speed of remaining runner at UTA would decline

Evaporative Cooling
y Contributes to the stability of temp in lakes and ponds y Prevents terrestrials from overheating y Water evaporates from plant leaves, prevents tissue from becoming too warm in sun y Sweat cools you offevaporates off of your skin, dissipating your body heat

High humidity is hotter, why?
y High concentration of water vapor in the air, inhibits

evaporation of sweat from the body
y High to low (air dry, low water vapor, sweat vaporizes

easily) y Air is moist, high water vapor, sweat will not evaporate

Insulation of Bodies of Water by Ice
y Water is less dense as a solid (ice) than a liquid y Solids have more molecules packed tightly together y More mass- heavy y So why is water lighter as a solid? y Water expands instead of contracting y H-bonding y > 4 rC water like other liquids y Expands as it warms y Contracts as it cools

Water is densest at 4 rC
y Freezing- molecules are no longer moving vigorously

enough to break H-bonds y 0 rC water locks into a crystal lattice- each molecule bonds to 4 partners
y H bond -set distance apart y Ice 10% less dense (10% fewer

molecules for same volume) than liquid water at 4 rC

Absorbing heat

Molecules are most tightly packed at 4 rC Heats up > 4 rC, begins to expand, molecules moving faster

y If ice sank, life as we know it would cease to exist y All ponds, lakes and oceans would freeze solid y Summer thaw only the upper few inches of the ocean y All the animals burrowed into sediments die

Ice floats- water below is warmer, insulated Prevents freezing, creatures can live underneath

Universal Solvent
y Solution- liquid that is completely homogeneous

mixture of 2 or more substances
y salt water, salt dissolves and the concentration is then

uniform throughout the water

y Solvent- dissolving agent (water) y Solute- substance that is dissolved (salt) y Aqueous solution- water is solvent

y NaCl- ionic compound (Na+ cation, Cl- anion) y Surface of salt crystal ± charges y Attracted to water- charge y Oxygen (-) attracted to Na+ y Hydrogen (+) attracted to Cly Water molecule surrounds

individual Na+ or Cl- ions
y Sphere of water molecules

Hydration Shell y Separates them, shields them from one another

y Compound does not need to be ionic to be dissolved y Nonionic polar molecules- sugar molecules y Ionic compound- each individual atom has a charge
y Nonionic compound- atoms have no charge y Polar- charge difference throughout the molecule

Hydrophilic & Hydrophobic Substances
y Hydro- water y Hydro- water

Phiolios- loving Phobos- fearing

y Hydrophilic- any substance with attraction to water (charges) y Ionic or polar substances y Dissolve in water y Some large molecules inside of cells do not dissolveremain suspended in liquid portion of the cell y Colloid- stable suspension of fine particles in a liquid

y Cellulose- very large molecules with regions of

partial +/- charges y Water will adhere to cellulose
y Cotton will absorb water well y Cotton towels & t-shirts- good drying

y Nonionic & nonpolar substances repel water y Olive oil- nonpolar bonds (no charge- share electrons

equally) y Cell membranes- hydrophobic

Molecular Mass
y Chemical rxn¶s in body- solutes dissolved in water y To understand rxn- how many atoms & molecules y Use mass to calculate the # of molecules y Know the mass of each atom in a given molecule y Molecular mass- sum of the masses of all the atoms¶

in a molecule

Sucrose (table sugar)
‡ Molecular formula: C12H22O11 y C = 12 daltons y H = 1 dalton y O = 16 daltons

y (12 x 12) + (1 x 22) + (16 x 11) = 144 +22 + 171 y Sucrose = 342 daltons
Can¶t weigh that out! Mass x # of atoms in the molecule

y 6.02 x 1023 daltons = 1 g y Mole (mol) = 6.02 x 1023 molecules Avogadro¶s number

y 1 molecule = 342 daltons y 6.02 x 1023 molecules x 342 daltons = 2.06 x 1026 daltons 1 molecule
y 2.06 x 1026 daltons x

1g 6.02 x 1023 daltons

= 342


y 1 mol = molecular mass y Scientists weight out fixed ratios ± need to know how

many molecules they are adding y 1 mol ± adding 6.02 x 1023 molecules
y Determine the molecular mass of the molecule

y Make 1 L with 1 mol sucrose in water y 342 g sucrose up to 1 L of water y 1 molar solution (1 M) y Molarity- number of moles of solute per liter of


Dissociation of Water Molecules
y Hydrogen can give up electron and leave the water

molecule- H+ (proton) or hydrogen ion y Leaves behind OH- hydroxide ion y Proton (H+) will bind to another water molecule ±> H3O+ hydronium ion


+ H



y Reversible rxn- state of equilibrium y Water dissociates at the same rate it is re-formed y At the equilibrium point [H2O] greatly exceeds the [H+] and [OH-] y Ion concentration in pure water y 10-7 M (1 L of H20 1 ten-millionth of a mole) y Very reactive ions y Unbalanced by acids & bases y pH scale ± measures concentration of ions

y Acid- solute that donates H+ y Increases H+ concentration of a solution y HCl H+ + Cly Acidic Solution- solution H+ > OHy Base- reduces the [H+] y Use up H+ NH3 + H+ NH4+ y Donate OH- NaOH Na+ + OH- (forms water) y Basic solution- solution 0H- > H+ y Neutral solution: [H+] = [OH-]

pH Scale
y In any aqueous solution 25rC the product of H+ and

OH- concentrations is constant at 10-14
y [H+][OH-] = 10-14 y [H+] = 10-7 [OH-] = 10-7 y 10-7 x 10-7 = 10-14 ‡ Balance:

[H+] = 10-5 [OH-] = 10-9

‡ Use logarithms for pH scale

pH Scale
y pH- negative logarithm (base 10) of the hydrogen ion

y pH = -log [H+] y [H+] = 10-7 y pH = -log 10-7 = -(-7) = 7

y Low pH = higher [H+] y Low pH acidic solution y High pH basic solution

y Most biological fluids pH 6-8 y Stomach acid pH = 2 y Log scale ± 10 X difference from one pH value to the

y pH of 3 is 1000 X more acidic than pH 6
y y y

pH 5 is 10x more acidic than pH 6 pH 4 is 10x more acidic than pH 5, 100x pH 6 pH 3 is 10x more acidic than ph 4, 100x pH 5, 1000x pH 6

y Internal pH around 7 y Slight change in pH harmful b/c chemical processes of

the cell very sensitive to concentrations of H+ and OHy Buffers keep pH relatively constant- minimize the

change in [H+] & [OH-]
y Blood pH 7.4 y Drops to 7 or rises to 7.8 you will only last a few minutes y Blood has buffering capacity

y Buffer either accepts H+ when they are in excess or

donates H+ when they are depleted
y H2CO3 carbonic acid- blood buffer
Rise in Ph p

H+ donor

HCO3- + H+
H+ acceptor


Drop in Ph n

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