US Air Force commissioned MIT to develop the first "numerically controlled" machine in 1949. It was demonstrated in 1952. At 1970-1972 first Computer Numeric Control 1970machines were developed. Today, computer numerical control (CNC) machines are found almost everywhere, from small job shops in rural communities to companies in large urban areas.

instructions are stored as a program in a micromicro-computer attached to the machine. making it more adaptable than earlier hard-wired hardcontrollers. The computer will also handle much of the control logic of the machine. 4 . the Control).DEFINITION  In CNC (Computer Numerical Control).

CNC APPLICATIONS Machining 2.5D / 3D Turning ~ Lathes. Turning Centre Milling ~ Machining Centres  Forming 2D Plasma and Laser Cutting Blanking. nibbling and punching 3D Rapid Prototyping  5 .








INDUSTRIES MOST AFFECTED by CNC  Aerospace  Machinery  Electrical  Fabrication  Automotive  Instrumentation  Mold making 13 .



AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY(Cont¶d) Different Products 16 .

AEROSPACE INDUSTRY Aircraft Turbine Machined by 5-Axis CNC Milling Machine 17 .





22 .Utilization of computers in manufacturing applications has proved to be one of the most significant advantages & developments over the last couple of decades in helping to improve the productivity and efficiency of manufacturing systems.

Reduced setup time increases utilisation too.ADVANTAGES of CNC  Productivity Machine utilisation is increased because more time is spent cutting and less time is taken by positioning. 23 .

PRODUCTIVITY through AUTOMATION AUTOMATION 24 .PROFIT increases as COST decreases and as PRODUCTIVITY increases.

AUTOMATION any means of helping the workers to perform their tasks more efficiently transfer of the skill of the operator to the machine 25 .

soft automation. part recognition second industrial revolution 26 .Transferred skill muscle power manipulating skill vision skill Results engine driven First industrial machine tools revolution mechanization hard automation use of position transducers. cameras cnc machines. industrial robots. computer control of manufacturing systems brain power increase of accuracy.


Less waste due to scrap. Parts are more repeatable.ADVANTAGES of CNC  Quality Parts are more accurate. 28 .

Lower stock levels reduce interest charges and working capital requirements. 29 . Lower lead time allows lower stock levels.ADVANTAGES of CNC  Reduced inventory Reduced setup time permits smaller economic batch quantities.

30 . First NC machine built 1951 at MIT for aircraft skin milling.ADVANTAGES of CNC  Machining Complex shapes Slide movements under computer control. Computer controller can calculate steps.

ADVANTAGES of CNC  Management Control CNC leads to CAD Process planning Production planning 31 .

000 .000 Retraining and recruitment of staff New support facilities High maintenance requirements Not cost-effective for low-level production on costlowsimple parts As geometric complexity or volume increases CNC becomes more economical Maintenance personnel must have both mechanical and electronics expertise 32 .500.DRAWBACKS of CNC        High capital cost Machine tools cost $30.$1.


The metal cutting operations (also called machining) is one of the most important manufacturing processes in industry today (as it was yesterday). yesterday). 34 .


The main function of a machine tool is to control the workpieceworkpiececutting tool positional relationship in such a way as to achieve a desired geometric shape of the workpiece with sufficient dimensional accuracy. 36 .

Machine tool provides: work holding tool holding relative motion between tool and workpiece primary motion secondary motion 37 .

Primary motion Relative motion between tool and workpiece Cutting motion Secondary motion Feed motion Feed rate 38 Cutting speed .


THOSE USING ABRASIVE TOOLS grinding m/c¶s honing m/c¶s etc. THOSE USING MULTIPOIN T TOOLS drilling m/c¶s milling m/c¶s broaching m/c¶s hobbing m/c¶s etc. 40 .CLASSIFICATION OF MACHINE TOOLS THOSE USING SINGLE POINT TOOLS lathes shapers planers boring m/c¶s etc.



machine control unit position transducers

work holding device tool holding device




(+Z) as tool goes away from the workpiece MACHINE TOOL WITH ROTATING WORKPIECE MACHINE TOOL WITH ROTATING TOOL HORIZONT AL AXIS X radial and parallel to cross slide. (+X) to the right when viewed from spindle towards work piece VERTICAL AXIS horizontal and parallel to the work holding surface. (+X) to the right when viewed from spindle towards column parallel to and positive in the principal direction of cutting (primary motion) Y apply right hand rules 44 . (+X) when tool goes away from the axis of spindle horizontal and parallel to work holding surface.ISO MACHINE TOOL AXES DEFINITIONS AXIS Z MACHINE TOOL WITH SPINDLE axis of spindle. (+Z) as tool goes away from the work piece MACHINE TOOL WITH NO SPINDLE perpendicular to work holding surface.

RIGHT HAND RULE Vertical Machine Horizontal Machine 45 .



The difference is in the way in which the various machine functions and slide movements are controlled. 48 . The technological capabilities NC machine tools in terms of machining are no different from those of conventional ones.NUMERICALLY CONTROLLED MACHINE TOOLS: An NC machine tool is functionally the same as a conventional machine tool.

The functions and motions such as. 49 . turning the spindle on and off setting cutting speeds setting feed rate turning coolant on and off moving tool with respect to workpiece are performed by Machine Control Unit (MCU) in NC machine tools.


CNC SYSTEM ELEMENTS A typical CNC system consists of the the following six elements  Part program  Program input device  Machine control unit  Drive system  Machine tool  Feedback system 51 .



numbers and symbols and are arranged in a format of functional blocks as in the following example N10 G01 X5. It controls the movement of the machine tool and the on/off control of auxiliary functions such as spindle rotation and coolant.0 Y2.5 F15.0 | | | | | | | | | Feed rate (15 in/min) | | | Y-coordinate (2. The coded instructions are composed of letters.0") | Linear interpolation mode Sequence number 54 .PART PROGRAM  A part program is a series of coded instructions required to produce a part.5") | | X-coordinate (5.

diskette drivers. 55 . keyboards. punched tape reader. networks. The most The commonly used program input devices are keyboards. throgh RS 232 serial ports and networks.PROGRAM INPUT DEVICE  The program input device is the mechanism for part programs to be entered into the CNC control.

It is used to perform the following functions:       Read coded instructions Decode coded instructions Implement interpolations (linear.MACHINE CONTROL UNIT The machine control unit (MCU) is the heart of a CNC system. circular. and helical) to generate axis motion commands Feed axis motion commands to the amplifier circuits for driving the axis mechanisms Receive the feedback signals of position and speed for each drive axis Implement auxiliary control functions such as coolant or spindle on/off. and tool change 56 .

TYPES of CNC CONTROL SYSTEMS  Open-loop Open- control  Closed-loop control Closed- 57 .

OPENOPEN-LOOP CONTROL SYSTEM       In open-loop control system step motors are openused Step motors are driven by electric pulses Every pulse rotates the motor spindle through a certain amount By counting the pulses. the amount of motion can be controlled No feedback signal for error correction Lower positioning accuracy 58 .

CLOSEDCLOSED-LOOP CONTROL SYSTEMS closedclosed-loop control systems DC or AC motors are used  Position transducers are used to generate position feedback signals for error correction  Better accuracy can be achieved  More expensive  Suitable for large size machine tools  In 59 .

a) (p.CONTROL  Desired    path (p. a) 3-axis position control (encoder feedback) Velocity control (tachometer feedback) Torque control (current feedback)  Path    generator Linear interpolation Circular interpolation Complex path interpolation (contouring) . v.

61 . stepping motors or servomotors and ball lead-screws. The control signals are augmented to actuate stepping motors which in turn rotate the ball lead-screws to position the machine leadtable.DRIVE SYSTEM A drive system consists of amplifier circuits. The MCU feeds leadcontrol signals (position and speed) of each axis to the amplifier circuits.

The lead screw converts the rotary motion of the motor shaft into linear motion of the workpiece . 62 . causing the motor shaft to rotate bya fixed angle (one step).STEPPING MOTORS  A stepping motor provides open-loop. The drive unit receives a direction input (cw or ccw) and pulse inputs. For each pulse it receives. digital control of the position of a workpiece in a numerical control machine. the drive unit manipulates the motor voltage and current.


64 .RECIRCULATING BALL SCREWS Transform rotational motion of the motor into translational motion of the nut attached to the machine table.

65 . care in manufacturing.RECIRCULATING BALL SCREWS  Accuracy of CNC machines depends on their rigid construction. and the use of ball screws to almost eliminate slop in the screws used to move portions of the machine.

COMPONENTS OF RECIRCULATING BALL SCREWS     Ball screw Ball nut (anti-backlash) (antiWays Linear bearings .

67 .

Microsteps can be used to decrease the motor step size.POSITIONING     The positioning resolution of a ball screw drive mechanism is directly proportional to the smallest angle that the motor can turn.0025 mm or better. CNC machines typically have resolutions of 0. 68 . The smallest angle is controlled by the motor step size.

Regardless of which type of machine tool is controlled. it always has a slide table and a spindle to control of position and speed. while the spindle runs along the Z axis.MACHINE TOOL  CNC controls are used to control various types of machine tools. 69 . The machine table is controlled in the X and Y axes.

It uses position and speed transducers to continuously monitor the position at which the cutting tool is located at any particular time. 70 .FEEDBACK SYSTEM  The feedback system is also referred to as the measuring system. The MCU uses the difference between reference signals and feedback signals to generate the control signals for correcting position and speed errors.


ENCODERS A device used to convert linear or rotational position information into an electrical output signal. 72 .



75 .RESOLVERS  A resolver is a rotary transformer that produces an output signal that is a function of the rotor position.


DRIVE MOTORS     DC servo motors AC servo motors Stepper motors Hydraulic motors .

POSITION FEEDBACK       Incremental encoder Quadrature Absolute encoder Resolver Tachometer No feedback (open loop) .



CNC Programming  Manual  Write code directly Draw cutter path Draw the part Cutter path is generated  Computer-assisted Computer  CAD/CAM   .

Resolvers.VELOCITY FEEDBACK  Tachometers: Electrical output is proportional to rate of angular rotation. Potentiometers: Number of pulses per time is proportional to rate change of position.  Encoders. 82 .


CNC CUTTERS  Turning center cutters  Machining center cutters 84 .

TURNING CENTER CUTTERS Types of cutters used on CNC turning centers  Carbides (and other hard materials) insert turning and boring tools  Ceramics  High Speed Steel (HSS) drills and taps 85 .

Can turn and face like the C. D ± somewhat stronger. 4 edges per side. used for profiling when the angle allows it. but 3 edges per side. C ± popular insert because the same holder can be used for turning and facing. 86 . T ± commonly used for turning because it has 3 edges per side. W ± newest shape. 2 edges per side. but mostly used for chamfering because it won¶t cut a square shoulder. R ± strongest insert but least commonly used. 2 edges per side. weakest insert. 2 edges per side.STANDART INSERT SHAPES        V ± used for profiling. S ± Very strong.


 Insert endmills cut many times faster than HSS.  88 . but the  HSS endmills leave a better finish when side cutting.MACHINING CENTER CUTTING TOOLS Most machining centers use some form of HSS or carbide insert endmill as the basic cutting tool.

89 .MACHINING CENTER CUTTING TOOLS (cont¶d)  Facemills flatten large surfaces quickly and with an excellent finish. Notice the engine block being finished in one pass with a large cutter.

MACHINING CENTER CUTTING TOOLS (cont¶d)   Ball endmills (both HSS and insert) are used for a variety of profiling operations such as the mold shown in the picture. 90 . Slitting and side cutters are used when deep. narrow slots must be cut.

and Reamers Common HSS tools such as drills.MACHINING CENTER CUTTING TOOLS (cont¶d)  Drills. and reamers are commonly used on CNC machining centers. Taps. Also. taps. Rarely are hand taps used on a machining center. 91 . Note that a spot drill is used instead of a centerdrill. spiral point or gun taps are used for through holes and spiral flute for blind holes.

collet holders. These include end mill holders (shown). HSK tool holders were designed a number of years ago as an improvement to CAT tapers. The machine pulls on the pull stud to hold the holder in the spindle. but they are gaining acceptance slowly. 40. and the groove in the flange gives the automatic tool changer something to hold onto. 92 . etc. Most machines in the USA use a CAT taper which is a modified NST 30.TOOL HOLDERS  All cutting tools must be held in a holder that fits in the spindle. or 50 taper that uses a pull stud and a groove in the flange. face mill adapters.


CNC PROGRAMMING      Offline programming linked to CAD programs. WordWord-Address Coding using standard G-codes Gand M-codes. MDI ~ Manual Data Input. M- 94 . Manual Control using jog buttons or `electronic handwheel'. Conversational programming by the operator.

95 .Basics of NC Part Programming: During secondary motion. it is always assumed that the tool moves relative to the workpiece no matter what the real situation is. either the tool moves relative to the workpiece or the workpiece moves relative to the tool. In NC programming.

zero. If (0. then it is called floating zero.0) position can be described by the operator.The position of the tool is described by using a Cartesian coordinate system.0. 96 .

either absolute positioning mode or incremental positioning mode can be used. 97 .In defining the motion of the tool from one point to another.

Incremental positioning. next target position for the tool is given relative to the current tool position. the positioning. desired target position of the tool for a particular move is given relative to the origin point of the program. the positioning. Absolute positioning. 2. In this mode. 98 .1. In this mode.

Tab sequential format 3. Fixed sequential format 2. Block Format: 1. Word address format 99 .Structure of an NC Part Program: Commands are input into the controller in units called blocks or statements.

100 . and the coolant is turned off.4.0) by a rapid movement. 2.EXAMPLE: Assume that a drilling operation is to be programmed as: 1. with the flood coolant on.. The tool is positioned at (25.12.5. The tool is then advanced -10 mm in the z direction at a feed rate of 500 mm/min. 3.The is then retracted back 10 mm at the rapid feed rate.

1. Fixed sequential format 0050 00 +0025400 +0012500 +0000000 0000 00 0060 01 +0025400 +0012500 -0010000 0500 08 0070 00 +0025400 +0012500 +0000000 0000 09 2. Tab sequential format 0050 TAB 00 TAB +0025400 TAB +0012500 TAB +0000000 TAB TAB 0060 TAB 01 TAB TAB TAB -0010000 TAB 0500 TAB 08 0070 TAB 00 TAB TAB TAB -0000000 TAB 0000 TAB 09 3. Word address format N50 G00 X25400 Y125 Z0 F0 N60 G01 Z-10000 F500 M08 N70 G00 Z0 M09 101 .

102 . coolant selection. like. Nonmodal commands: Commands that are commands: effective only when issued and whose effects are lost for subsequent commands.Modal commands: Commands issued in the commands: NC program that will stay in effect until it is changed by some other command. a dwell command which instructs the tool to remain in a given configuration for a given amount of time. feed rate selection. etc. like.


RY. Preparatory Information: units. incremental or absolute positioning 2. Miscellaneous Control: Spindle on/off. stops for part movement This information is conveyed to the machine through a set of instructions arranged in a desired sequence ± Program. Flood. 104 . Cycle Functions: Type of action required 7.Z.INFORMATION NEEDED by a CNC 1. RX. Mist 5. direction of rotation.Y. Tool Control: Tool and tool parameters 6.RZ 3. Coordinates: X. Machining Parameters: Feed rate and spindle speed 4. Coolant Control: On/Off.

125 F5         Restrictions on CNC blocks Each may contain only one tool move Each may contain any number of non-tool move Gcodes Each may contain only one feedrate Each may contain only one specified tool or spindle speed The block numbers should be sequential Both the program start flag and the program number must be independent of all other commands (on separate lines) The data within a block should follow the sequence shown in the above sample block 105 .0 Z0.0 Y1.BLOCK FORMAT Sample Block N135 G01 X1.

WORDWORD-ADDRESS CODING Example CNC Program            N5 G90 G20 N10 M06 T3 N15 M03 S1250 N20 G00 X1 Y1 N25 Z0.125 F5 ZN35 X3 Y2 F10 N40 G00 Z1 N45 X0 Y0 N50 M05 N55 M30 Each instruction to the machine consists of a letter followed by a number. Letters used in Codes N.G.Z.F.A.B.M 106 . Each letter is associated with a specific type of action or piece of information needed by the machine.1 N30 G01 Z-0.I.J.K.X.C.T.S.Y.R.

107 . coolant on/off).125 F5 ZN35 X3 Y2 F10 N40 G00 Z1 N45 X0 Y0 N50 M05 N55 M30 ‡ G-codes: Preparatory Functions involve actual tool moves. spindle on/off.1 N30 G01 Z-0.e. ‡ M-codes: Miscellaneous Functions ± involve actions necessary for machining (i.G & M Codes Example CNC Program            N5 G90 G20 N10 M06 T3 N15 M03 S1250 N20 G00 X1 Y1 N25 Z0.

G Codes             G00 Rapid traverse G01 Linear interpolation G02 Circular interpolation. CW G03 Circular interpolation. CCW G04 Dwell G08 Acceleration G09 Deceleration G17 X-Y Plane XG18 Z-X Plane ZG19 Y-Z Plane YG20 Inch Units (G70) G21 Metric Units (G71)            G40 Cutter compensation ± cancel G41 Cutter compensation ± left G42 Cutter compensationcompensationright G70 Inch format G71 Metric format G74 Full-circle programming Fulloff G75 Full-circle programming Fullon G80 Fixed-cycle cancel FixedG81G81-G89 Fixed cycles G90 Absolute dimensions G91 Incremental dimensions 108 .

109 .Modal G-Codes G-  Most GG-codes set the machine in a ³mode´ which stays in effect until it is changed or cancelled by another G-code. These Gcommands are called ³modal´.

Modal G-Code List G            

G00 G01 G02 G03

Rapid Transverse Linear Interpolation Circular Interpolation, CW Circular Interpolation, CCW G17 XY Plane G18 XZ Plane G19 YZ Plane G20/G70 Inch units G21/G71 Metric Units G40 Cutter compensation cancel G41 Cutter compensation left G42 Cutter compensation right G43 Tool length compensation (plus) 


G43 Tool length compensation (plus) G44 Tool length compensation (minus) G49 Tool length compensation cancel G80 Cancel canned cycles G81 Drilling cycle G82 Counter boring cycle G83 Deep hole drilling cycle G90 Absolute positioning G91 Incremental positioning


M Codes 

M00 Program stop M01 Optional program stop M02 Program end M03 Spindle on clockwise M04 Spindle on counterclockwise M05 Spindle stop M06 Tool change M08 Coolant on M09 Coolant off M10 Clamps on M11 Clamps off M30 Program stop, reset to start


N Codes 

an identifying number for each block of information. 


is generally good practice to increment each block number by 5 or 10 to allow additional blocks to be inserted if future changes are required.


Y. and Z codes are used to specify the coordinate axis.  Number following the code defines the coordinate at the end of the move relative to an incremental or absolute reference point.  X. 113 .X. and Z Codes Y.

I.J. and K codes are used to specify the coordinate axis when defining the center of a circle. and K Codes  I. following the code defines the respective coordinate for the center of the circle.  Number 114 . J.

S.F. and T Codes  F-code: code:  S-code: code:  T-code: code: used to specify the feed rate used to specify the spindle speed used to specify the tool identification number associated with the tool to be used in subsequent operations. 115 .

 Unless tool compensation is used.Application of Some Codes G01 Linear Interpolation Format: N_ G01 X_ Y_ Z_ F_  Linear Interpolation results in a straight line feed move. 116 . the coordinates are associated with the centerline of the tool.

point-tomotion. initial motion is at an angle of 45o to ythe axes until motion in one of the axes is completed and then the balance of the motion occurs in the other axis.  117 . This is called point-to-point motion.Application of Some Codes G01 Linear Interpolation  . for the motion that occurs in xy plane with the same maximum speed for the xxand y-axis. As an example.

Application of Some Codes G01 Linear Interpolation 25 20 15 10 A 5 Positioning motion from A to C N10 G00 X30000 Y20000 F0 B C 5 10 15 20 25 30 118 .

Application of Some Codes G01 Linear Interpolation G01 is another preparatory function to specify that the tool should be moved to a specified location along a straight line path. 119 . etc. cutting a slot in milling. This function is typically used to specify machining of straight features such as turning a cylindrical surface in turning. It is referred to as linear interpolation.

Application of Some Codes G01 Linear Interpolation 25 20 15 10 A 5 Linear interpolation from A to C N10 G01 X30000 Y20000 F2500 C 5 10 15 20 25 30 120 .

125 F5 ZN25 X2 Z2 F10 121 .1 N20 G01 Z-0.G01 Linear Interpolation X Z N10 G00 X1 Z1 N15 Z0.

In order to specify the path to the MCU. the center of the arc is given by specifying its location relative to the start of the arc. Within the block in which the G02 code is programmed. the end point of the arc and the location of the center of the arc should be specified.G02 Circular Interpolation  G02 is also a preparatory function to specify that the tool should be moved to a specified location along a circular path in a clockwise direction. 122 .

G02 Circular Interpolation (CW)   The G02 command requires an endpoint and a radius in order to cut the arc. and K are relative to the start point. I. N_ G02 X2 Y1 I0 J-1 F10 Jor N_ G02 X2 Y1 R1 123 .J.

G02 Circular Interpolation (CW) Circular interpolation from A to B about a circle centered at C N10 G02 X20000 Y10000 I5000 J15000 F2500 I=5 A C 25 20 15 J=15 10 C 5 B 5 10 15 20 25 30 124 .

drilling a hole involves the following steps: Position the tool above the point where the hole will be drilled Set the correct spindle speed Feed the tool into the workpiece at a controlled feed rate to a predetermined depth Retract the tool at a rapid rate to just above the point where the hole started 125 . For example.Canned Cycles The sequence of some machining operations is may be the same for any part and for any machine.

Some Commonly Used Canned Cycle Code G81 G82 G83 G84 G85 G86 Function Drilling Spot face. counterbore Deep hole drilling Tapping Down feed Continuous feed Continuous feed Peck At bottom No action Dwell No action Reverse spindle No action Stop spindle Retracti on Rapid Rapid Rapid Feed rate Feed rate Rapid 126 Continuous feed Through boring(in Continuous & out) feed Through boring(in Continuous only) feed .



Three Main parts of a CNC program
Part 1- Program Petup 1

N5 G90 G21 G21 N10 M06 T2 N15 M03 S1200

(Absolute units, metric) metric) (Stop for tool change, use tool # 2) (Turn the spindle on CW to 1200 rpm)

Three Main parts of a CNC program
Part 2- Chip Removal 2     

(Rapid to X1,Y1 from origin point) N25 Z0.125 (Rapid down to Z0.125) N30 G01 Z-0.125 F100 (Feed down to Z-0.125 at ZF100 Z100 mm/min) mm/min) N35 G01 X2 Y2 (Feed diagonally to X2,Y2) N40 G00 Z1 (Rapid up to Z1) N45 X0 Y0 (Rapid to X0,Y0)

N20 G00 X1 Y1


Three Main parts of a CNC program Part 3.System Shutdown 3 N50  N55 M05 M0 M00 (Turn the spindle off) (Program stop) stop) 130 .


125 N30 Z0.125 around edge profile. Tool 1 is a ½ inch dia. end mill.125 N55 Y0.125 F5 N40 X3.G-CODE PROGRAM  First pass : conventional mill to a depth of 0.125 N50 X0. % :1002 N5 G90 G20 N10 M06 T1 N15 M03 S1200 N20 G00 X0.125 N35 G01 Z-0.125 Y0.875 N45 Y4.125 132 .

250 N40 X3.25 around edge profile.125 N50 X0.125 133 .875 N45 Y4. N35 Z-0.125 N60 Z0. Second pass: conventional mill to a depth of 0.125 N55 Y0.

75 N80 Y2.25 Y1.125 F5 N75 X1.5 N85 X1.25 N90 Y1.125 134 .0 N70 G01 Z-0. Third pass: conventional mill to a depth of 0. N65 G00 X1.0 N95 Z0.125 around pocket profile.

 Fourth pass: climb mill to a depth of 0.625 N110 Z0.125 across remaining material.125 N115 G00 X-5 Y-5 Z5 N120 M05 N125 M30 135 .125 N105 X2. N100 Y2.

Three dimensional circular interpolation which produces a helical shape.Advanced features:     Execution of the part of the program in a rotated or mirrored position. Ability to scale the program and produce larger or smaller programs. 136 . Parabolic and cubic interpolation.

Program Loading:  Through keyboard  Through punched tape reader  Through diskette drive  Through RS 232 serial port  Through network interface card 137 .

138 .Direct Numerical Control (DNC):  A system in which a central computer downloads the NC programs block by block to many NC machine tools simultaneously is called Direct Numerical Control (DNC) system.

Direct Numerical Control (DNC):  This system used to work with the early NC machine tools which can not read more than a block of information at a time. the next block of information would be fed. The central computer feed the program information one block at a time. When the machine execute the information. 139 .

Distributed Numerical Control is introduced. 140 . a host computer communicate with many CNC machine tools via networks and download or upload programs. In such a system. After the introduction of CNC. Therefore. the machine tools have had the capability of storing large amount of information. there have been no need to have drip feed information system. Direct Numerical Control.Distributed Numerical Control (DNC):  Distributed NC is known by the same acronym as Direct Numerical Control (DNC). Instead. like.

better shop floor control can be achieved. 141 . Therefore. it is possible to monitor the activities in individual CNC machine tools on host computer.Distributed Numerical Control (DNC):   With Distributed Numerical Control systems.

Computers may be used to assist the programmers in preparing the NC codes. The main difficulty is to find out the cutter locations during the machining. 142 .Computer Aided Part Programming:  NC program preparation may be tedious and difficult if the part to be machined has a complex geometry.

It provides the cutter path simulation. It reduces the manual calculations involves in determining the geometric characteristics of the part. 143 . It makes the program preparation easier. It shortens the program preparation time. It provides tool collision checking.Advantages of applying computer-aided part computerprogramming include the following:      1.

Using the cutter location data. the program can generate the actual NC codes by using a postprocessor . This was called: Automatically Programmed Tools (APT). 144 . developed in MIT in 1955.    The Aerospace Industries Association sponsored the work that led to the first part programming language. APT is an English like simple programming language which basically produce the Cutter Location (CL) data.

CAD/CAM Based Part Programming:    The output of any CAD package include the geometric data of the part to be machined. MechanicalDesktop (Auto Desk). ProEngineer. Some of the CAD/CAM packages that have the NC code generation capabilities are Computervision. 145 . many CAD/CAM package can produce cutter location (CL) data to be used for NC code generation. CATIA. Therefore. There is still to be a process planning module for a workable NC code generation. CADAM.

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