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For TV
V.P.
Note:
b’
a’
FV & TV both are
// to xy
&
both show T L
a’
Fv
b’
B
Y
A
X
Y
b
a
b
X
Tv
a
H.P.

NOTE:
FV & TV BOTH ARE
For TV
// TO XY
b’
&
BOTH SHOW T. L.
B
a’
30
Y
A
20
b
X
a

V.P.
FV
50
a’
b’
20
x
y
30
a
b
TV
H.P.

LINE PERPENDICULAR TO EITHER OF THE RPs

For TV
a’
Note:
FV is a vertical line
A
FV
b’
Showing True Length
&
TV is a point.
Y
X
B
a b
TV

X

For TV
b’
B
a’
50
Y
30
A
20
ab

X

V.P.
b’
50
a’
20
x
y
30
a b
H.P.

LINE INCLINED TO HP AND PARALLEL TO VP

FV inclined to xy
TV parallel to xy.
b’
B
Y
a’
A
b
X
a

V.P.
b’
a’
X
Y
a
b
T.V.
H.P.

5. Line AB 50mm long is placed in a first quadrant. It is 30 oinclined to HP and parallel to VP. One of the end of line is 20mm above HP and 30mm in front of VP. Draw its Projections.

FV inclined to xy
TV parallel to xy.
b’
B
50
Y
a’
30
A
b
20
X
a
V.P.
b’
a’
30
o
20
x
y
30
b
a
H.P.

LINE INCLINED TO VP AND PARALLEL TO HP

b’
TV inclined to xy
Fv parallel to xy.
a’
Ø
A
B
Ø
b
a

V.P.
Fv
a’
b’
X
Y
Ø
a
Tv
b
H.P.

9. Line AB 50mm long is placed in a first quadrant. It is 45 oinclined to VP and parallel to HP. One of the end of line is 20mm above HP and 30mm in front of VP. Draw its Projections.

For TV

b’
TV inclined to xy
Fv parallel to xy.
a’
45
A
B
50
20
45
b
a
V.P.
a’
b’
20
x
y
30
a
45
o
b
H.P.

LINE INCLINED TO BOTH THE PLANES

For TV
For TV
On removal of object
b’
i.e. Line AB
b’
B
FV as a image on VP.
TV as a image on HP,
B
Y
a’
Y
a’
A
V.P.
A
X
a
b’
b
T.V.
X
FV
a
b
T.V.
a’
X
Y
Orthographic Projections
FV is seen on VP clearly.
Note These Facts:-
Both FV & TV are inclined to xy.
a
(No view is parallel to xy)
To see TV clearly, HP is
rotated 90 0 downwards,
TV
Both FV & TV are reduced
H.P.
b
Hence it comes below xy.
lengths.
(No view shows True Length)

Orthographic Projections

Means FV & TV of Line AB

are shown below, with their apparent Inclinations

 & 

Note the procedure When FV & TV known,

How to find True Length.

(Views are rotated to determine

True Length & it’s inclinations

with HP & VP).

Note the procedure When True Length is known,

How to locate FV & TV.

(Component a-1 of TL is drawn which is further rotated to determine FV)

V.P.
V.P.
V.P.
b’
b’
b’
b 1
b 1
FV
FV
TL
a’
a’
a’
1’
X
Y
X
Y
X
Y
1
a
a
b
Ø
a
2
TV
TV
TV
H.P.
b
H.P.
b
H.P.
b
b 1

In this sketch, TV is rotated and made // to XY line. Hence it’s corresponding FV a’ b 1’ Is showing

True Length & True Inclination with Hp.

Here a -1 is component of TL ab 1gives length of FV. Hence it is brought Up to Locus of a’ and further rotated to get point b’. a’ b’ will be FV.

Similarly drawing component of other TL(a’ b 1 ‘) TV can be drawn.



TEN parameters
to be remembered
with Notations
used here onward
Important

he most important diagram showing graphical relations among all important parameters of this topic. Study and memorize it as a CIRCUIT DIAGRAM And use in solving various problems.

V.P.
Distance between
End Projectors.
b’
b 1
6) FVL (FV Length) – Component (a-1)
7) TVL (TV Lngth) – Component (a’-1’)
8) Position of A- Distances of a & a’ from xy
9) Position of B- Distances of b & b’ from xy
10) Distance between End Projectors
1’
a’
Important Observations :
b and b’ lie along same vertical line as end
X
Y
points are same.
a
1
b
& b 1 on same locus.
Ø
b’ &
b 1 ’ on same locus.
True Length is never rotated. It’s horizontal
component is drawn & it is further rotated to
b
H.P.
b 1
locate view.
Views are always rotated, made horizontal &
further extended to locate TL,  & Ø

1. Line AB is 75 mm long and it is 45 0& 30 0Inclined to HP & VP respectively. End A is 20mm above HP

Given : TL = 75mm
Ø=30 o =45 o
Calculate α,β, FVL and TVL
α=45 o ,β=55 o , FVL=53 and TVL=65
V.P.
Locus of b’
b’
b 1
α
=45 o
a’
10
x
y
15
a
Ø=30 o
H.P.
Locus of b
b
b 1

Solution Steps:-

Given : TL = 75mm Ø=45 oα=55 oCalculate ,β, FVL and TVL

=35 o ,β=60 o , FVL=53 and TVL=61
V.P.
Locus of b’
b’
b 1
α=55 o
a’
10
x
y
15
a
Ø=45 o
H.P.
Locus of b
b
b 1

6.Then rotating views as shown, locate True Lengths ab 1& a’b 1’ and their angles with HP and VP.

Given : FVL = 55mm α=50 oβ =60 oCalculate Ø,, TL and TVL

=31 o , Ø =48 o , TL=82 and TVL=71
V.P.
Locus of b’
b’
b 1
α=50 o
a’
10
x
y
15
a
Ø
β =60 o
H.P.
Locus of b
b
b 1

is in first quadrant. Find angle with HP and VP.

I.e. a-1 locate b’ and join a’ with it to get Fv. 10. Locate tv similarly and measure Angles

=37 o , Ø =48 o , α =64 o , β =69 o
V.P.
Locus of b’
b’
b 1
α
a’
10
x
y
15
TVL
a
Ø
β
H.P.
Locus of b
b
b 1

d’
d’ 1
LOCUS OF
d’ & d’ 1
c’
Y
d
d 1
LOCUS OF
d & d 1
c

TRACES OF THE LINE

These are the points of intersections of a line ( or it’s extension )
with respective reference planes.
A line itself or it’s extension, where ever touches HP, that point
is called trace of the line on HP(It is called HT)
Similarly, a line itself or it’s extension, where ever touches VP,
that point is called trace of the line on VP (It is called VT)
Vertical Trace :-
It is a point on VP.
Hence it is called FV of a point in VP.
Hence it’s TV comes on XY line.( Here onward named as ‘v’)
Horizontal Trace .:-

b’
a’
v
h’
x
y
HT
VT’
a
b

b’
b’ 1
a’
45 0
15
v
h’
y
10
30
0
HT
VT’
a
b
b 1

X

find TL and it’s inclinations.

b’
b’ 1
LOCUS OF b’ & b’ 1
45
0
a’
10
v
h’
Y
30
45
VT’
HT
100
a
b
b 1
LOCUS OF b & b 1

PROBLEM 13 :- Projectors drawn from HT and VT of a line AB are 80 mm apart and those drawn from it’s ends are 50 mm apart. End A is 10 mm above HP, VT is 35 mm below HP while it’s HT is 45 mm in front of VP. Draw projections, locate traces and find TL of line & inclinations with HP and VP.

VT
b’
b’ 1
SOLUTION STEPS:-
1.Draw xy line and two projectors,
55
80
mm apart and locate HT & VT ,
35
mm below xy and 55 mm above
a’
Locus of a’
xy
X
10
50
v
respectively on these projectors.
2.Locate h’ and v on xy as usual.
3.Now just like previous two
h’
b
b 1
35
problems,
a
HT
Extending certain lines complete FV
& TV And as usual find TL and it’s
inclinations.
80