Projection of Line
Information regarding a line means it’s length, position of it’s ends with HP & VP, it’s inclinations with HP & VP will be given.
AIM: TO DRAW IT’S PROJECTIONS  MEANS FV & TV.
SIMPLE CASES OF THE LINE

1. LINE PARALLEL TO BOTH HP & VP.

2. A VERTICAL LINE ( LINE PERPENDICULAR TO HP & // TO VP)

3. LINE INCLINED TO HP & PARALLEL TO VP.

4. LINE INCLINED TO VP & PARALLEL TO HP.

5. LINE INCLINED TO BOTH HP & VP.
Terms used in Projections of Lines

True Length (TL): The actual length of a line is called its true length.

Plan Length (PL) or Top View Length: The apparent length of a line seen in TV is called the plan length or top view length.

Elevation Length (EL) or Front View Length: The apparent length of a line seen in FV is called the elevation length or front view length.

Side View Length (SVL): The apparent length of a line seen in SV is called its side view length.

(θ):

It

is

the

true angle that

a

line

makes with its

projection on the HP. It is indicated by θ (True inclination with HP).

VP (Φ):

It

is

the

true angle that

a

line

makes with its

projection on the VP. It is indicated by Φ (True inclination with VP).
Terms used in Projections of Lines

Apparent Angle with the HP (α): It is the angle which an oblique line seems to be making with the HP in FV. It is the angle between FV and XY. It is indicated by α.

Apparent Angle with the VP (β): It is the angle which an oblique line seems to be making with the VP in TV. It is the angle between TV and XY. It is indicated by β.

Horizontal Trace (HT): The point of intersection of the line (or its extension) with the HP is called the horizontal trace of the line.

Vertical Trace (VT): The point of intersection of the line (or its extension) with the VP is called the vertical trace of the line.

Point View of the Line: The view of a line seen as a point (i.e., when the views of two ends coincide) is called the point view.
LINE PARALLEL TO BOTH THE PLANES
For TV
V.P.
Note:
b’
a’
FV & TV both are
// to xy
&
both show T L
a’
Fv
b’
B
Y
A
X
Y
b
a
b
X
Tv
a
H.P.
•
General Observations :
•

If a line is parallel to HP or VP then its TL will be visible in TV or

FV respectively.

•

FV and TV, will be parallel to XY and both will show the TL.

•

If a line is parallel to both the HP and the VP, it must be perpendicular to the PP. Therefore, point A and point B will

coincide in SV of the line. Hence, the LHSV is a point view.
LINE PARALLEL TO BOTH THE PLANES
1. Line AB 50mm long is placed in a first quadrant. It is parallel HP and VP. It is 20mm above HP and 30mm in front of VP. Draw its Projections.
NOTE:
FV & TV BOTH ARE
For TV
// TO XY
b’
&
BOTH SHOW T. L.
B
a’
30
Y
A
20
b
X
a
Orthographic Pattern
V.P.
FV
50
a’
b’
20
x
y
30
a
b
TV
H.P.
LINE PARALLEL TO BOTH THE PLANES
2. Line AB 50mm long is placed in a first quadrant. Its
side view is a point and it is 60 mm from the intersection of HP and VP. It is equidistant from both
the reference planes. Draw the projections and
specify the position of a line.
LINE PERPENDICULAR TO EITHER OF THE RPs
For TV
a’
Note:
FV is a vertical line
A
FV
b’
Showing True Length
&
TV is a point.
Y
X
B
a b
TV
Orthographic Pattern

V.P.


_{a}_{’}


Fv


b’





Tv


a b

H.P.

Y
General Observations :
•

If a line is perpendicular to the HP, it will automatically be parallel to

the VP and PP. Hence, its FV will show the TL.

•

TV will be a point, wherever two (or more) points overlap, the visible

•

point should be marked first. TV is marked as a, b. It means that a is visible and b is hidden. The hidden point(s) may be enclosed in parenthesis ( ), e.g., a( b).

LINE PERPENDICULAR TO EITHER OF THE RPs
3. Line AB 50mm long is placed in a first quadrant. It is perpendicular to HP and parallel VP. It is 20mm above HP and 30mm in front of VP. Draw its Projections.
Orthographic Projection
For TV
b’
B
a’
50
Y
30
A
20
ab
V.P.
b’
50
a’
20
x
y
30
a b
H.P.
LINE PERPENDICULAR TO EITHER OF THE RPs
4. Line PQ of 50mm length. The top view of
line is a point which lies 20mm above XY line. One of the end of line lies 30mm below the reference line. Draw the projections of line, specify the quadrants and its location with respect to reference planes.
LINE INCLINED TO HP AND PARALLEL TO VP
FV inclined to xy
TV parallel to xy.
b’
B
Y
a’
A
b
X
a
•
General Observations :
V.P.
b’
a’
X
Y
a
b
T.V.
H.P.
•

Line parallel to VP, so its TL will be visible in FV.

•

Its true inclination with HP (θ) will be visible in FV.

•

As the line is inclined t HP so its apparent length will be visible in

•

TV. Apparent length will be less than the True Length.

LINE INCLINED TO HP AND PARALLEL TO VP
5. Line AB 50mm long is placed in a first quadrant. It is 30 ^{o} inclined to HP and parallel to VP. One of the end of line is 20mm above HP and 30mm in front of VP. Draw its Projections.
FV inclined to xy
TV parallel to xy.
b’
B
50
Y
a’
30
A
b
20
X
a
V.P.
b’
a’
30
o
20
x
y
30
b
a
H.P.
6. A line AB, 50 mm long, is inclined to the HP at 30° and parallel to the VP. The end nearest to the HP is 40 mm above it and 25 mm in front of the VP. Draw the projections.
TV ab1 as shown. a’b1’ is 40 mm above XY and ab1 25 mm below XY. a’b1’= ab1 = TL =
50 mm.
with XY represents θ.
of the line. Note that a’b’ (= EL) is equal to TL and ab(= PL) is shorter than TL.
LINE INCLINED TO VP AND PARALLEL TO HP
b’
TV inclined to xy
Fv parallel to xy.
a’
Ø
A
B
Ø
b
a
•
General Observations :
V.P.
Fv
a’
b’
X
Y
Ø
a
Tv
b
H.P.
• Line parallel to HP, so its TL will be visible in TV. Its true inclination with VP (φ) will be visible in TV.
•

•

As the line is inclined t VP so its apparent length will be visible in

FV.

•

Apparent length will be less than the True Length.

•

Always draw view in which TL is visible (In this TV).

LINE INCLINED TO VP AND PARALLEL TO HP
9. Line AB 50mm long is placed in a first quadrant. It is 45 ^{o} inclined to VP and parallel to HP. One of the end of line is 20mm above HP and 30mm in front of VP. Draw its Projections.
For TV
b’
TV inclined to xy
Fv parallel to xy.
a’
45
A
B
50
20
45
b
a
V.P.
a’
b’
20
x
y
30
a
45
o
b
H.P.
1. Draw TV ab = TL, inclined at 45° to XY. a is 25 mm below XY. 2. Project ab above XY to obtain a’b’. ab and a’b’ represent respectively TV and FV of the line.
LINE INCLINED TO BOTH THE PLANES
For TV
For TV
On removal of object
b’
i.e. Line AB
b’
B
FV as a image on VP.
TV as a image on HP,
B
Y
a’
Y
a’
A
V.P.
A
X
a
b’
b
T.V.
X
FV
a
b
T.V.
a’
X
Y
Orthographic Projections
FV is seen on VP clearly.
Note These Facts:
Both FV & TV are inclined to xy.
a
(No view is parallel to xy)
To see TV clearly, HP is
rotated 90 0 downwards,
TV
Both FV & TV are reduced
H.P.
b
Hence it comes below xy.
lengths.
(No view shows True Length)
are shown below, with their apparent Inclinations
&
Note the procedure When FV & TV known,
(Views are rotated to determine
True Length & it’s inclinations
Note the procedure When True Length is known,
(Component a1 of TL is drawn which is further rotated to determine FV)
V.P.
V.P.
V.P.
b’
’
b’
b’
’
b 1
b 1
FV
FV
TL
a’
a’
a’
1’
X
Y
X
Y
X
Y
1
a
a
b
Ø
a
2
TV
TV
TV
H.P.
b
H.P.
b
H.P.
b
b 1
Here TV (ab) is not // to XY line
Hence it’s corresponding FV
a’ b’ is not showing
True Length & True Inclination with Hp.
In this sketch, TV is rotated and made // to XY line. Hence it’s corresponding FV a’ b _{1} ’ Is showing
True Length & True Inclination with Hp.
Here a 1 is component of TL ab _{1} gives length of FV. Hence it is brought Up to Locus of a’ and further rotated to get point b’. a’ b’ will be FV.
Similarly drawing component of other TL(a’ b _{1} ‘) TV can be drawn.
1) True Length ( TL) – a’ b _{1} ’ & a b
2) Angle of TL with HP  3) Angle of TL with VP – 4) Angle of FV with xy – 5) Angle of TV with xy –
Ø
TEN parameters
to be remembered
with Notations
used here onward
Important
he most important diagram showing graphical relations among all important parameters of this topic. Study and memorize it as a CIRCUIT DIAGRAM And use in solving various problems.
V.P.
Distance between
End Projectors.
’
b’
b 1
6) FVL (FV Length) – Component (a1)
7) TVL (TV Lngth) – Component (a’1’)
8) Position of A Distances of a & a’ from xy
9) Position of B Distances of b & b’ from xy
10) Distance between End Projectors
1’
a’
Important Observations :
•
b and b’ lie along same vertical line as end
X
Y
points are same.
a
1
•
b
& b 1 on same locus.
Ø
•
b’ &
b 1 ’ on same locus.
•
True Length is never rotated. It’s horizontal
component is drawn & it is further rotated to
•
b
H.P.
b 1
locate view.
Views are always rotated, made horizontal &
further extended to locate TL, & Ø
1. Line AB is 75 mm long and it is 45 ^{0} & 30 ^{0} Inclined to HP & VP respectively. End A is 20mm above HP
Given : TL = 75mm
Ø=30 o =45 o
Calculate α,β, FVL and TVL
α=45 o ,β=55 o , FVL=53 and TVL=65
V.P.
Locus of b’
b’
’
b 1
α
=45 o
a’
10
x
y
15
a
Ø=30 o
H.P.
Locus of b
b
b 1
and 30 mm in front of VP. Draw projections. Line is in 1 ^{s}^{t} quadrant.
SOLUTION STEPS:
1) Draw xy line and one projector. 2) Locate a’ 12mm above xy line & a 10mm below xy line. 3) Take 30 ^{0} angle from a’ & 40 ^{0} from a and mark TL I.e. 75mm on both lines. Name those points b _{1} ’ and b _{1} respectively.
4) Join both points with a’ and a resp.
5) Draw horizontal lines (Locus) from
both points.
6) Draw horizontal component of TL
a b _{1} from point b _{1} and name it 1. ( the length a1 gives length of Fv as we have seen already.)
7) Extend it up to locus of a’ and rotating
a’ as center locate b’ as shown. Join
a’ b’ as Fv. 8) From b’ drop a projector down ward &
get point b. Join a & b I.e. Tv.
2. Line AB 75mm long makes 45 ^{o} inclination with VP while it’s FV makes 55 ^{0} . End A is 10 mm above HP and 15mm in front of VP. If line is in 1st quadrant draw it’s projections and find it’s inclination with Hp.
Solution Steps:
1.Draw xy line. 2.Draw one projector for a’ & a 3.Locate a 15 mm below xy & a’ 10mm above xy. 4.Draw a line 45 ^{0} inclined to xy from point a and cut TL 75 mm on it and name that point b _{1} Draw locus from point b _{1} 5.Take 55 ^{0} angle from a’ for FV above xy line. 6.Draw a vertical line from b _{1} up to locus of a’ and then draw arc of radius FVL (a’1’). It is horizontal component of TL & is FVL. 7.Continue it to locus of a’ and rotate upward up to the line of FV and name it b’. This a’ b’ line is FV. 8. Drop a projector from b’ on locus from point b _{1} and name intersecting point b. Line a b is Tv of line AB. 9.Draw locus from b’ and from a’ with TL distance cut point b _{1} ‘ 10.Join a’ b _{1} ’ as TL and measure . it’s angle at a’. It will be true angle of line with HP.
Given : TL = 75mm Ø=45 ^{o} α=55 ^{o} Calculate ,β, FVL and TVL
=35 o ,β=60 o , FVL=53 and TVL=61
V.P.
Locus of b’
b’
’
b 1
α=55 o
a’
10
x
y
15
a
Ø=45 o
H.P.
Locus of b
b
b 1
3. FV of line AB is 50 ^{0} inclined to xy and measures 55 mm long while it’s TV is 60 ^{0} inclined to xy line. If end A is 10 mm above HP and 15 mm in front of VP, draw it’s projections, find TL, inclinations of line with HP & VP.
SOLUTION STEPS:
1.Draw xy line and one projector.
2.Locate a’ 10 mm above xy and a 15 mm below xy line.
3.Draw locus from these points.
4.Draw FV 50 ^{0} to xy from a’ and mark b’ Cutting 55mm on it. 5.Similarly draw TV 60 ^{0} to xy from a & drawing projector from b’
Locate point b and join a b.
6.Then rotating views as shown, locate True Lengths ab _{1} & a’b _{1} ’ and their angles with HP and VP.
Given : FVL = 55mm α=50 ^{o} β =60 ^{o} Calculate Ø,, TL and TVL
=31 o , Ø =48 o , TL=82 and TVL=71
V.P.
Locus of b’
b’
’
b 1
α=50 o
a’
10
x
y
15
a
Ø
β =60 o
H.P.
Locus of b
b
b 1
4. Line AB is 75 mm long .It’s FV and TV measure 50 mm &
Given :TL= 75mm FVL=50mm and TVL=60mm Calculate α ,Ø,, and β
is in first quadrant. Find angle with HP and VP.
SOLUTION STEPS:
1.Draw xy line and one projector. 2.Locate a’ 10 mm above xy and a 15 mm below xy line.
3.Draw locus from these points.
4.Cut 60mm distance on locus of a’ & mark 1’ on it as it is LTV.
5.Similarly Similarly cut 50mm on locus of a and mark point 1 as it is LFV.
6.From 1’ draw a vertical line upward
and from a’ taking TL ( 75mm ) in
compass, mark b’ _{1} point on it.
Join a’ b’ _{1} points.

7. Draw locus from b’ _{1}

8. With same steps below get b _{1} point and draw also locus from it.

9. Now rotating one of the components
I.e. a1 locate b’ and join a’ with it to get Fv. 10. Locate tv similarly and measure Angles
=37 o , Ø =48 o , α =64 o , β =69 o
V.P.
Locus of b’
b’
’
b 1
α
a’
10
x
y
15
TVL
a
Ø
β
H.P.
Locus of b
b
b 1
5. T.V. of a 75 mm long Line CD, measures 50 mm. End C is in HP and 50 mm in front of VP. End D is 15 mm in front of VP and it is above HP. Draw projections of CD and find angles with HP and VP.
SOLUTION STEPS:
1.Draw xy line and one projector. 2.Locate c’ on xy and c 50mm below xy line. 3.Draw locus from these points.
4.Draw locus of d 15 mm below xy 5.Cut 50mm & 75 mm distances on
X
locus of d from c and mark points
d & d _{1} as these are Tv and line CD lengths resp.& join both with c. 6.From d _{1} draw a vertical line upward up to xy I.e. up to locus of c’ and draw an arc as shown.
7 Then draw one projector from d to
meet this arc in d’ point & join c’ d’ 8. Draw locus of d’ and cut 75 mm on it from c’ as TL
9.Measure Angles
d’
d’ 1
LOCUS OF
d’ & d’ 1
c’
Y
d
d 1
LOCUS OF
d & d 1
c
6. A straight line PQ has its end P 20 mm above the H.P. and 30 mm in front of the VP. And the end Q is 80 mm above the H.P. and 70 mm in front of the V.P. If the end projectors are 60 mm apart, draw the projections of the line. Determine its true length and true inclinations with the reference planes.
7. A straight line AB of 50 mm length has one of its end points A 10 mm above the HP and
reference planes.
8. A straight line AB has its end A 10 mm above the HP and end B 50 mm in front
of the VP. Draw the projections of line AB if it is inclined at 30° to the HP and 45° to the VP, and it is 50 mm long.
9. A straight line AB has its end point A 15 mm in front of the VP and end point B is 50
mm above the HP. The line is inclined at 45° to the HP, while its front view is inclined at
60° to the XY line. Draw the projections of the straight line AB if its top view is 35 mm long. Find the true length and the angle of inclination of the line with the VP.
10. A straight line PQ has its end point P 10mm above HP and 15mm in front of the VP. The line is 50mm long and its front and top views are inclined at 60° and 45° respectively. Draw the projections of the line and find its inclinations with the HP and the VP.
STEPS TO LOCATE HT.
(WHEN PROJECTIONS ARE GIVEN.)

1. Begin with FV. Extend FV up to XY line.

2. Name this point h’ (as it is a FV of a point in HP)

3. Draw one projector from h’.

4. Now extend TV to meet this
projector. This point is HT
STEPS TO LOCATE VT.
(WHEN PROJECTIONS ARE GIVEN.)

1. Begin with TV. Extend TV up to XY line.

2. Name this point v ( as it is a TV of a point in VP)

3. Draw one projector from v.

4. Now extend FV to meet this projector.
b’
a’
v
h’
x
y
HT
VT’
a
b
Observe & note :

1. Points h’ & v always on xy line.

2. VT’ & v always on one projector.

3. HT & h’ always on one projector.

4. FV  h’ VT’ always colinear.

5. TV  v  HT
always colinear.
This point is VT
•

SOLUTION STEPS:

•

Draw xy line, one projector

•

and locate a’ 10 mm above xy. Draw locus 100 mm below xy

•

for points b & b _{1} Draw loci for VT and HT, 30

mm & 45 mm below xy respectively.

X

•

Take 45 ^{0} angle from a’ and extend that line backward to

locate h’ and VT, & Locate v

•

on xy above VT. Locate HT below h’ as

•

shown. Then join v – HT – and

•

extend to get top view end b. Draw projector upward and

locate b’ Make a b & a’b’

dark.

•

Now as usual rotating views

find TL and it’s inclinations.
b’
b’ 1
LOCUS OF b’ & b’ 1
45
0
a’
10
v
h’
Y
30
45
VT’
HT
100
a
b
b 1
LOCUS OF b & b 1
Much more than documents.
Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.
Cancel anytime.