Distance Vector vs.

Link State
A B C D X E

Distance Vector Link State Hybrid

Routing by rumor Route table Topology Incremental Update

Periodic Update

1

Distance Vector vs. Link State
Distance Vector Updates frequently Each router is "aware" only of its immediate neighbors Slow convergence Prone to routing loops Easy to configure Link State Updates are event triggered Each router is "aware" of all other routers in the "area" Fast convergence Less subject to routing loops More difficult to configure

2

Comparison Continued
Distance Vector ‡ Fewer router resources required ‡ Updates require more bandwidth ‡ Does not "understand" the topology of the network Link State ‡ More router resource intensive ‡ Updates require less bandwidth ‡ Has detailed knowledge of distant networks and routers

3

Link State Routing

4

Link State
Example 
OSPF IS-IS

OSPF is used for corporate networks IS-IS is used for ISP¶s

5

6

Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) 
OSPF is an open standards routing protocol  This works by using the Dijkstra algorithm  OSPF provides the following features:  Minimizes routing update traffic  Allows scalability (e.g. RIP is limited to 15 hops)  Has unlimited hop count  Supports VLSM/CIDR  Allows multi-vendor deployment (open standard)

7

Link State
There are two types of Packets
Hello LSA s

8

OSPF Hello
A

B

C

When router A starts it send Hello packet uses 224.0.0.5 Hello packets are received by all neighbors B will write A s name in its neighbor table C also process the same way

9

"Hello" Packets
Small frequently issued packets Discover neighbours and negotiate "adjacencies" Verify continued availability of adjacent neighbours Hello packets and Link State Advertisements (LSAs) build and maintain the topological database Hello packets are addressed to 224.0.0.5.

10

Link State Advertisement (LSA) 
An OSPF data packet containing link state and routing information that is shared among OSPF routers  LSAs are shared only with routers with whom it has formed adjacencies  LSA packets are used to update and maintain the topology database.

11

Link State
There are three type of tables
Neighbor Topology Routing

12

Tables
Neighbor Contain information about the neighbors Neighbor is a router which shares a link on same network Another relationship is adjacency Not necessarily all neighbors LSA updates are only when adjacency is established

13

Tables
Topology Contain information about all network and path to reach any network All LSA s are entered in to topology table When topology changes LSA s are generated and send new LSA s On topology table an algorithm is run to create a shortest path, this algorithm is known as SPF or dijkstra algorithm

14

Tables
Routing Table Also knows as forwarding database Generated when an algorithm is run on the topology database Routing table for each router is unique

15

OSPF Terms
Link Router ID Neighbours Adjacency OSPF Area Backbone area Internal routers Area Border Router (ABR) Autonomous System Boundary Router (ASBR)

16

Link 
A network or router interface assigned to a given network  Link (interface) will have "state" information associated with it Status (up or down) IP Address Network type (e.g. Fast Ethernet) Bandwidth Addresses of other routers attached to this interface
17

OSPF Term: Link 

A link is a network or router interface assigned to any given network This link, or interface, will have state information associated with it (up or down) as well as one or more IP addresses

18

OSPF Term: Link State 

Status of a link between two routers Information is shared between directly connected routers. This information propagates throughout the network unchanged and is also used to create a shortest path first (SPF) tree. 19

Router ID
The Router ID (RID) is an IP address used to identify the router Cisco chooses the Router ID by using the highest IP address of all configured loopback interfaces If no loopback interfaces are configured with addresses, OSPF will choose the highest IP address of all active physical interfaces. You can manually assign the router ID. The RID interface MUST always be up, therefore loopbacks are preferred

20

Neighbours 
Neighbours are two or more routers that have an interface on a common network 
E.g. two routers connected on a serial link E.g. several routers connected on a common Ethernet or Frame relay network 

Communication takes place between / among neighbours  neighbours form "adjacencies"
21

Adjacency 
A relationship between two routers that permits the direct exchange of route updates  Not all neighbours will form adjacencies 
This is done for reasons of efficiency later more

22

OSPF Design 

Each router connects to the backbone called area 0, or the backbone area. Routers that connect other areas to the backbone within an AS are called Area Border Routers (ABRs). One interface must be in area 0. OSPF runs inside an autonomous system, but can also connect multiple autonomous systems together. The router that connects these ASes together is called an Autonomous System Boundary Router (ASBR). 23

OSPF Areas 
An OSPF area is a grouping of contiguous networks and routers  Share a common area ID  A router can be a member of more than one area (area border router)  All routers in the same area have the same topology database  When multiple areas exist, there must always be an area 0 (the backbone) to which other areas connect

24

Why areas? 
Decreases routing overhead  Compare to multiple smaller broadcast domains instead of one large one  Speeds convergence  Confines network instability (e.g. route "flapping") to single area of the network  Adds considerably to the complexity of setting up OSPF  CCNA certification deals only with single-area OSPF
25

Area Terminology

26

LSA s in Area
LSAs communicate with adjacent routers in the same OSPF area Subsequently, a change in a link state is "flooded" to all area routers via LSAs In larger networks, multiple areas may be created LSAs are sent only to adjacent routers in the same area "Area border routers" connect areas, passing summarized route information between
27

Path Calculation
Changes to the topological database of a router trigger a recalculation to re-establish the best route(s) to known networks  Uses the SPF (shortest path first) algorithm developed by a computer scientist named Dijkstra  This is done by each individual router using its detailed "knowledge" of the whole network  Leads to rapid and accurate convergence  Based on detailed knowledge of every link in the area and the OSPF "cost" of each  builds an OSPF tree with itself at the route
28

Terminology: Cost
Various criteria can be selected by the administrator to determine the metric Usually, OSPF cost=108/bandwidth

Do not forget to configure the bandwidth` command on serial links to ensure correct default OSPF cost
29

Pros and Cons
Note that OSPF is a more sophisticated routing protocol  Converges rapidly and accurately  Can use a metric calculation that effectively selects the "best" route(s) primarily based on bandwidth, although an OSPF cost can be administratively assigned Use of OSPF requires  More powerful routing hardware  More detailed knowledge by the administrator, especially when large multi-area networks are used
30

Types of Neighbors
OSPF can be defined for three type of neighbors
Broadcast Multi Access (BMA) ex- Ethernet Point to Point Non-Broadcast Multi Access (NBMA)

31

OSPF Network Types

32

Adjacencies
Point to Point all routers form adjacencies BMA & NBMA one router is elected as DR DR establish adjacency with every neighbor router LSA updates are exchanged only to DR DR is the router which has highest priority All CISCO routers has priority 1 If priority is same then router id is seen The RID is highest IP address of all interfaces

33

Point-to-Point Links 

Usually
or HDLC

a

serial

interface

running

either

PPP 

No DR or BDR election required  OSPF autodetects this interface type  OSPF packets are sent using multicast 224.0.0.5 All routers form adjacencies
34

Multi-access Broadcast Network

Generally LAN technologies like Ethernet and Token Ring DR and BDR selection required All neighbor routers form full adjacencies with the DR and BDR only Packets to the DR use 224.0.0.6 Packets from DR to all other routers use 224.0.0.5
35

Electing the DR and BDR 

Hello packets are exchanged via IP multicast. 
The router with selected as the DR. the highest priority is If Priority is same then Router ID is seen  Use the OSPF router ID as the tie breaker.
36

Terminology: DRs and BDRs
The designated router (DR) is responsible for generating LSAs on behalf of all routers connected to the same segment

37

DR Responsibility 
When a router sees a new or changed link-state, it sends an LSA to its DR using a particular multicast address  The DR then forwards the LSA to all the other routers with whom it is adjacent  Minimizes the number of formal adjacencies that must be formed and therefore the amount of LSU (link state update) packet traffic in a multi-router network

38

OSPF Summary
AD -100 Hop count is unlimited Metric = Cost 108/BW Classless, VLSM Load balance up to SIX routers Require more processing power

39

Basic OSPF Configuration
Router(config)# router ospf 1
The number 1 in this example is a process-id # that processbegins an OSPF process in the router  More than one process can be launched in a router, but this is rarely necessary  Usually the same process-id is used throughout the entire network, but this is not required  The process-id # can actually be any value from 1 to "very large integer  The process-id # cannot be ZERO  This is NOT the same as the AS# used in IGRP and EIGRP
40

Configuring OSPF Areas
After identifying the OSPF process, you need to identify the interfaces that you want to activate OSPF communications Lab_A#config t Lab_A(config)#router ospf 1 Lab_A(config-router)#network 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area ? <0-4294967295> OSPF area ID as a decimal value A.B.C.D OSPF area ID in IP address format Lab_A(config-router)#network 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area 0 Every OSPF network must have an area 0 (the backbone area) to which other areas connect  So in a multiple area network, there must be an area 0  The wildcard mask represents the set of hosts supported by the network and is really just the inverse of the subnet mask.
41

OSPF Configuration
OSPF Process ID number is irrelevant. It can be the same on every router on the network The arguments of the network command are the network number (10.0.0.0) and the wildcard mask (0.255.255.255) Wildcards - A 0 octet in the wildcard mask indicates that the corresponding octet in the network must match exactly A 255 indicates that you don t care what the corresponding octet is in the network number A network and wildcard mask combination of 1.1.1.1 0.0.0.0 would match 1.1.1.1 only, and nothing else. The network and wildcard mask combination of 1.1.0.0 0.0.255.255 would match anything in the range 1.1.0.0 1.1.255.255

42

OSPF Configuration -1
S0 S1

20.0.0.2

30.0.0.1

R2 R1
S0

20.0.0.1

S0

R3
E0

10.0.0.1

E0

30.0.0.2

40.0.0.1

A

10.0.0.2

40.0.0.2

B

43

OSPF Configuration -1
S0 S1

20.0.0.2

30.0.0.1

R2 R1
S0 S0

R3
E0

10.0.0.1

E0

20.0.0.1

30.0.0.2

40.0.0.1

A

10.0.0.2

40.0.0.2

B

R1#config t Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. R1(config)#router ospf 1 R1(config-router)#network 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area 0 R1(config-router)#network 20.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 area 0 R1(config-router)#^Z

44

OSPF Configuration -2
S0 S1

200.0.0.8/30

R2 R1

200.0.0.12/30

R3
S0 S0 E0 E0

200.0.0.16/28

200.0.0.32/27

A

B

45

OSPF Configuration -2
S0 S1

200.0.0.10
255.255.255.252

200.0.0.13

R2
200.0.0.9

255.255.255.252
S0

R1
S0

R3
E0

200.0.0.14

200.0.0.33
255.255.255.224

200.0.0.17
255.255.255.240

E0

200.0.0.18

200.0.0.34

A

B

46

OSPF Configuration -2
S0 S1

200.0.0.10
255.255.255.252

200.0.0.13

R2
200.0.0.9

255.255.255.252
S0

R1
S0

R3
E0

200.0.0.14

200.0.0.33
255.255.255.224

200.0.0.17
255.255.255.240

E0

A

200.0.0.18

200.0.0.34

B

R1#config t Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. R1(config)#router ospf 1 R1(config-router)#network 200.0.0.16 0.0.0.15 area 0 R1(config-router)#network 200.0.0. 8 0.0.0.3 area 0 R1(config-router)#^Z

R3#config t Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. R3(config)#router ospf 1 R3(config-router)#network 200.0.0. 32 0.0.0.31 area 0 R3(config-router)#network 200.0.0. 12 0.0.0.3 area 0 R3(config-router)#^Z

47

OSPF and Loopback Interfaces 
Configuring loopback interfaces when using the OSPF routing protocol is important  Cisco suggests using them whenever you configure OSPF on a router  Loopback interfaces are logical interfaces, which are virtual, software-only interfaces; they are not real router interfaces  Using loopback interfaces with your OSPF configuration ensures that an interface is always active for OSPF processes.  The highest IP address on a router will become that router s RID  The RID is used to advertise the routes as well as elect the DR and BDR.  If you configure serial interface of your router with highest IP Address this Address becomes RID of t is the RID of the router because e router  If this interface goes down, then a re-election must occur  It can have an big impact when the above link is flapping
48

Configuring Loopback Interfaces
R1#config t Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. R1(config)#int loopback 0 R1(config-if)#ip address 172.16.10.1 255.255.255.255 R1(config-if)#no shut R1(config-if)#^Z R1#
49

Verifying OSPF Operation
Router#

show ip protocols

‡ Verifies the configured IP routing protocol processes, parameters and statistics
Router#

show ip route ospf

‡ Displays all OSPF routes learned by the router
Router#

show ip ospf interface

‡ Displays the OSPF router ID, area ID and adjacency information

50

Verifying OSPF Operation (Cont.)
Router#

show ip ospf

‡ Displays the OSPF router ID, timers, and statistics
Router#

show ip ospf neighbor [detail]

‡ Displays information about the OSPF neighbors, including Designated Router (DR) and Backup Designated Router (BDR) information on broadcast networks
51

The show ip route ospf Command
RouterA# show ip route ospf Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP, D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area, E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP, i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, * - candidate default Gateway of last resort is not set 10.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 is subnetted, 2 subnets O 10.2.1.0 [110/10] via 10.64.0.2, 00:00:50, Ethernet0

52

The show ip ospf interface Command
RouterA# show ip ospf interface e0 Ethernet0 is up, line protocol is up Internet Address 10.64.0.1/24, Area 0 Process ID 1, Router ID 10.64.0.1, Network Type BROADCAST, Cost: 10 Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State DROTHER, Priority 1 Designated Router (ID) 10.64.0.2, Interface address 10.64.0.2 Backup Designated router (ID) 10.64.0.1, Interface address 10.64.0.1 Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 40, Wait 40, Retransmit 5 Hello due in 00:00:04 Neighbor Count is 1, Adjacent neighbor count is 1 Adjacent with neighbor 10.64.0.2 (Designated Router) Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s)

53

The show ip ospf neighbor Command
RouterB# show ip ospf neighbor
Neighbor ID 10.64.1.1 10.2.1.1 Pri 1 1 State FULL/BDR FULL/Dead Time 00:00:31 00:00:38 Address 10.64.1.1 10.2.1.1 Interface Ethernet0 Serial0

54

show ip ospf neighbor detail

show ip ospf database

55

Setting Priority for DR Election
Router(config-if)# ip ospf priority number 

This interface configuration command assigns the OSPF priority to an interface. Different interfaces on a router may be assigned different values. The default priority is 1. The range is from 0 to 255. 0 means the router is a DROTHER; it can t be the DR or BDR.
56

57

EIGRP
IGRP
DV Easy to configure Neighbor Advanced Metric Periodic Broadcast

OSPF
LS Incremental Updates Multicast Open Standard

EIGRP
Hybrid DUAL Topology Database Rapid Convergence Reliable

58

Overview 
Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) is a Ciscoproprietary routing protocol based on Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP). Released in 1994, Unlike IGRP, which is a classful routing protocol, EIGRP supports CIDR and VLSM.  it is probably one of the two most popular routing protocols in use today. Compared to IGRP, EIGRP boasts faster convergence times, improved scalability, and superior handling of routing loops. EIGRP is often described as a hybrid routing protocol, offering the 59 best of distance vector and link-state algorithms.

Comparing EIGRP with IGRP 

IGRP and EIGRP are compatible with each other. EIGRP offers multiprotocol support, but IGRP does not. Communication via Reliable Transport Protocol (RTP) Best path selection via Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL) Improved convergence time Reduced network overhead

60

Introducing EIGRP

EIGRP supports: Rapid convergence Reduced bandwidth usage Multiple network-layer protocols

EIGRP Tables
EIGRP maintains 3 tables
Neighbor table Topology table Routing table

62

Neighbor Discovery 
There are three conditions that must be met for neighborship establishment 
Hello or ACK received AS numbers match Identical metrics (K values)
? AS ?K
K1 BW K2- Delay K3-Load K3-Reliability K5-MTU

63

Metric Calculation
The metrics used by EIGRP in making routing decisions are (lower the metric the better):
bandwidth delay load Reliability MTU

By default, EIGRP uses only:
Bandwidth Delay

Analogies: Think of bandwidth as the width of the pipe and delay as the length of the pipe. Bandwidth is the carrying capacity Delay is the end-to-end travel time.

64

Neighbor Table 
The neighbor table is the most important table in EIGRP  Stores address and interface of neighbor

65

Topology Table
Network

66

Topology Table 
The topology table is made up of all the EIGRP routing tables in the autonomous system. DUAL takes the information and calculates the lowest cost routes to each destination. By tracking this information, EIGRP routers can identify and switch to alternate routes quickly. The information that the router learns from the DUAL is used to determine the successor route, which is the term used to identify the primary or best route. Every EIGRP router maintains a topology table. All learned routes to a destination are maintained in the topology table.
67

Routing Tables 
A successor is a route selected as the primary route to use to reach a destination.  DUAL calculates Successor (Primary Route) and places it in the routing table (and topology table)  Can have up to 4 successors of equal or unequal value  DUAL calculates Feasible Successor (Backup Route) and places it in the Topology Table.  Promoted to successor if the route goes down if it has a lower cost than current successor  If no FS in Table - Send query  Multiple feasible successors for a destination can be retained in the topology table although it is not mandatory
68

EIGRP Concepts & Terminology
EIGRP routers that belong to different autonomous systems (ASes) don t automatically share routing information The only time EIGRP advertises its entire routing table is when it discovers a new neighbor and forms an adjacency with it through the exchange of Hello packets When this happens, both neighbors advertise their entire routing tables to one another After each has learned its neighbor s routes, only changes to the routing table are propagated
69

172.16.100.0

10Mbps
Dist to 172.16.100.0 =100 Dist to 172.16.100.0 =100

56Kbps 1.544Mbps
10Mbps 100 1,544Mbps 250 56Kbps -1000

1.544Mbps

Dist to 172.16.100.0 =350
Chennai receives an update from Mumbai with a cost of 100, which is Mumbai's cost to reach 172.16.100.0, This cost is referred to as the reported distance (RD) Bangalore will report its cost to reach 172.16.100.0. Bangalore's RD is 350 Chennai will compute its cost to reach 172.16.100.0 via Mumbai and Bangalore and compare the metrics for the two paths Chennai's cost via Mumbai is 1100. Chennai's cost via Bangalore is 600. The lowest cost to reach a destination is referred to as the feasible distance (FD) for that destination Chennai's FD to 172.16.100.0 is 600. The next-hop router in the lowest-cost path to the destination is referred to as the successor. 70 A feasible successor is a path whose reported distance is less than the feasible distance, and it is considered a backup route.

EIGRP Terms
Feasible distance (FD) - This is the lowest calculated metric to reach destination. This is the route that you will find in the routing table, because it is considered the best path Reported distance (RD) - The distance reported by an adjacent neighbor to a specific destination. Interface information - The interface through which the destination can be reached. Route status - The status of a route. Routes are identified as being either passive, which means that the route is stable and ready for use, or active, which means that the route is in the process of being recomputed by DUAL
71

EIGRP Terminology and Operations
Successor Current Route  A successor is a route selected as the primary route to use to reach a destination.  Successors are the entries kept in the routing table. Feasible Successor - A backup route  A feasible successor is a backup route.  These routes are selected at the same time the successors are identified, but they are kept in the topology table.  Multiple feasible successors for a destination can be retained in the topology table.

72

Reliable Transport Protocol (RTP)
Used by EIGRP for its routing updates in place of TCP EIGRP can call on RTP to provide reliable or unreliable service  EIGRP uses reliable service for route updates  Unreliable for Hellos Reliable Transport Protocol (RTP) is a transport layer protocol that guarantees ordered delivery of EIGRP packets to all neighbors. On an IP network, hosts use TCP to sequence packets and ensure their timely delivery. RIP uses UDP However, EIGRP is protocol-independent and does not rely on TCP/IP to exchange routing information the way that RIP, IGRP, and OSPF do. EIGRP uses RTP as its own proprietary transport layer protocol to guarantee delivery of routing information. With RTP, EIGRP can multicast and unicast to different peers simultaneously.
73

Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL)
All route computations in EIGRP are handled by DUAL One of DUAL's tasks is maintaining a table of loop-free paths to every destination. This table is referred to as the topology table DUAL saves all paths in the topology table The least-cost path(s) is copied from the topology table to the routing table In the event of a failure, the topology table allows for very quick convergence if another loop-free path is available If a loop-free path is not found in the topology table, a route recomputation must occur DUAL queries its neighbors, who, in turn, may query their neighbors, and so on... Hence the name "Diffusing" Update Algorithm
74

VLSM Support
EIGRP supports the use of Variable- Length Subnet Masks Can use 30-bit subnet masks for point-to-point networks Because the subnet mask is propagated with every route update, EIGRP also supports the use of discontiguous subnets Discontiguous network is the one that has two or more subnetworks of a classful network connected together by different classful networks
75

Discontiguous Network

76

EIGRP & IGRP Metric Calculation

77

Configuring EIGRP

Router(config)#router eigrp autonomous-system

‡ Defines EIGRP as the IP routing protocol

Router(config-router)#network network-number

‡ Selects participating attached networks

EIGRP Configuration Example

EIGRP Configuration
S0 S1

200.0.0.10
255.255.255.252

200.0.0.13

R2
200.0.0.9

255.255.255.252
S0

R1
S0

R3
E0

200.0.0.14

200.0.0.33
255.255.255.224

200.0.0.17
255.255.255.240

E0

A

200.0.0.18

200.0.0.34

B

R1#config t Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. R1(config)#router eigrp 10 R1(config-router)#network 200.0.0.16 R1(config-router)#network 200.0.0. 8 R1(config-router)#^Z

R3#config t Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. R3(config)#router eigrp 10 R3(config-router)#network 200.0.0. 32 R3(config-router)#network 200.0.0. 12 R3(config-router)#^Z

80

Verifying the EIGRP Configuration
To verify the EIGRP configuration a number of show and debug commands are available. These commands are shown on the next few slides.

81

show ip eigrp topology

show ip eigrp topology [active | pending | successors]
82

show ip eigrp topology all-links

show ip eigrp traffic

83

Administrative Distances

84

TELNET
Getting information about remote device Can connect to remote device and configure a device Password must be set
R1(config)# line vty 0 4 Password cisco login

85

Discovering Neighbors on the Network

86
© 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. 86

Cisco Discovery Protocol

CDP is a proprietary utility that gives you a summary of directly connected switches, routers, and other Cisco devices. CDP discovers neighboring devices regardless of which protocol suite they are running. Runs on the Data link layer Physical media must support the Subnetwork Access Protocol (SNAP) encapsulation. Only give directly connected device By default enabled, you can enable or disable

Discovering Neighbors with CDP
CDP runs on routers with Cisco IOS® software Release 10.3 or later and on Cisco switches. Show CDP ? Summary information includes: 
    Device ID Local Interface Port ID Capabilities list Platform

CDP
CDP timer is how often CDP packets are transmitted to all active interfaces.

Router(config)#cdp timer 90
CDP holdtime is the amount of time that the device will hold packets received from neighbor devices.

Router(config)#cdp holdtime 240
89

Using CDP

90

Using the show cdp neighbors Command

The show cdp neighbor command (sh cdp nei for short) delivers information about directly connected devices.

91

CDP
show cdp neighbor detail This command can be run on both routers and switches, and it displays detailed information about each device connected to the device

92

Using the show cdp entry Command

The show cdp entry * command displays the same information as the show cdp neighbor details command.
93

Additional CDP Commands

The show cdp traffic command displays information about interface traffic, including the number of CDP packets sent and received and the errors with CDP.
94

CDP Commands
To disable the CDP on particular interface use the "no cdp enable" command

To disable CDP on the entire router use the "no cdp run" in global configuration mode.

95

Summary
Cisco Discovery Protocol is an information-gathering tool used by network administrators to get information about directly connected devices. CDP exchanges hardware and software device information with its directly connected CDP neighbors. You can enable or disable CDP on a router as a whole or on a port-by-port basis. The show cdp neighbors command displays information about a router s CDP neighbors. The show cdp entry, show cdp traffic, and show cdp interface 96 commands display detailed CDP information on a Cisco device.

97

Why Use Access Lists?

Manage IP traffic as network access grows Filter packets as they pass through the router

What are ACLs?
ACLs are lists of conditions that are applied to traffic traveling across a router's interface. These lists tell the router what types of packets to accept or deny. Acceptance and denial can be based on specified conditions. ACLs can be configured at the router to control access to a network or subnet. Some ACL decision points are source and destination addresses, protocols, and upper-layer port numbers.

99

Reasons to Create ACLs
The following are some of the primary reasons to create ACLs: 
Limit network traffic and increase network performance. Provide traffic flow control. Provide a basic level of security for network access. Decide which types of traffic are forwarded or blocked at the router interfaces For example: Permit e-mail traffic to be routed, but block all telnet traffic. If ACLs are not configured on the router, all packets passing through the router will be allowed onto all parts of the network.

100

ACL s
Different access list for Telnet When configuring ISDN you need to use access list Implicit deny at bottom All restricted statements should be on first There are two types
Standard Extended

101

Network
192.168.12.2

N1

192.168.12.0

N2

192.168.12.3

A

B

C

N3

192.168.34.0

N4

N5

192.168.56.0

N6
102

IP Packet

SRC IP Address DEST IP Address Protocol type SRC Port DEST Port

The first 2 bytes in the TCP/UDP header are the source port number The next 2 bytes in the TCP/UDP header are the Destination port number
103

Types of Access Lists

Standard 
Checks source address Permits or denies entire protocol suite

Extended Checks source and destination address 
Generally permits or denies specific protocols
104

How to Identify Access Lists

Standard IP lists (1-99) test conditions of all IP packets from source addresses. Extended IP lists (100-199) test conditions of source and destination addresses, specific TCP/IP protocols, and destination ports. Standard IP lists (1300-1999) (expanded range). Extended IP lists (2000-2699) (expanded range).

Standard ACLs
The full syntax of the standard ACL command is: Router(config)#access-list access-list-number {deny | permit} source [source-wildcard ] The no form of this command is used to remove a standard ACL. This is the syntax: Router(config)#no access-list access-list-number

Config# Access-list 1 deny 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 Config# access-list 1 permit any

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Wildcard Mask
Access-list 99 permit 192.168.1.1 wildcard mask All 32 bits of an IP Address can be filtered Wildcard inverse mask 0=must match 1= ignore MASK (192.168.1.1) 0.0.0.0 (host) 0.0.0.255 0.0.255.255 0.255.255.255 255.255.255.255 Matching IP 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.0-255 192.168.0-255.0-255 192.0-255.0-255.0-255 0-255.0-255.0-255.0-255 (any)
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The ANY and HOST keyword
Access-list 1 permit 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 Or permit any Access-list 1 permit 200.0.0.9 0.0.0.0 Or permit host 200.0.0.9
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Testing Packets with Standard Access Lists

Outbound ACL Operation

‡ If no access list statement matches, then discard the packet.

Reading an ACL
1. First Hit or Best Fit? Access-list 99 deny host 192.168.1.1 0.0.0.0 access-list 99 permit any 255.255.255.255 Access-list 99 permit 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 Access-list 99 deny host 192.168.1.1 access-list 99 permit any Access-list 99 deny host 192.168.1.1 Implicit deny at the end of every ACL

2.

3. 

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Creating ACLs
ACLs are created in the global configuration mode. There are many different types of ACLs including standard, extended, IPX, AppleTalk, and others. When configuring ACLs on a router, each ACL must be uniquely identified by assigning a number to it. This number identifies the type of access list created and must fall within the specific range of numbers that is valid for that type of list. Since IP is by far the most popular routed protocol, addition ACL numbers have been added to newer router IOSs. Standard IP: 1300-1999 Extended IP: 2000-2699
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The ip access-group command

{ in | out }

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Exercise
E0

Standard Access List
192.168.0.5 255.255.255.252 192.168.0.9 255.255.255.252 192.168.0.33 255.255.255.240

A
192.168.0.18 255.255.255.248

192.168.0.17 S0 255.255.255.248

S0
192.168.0.6 255.255.255.252

S1

S0
192.168.0.10 255.255.255.252

E0

B
192.168.0.34 255.255.255.240

Account should be denied access to Sales
To steps to configure Create a standard Access list Apply ACL to proper interface inbound or outbound

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Exercise
E0

Standard Access List
192.168.0.5 255.255.255.252 192.168.0.9 255.255.255.252 192.168.0.33 255.255.255.240

A
192.168.0.18 255.255.255.248

192.168.0.17 S0 255.255.255.248

S0
192.168.0.6 255.255.255.252

S1

S0
192.168.0.10 255.255.255.252

E0

B
192.168.0.34 255.255.255.240

Config# Access-list 1 deny 192.168.0.18 0.0.0.7 Config# access-list 1 permit any

Config#int e 0 Config-if# ip access-group 1 out
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Extended ACLs
Extended ACLs are used more often than standard ACLs because they provide a greater range of control. Extended ACLs check the source and destination packet addresses as well as being able to check for protocols and port numbers. At the end of the extended ACL statement, additional precision is gained from a field that specifies the optional Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or User Datagram Protocol (UDP) port number. Logical operations may be specified such as, equal (eq), not equal (neq), greater than (gt), and less than (lt), that the extended ACL will perform on specific protocols. Extended ACLs use an access-list-number in the range 100 to 199 (also from 2000 to 2699 in recent IOS).
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Configuration
‡ Access-list acl# {permit/Deny}
‡ Protocol
± ± ± ± ± OSPF EIGRP ICMP TCP UDP

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Protocol Src IP src WCM Dst IP dst WCM Opetrator port

RP If you need to Block a routing protocol

IP

‡ Operator
± ± ± ± eq gt lt neq

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Testing Packets with Extended Access Lists

Extended ACL Syntax

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Extended ACL LAB
Internet

A
Fa0/0
200.0.0.10 255.255.255.248 200.0.0.9 255.255.255.248

B
Fa0/1
200.0.0.17 255.255.255.240 200.0.0.18 255.255.255.240

Account should be denied Sales Web site
Config# Access-list 100 deny tcp 200.0.0.10 0.0.0.7 200.0.0.18 0.0.0.15 eq www Config# access-list 100 permit IP any any Config#int Fastethernet 0/0 Config-if# ip access-group 100 IN
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Extended ACL LAB -2
192.168.0.5 255.255.255.252 192.168.0.9 255.255.255.252

S0
192.168.0.6 255.255.255.252

S1

S0
192.168.0.10 255.255.255.252

192.168.0.17 255.255.255.248

E0

S0

E0

192.168.0.33 255.255.255.240

192.168.0.34 255.255.255.240

A
192.168.0.18 255.255.255.248

B

192.168.0.34 should be denied FTP of 192.168.0.18 On Router R1 Config# Access-list 100 deny tcp 192.168.0.34 0.0.0.0 192.168.0.18 0.0.0.0 eq 21 Config# access-list 100 permit IP any any Config#int s0 Config-if# ip access-group 100 IN

192.168.0.18 should be denied website of 192.168.0.34 On Router R3 Config# Access-list 100 deny tcp 192.168. 0.18 0.0.0.0 192.168.0.34 0.0.0.0 eq 80 Config# access-list 100 permit IP any any Config#int s0 Config-if# ip access-group 100 IN

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Deny FTP
access-list 101 deny tcp any any eq 21 access-list 101 permit ip any any
or

access-list 101 deny tcp any any eq ftp access-list 101 permit ip any any

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Rules
For extended access list apply near to the source For standard access list apply near to the destination

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Named ACLs
IP named ACLs were introduced in Cisco IOS Software Release 11.2, allowing standard and extended ACLs to be given names instead of numbers.

The characteristics of named accesslist: 
   Identify an ACL using an alphanumeric name. You can delete individual statements in a named access list Named access lists must be specified as standard or extended You can use the ip access-list command to create named access lists.

Named ACLs are not compatible with Cisco IOS releases prior to Release 11.2. The same name may not be used for multiple ACLs.
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Named ACL s
Numbered Access list did not give you any hint, What is filtered Named ACL s are both basic and advanced filtering tool Name cannot start with a number or ! Cannot have space in the name Should not have ? Character anywhere in the name Name is case sensitive
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Named ACL Example
R1(config)#ip access-list standard blocksales

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

R1(config-std-nacl)#deny 172.16.40.0 0.0.0.255 R1(config-std-nacl)#permit any R1(config-std-nacl)#exit R1(config)#^Z R1#

#Int e 0 #Ip access-group blocksales out
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Verify Access List

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Basic Rules for ACLs
Standard IP access lists should be applied closest to the destination. Extended IP access lists should be applied closest to the source. Use the inbound or outbound interface reference as if looking at the port from inside the router. Statements are processed sequentially from the top of list to the bottom until a match is found, if no match is found then the packet is denied. There is an implicit deny at the end of all access lists. This will not appear in the configuration listing. Access list entries should filter in the order from specific to general. Specific hosts should be denied first, and groups or general filters should come last. Never work with an access list that is actively applied. New lines are always added to the end of the access list. A no access-list x command will remove the whole list. It is not possible to selectively add and remove lines with numbered ACLs. Outbound filters do not affect traffic originating from the local router.
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