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BY-AMOL AGARWAL

3RD YEAR (E.C.E.)


CTAE UDAIPUR
Indian Telecommunication sector was primarily managed
by the DoT before BSNL came into existence.

BSNL was incorporated on 15th of sept. 2000 and started


business from 1st oct 2000.

largest provider of fixed telephony and broadband


services with more than 60% market share and sixth
largest mobile telephony provider in India.

It is the seventh largest telecom company in the world.


The revenue was Rs. 30,000 crore for the last financial
year.

It is only second to Airtel in terms of Number of BTS


installed.
BSNL offers various services to the general
public as well as to corporate sector through
both wireless as well as wired media. They
include-
Landline telephony
Mobile telephony(GSM and CDMA)
Broadband internet service
Managed leased line(MLLN)
Fibre to the home(FTTH)
Besides these, BSNL offers various value added
services like web hosting, televoting etc.
BSNL is headed by Mr. Anupam Shrivastava (Chairman & MD)

Under the CMD, various directors hold position in different domains


like-
Finance
Operations
Planning
Legal
Marketing
Communication

General managers and deputy managers are responsible for their


respective circles or zones .

At the exchange level Sub Divisional Engineers(SDE) and Junior Technical


officers are responsible for the smooth functioning of operations.
ORGANIZATION CHART OF BSNL
In the early days of telephone,routing of calls was done
manually by exchange operators but as the no. of
subscribers grew, the process became very inefficient
hence was soon replaced by electo-mechanical switch
known STROWGER switches.

The Strowger switch however was sensitive and needed


great care and service of the mechanical parts involved. It
had other disadvantages like low maximum capacity, etc.

The limitations of strowger switch led to the development


of the modern day electronic switches which work on the
concept of stored program control(SPC).

The civil Lines Exchange of Bsnl Allahabad employs the


ALCATEL OCB 283 Exchange(type-B) .
It is a digital switching with
single T stage switch. A
maximum of 2048 PCMs can
be connected.

It supports both analog and


digital subscribers.

It provides telephony, ISDN,


Data communication, cellular
radio, and otherlue added OCB switching room at Allahabad
services

The traffic handling capacity


of the sytem is huge.
GSM is a circuit-switched
system that divides each 200
kHz channel into eight 25 kHz
time-slots. GSM operates on
the mobile communication
bands 900 MHz and 1800 MHz
in most parts of the world. In
the US, GSM operates in the
bands 850 MHz and 1900
MHz.

The GSM network can be broadly


divided into:
The Mobile Station (MS)
The Base Station Subsystem
The Master Switch Center
1. The Mobile station- This is the mobile device through
which consumer interacts. A SIM card is inserted in the
mobile handset which helps to verify and authenticate
the user to the companys network.

2. The BTS-The base trans-receiving station or provides


the wireless link to the mobile device. It generally 3
antennas mounted on a tower an angle of 120 degrees
to cover the entire region.

3. The BSC- The BSC manages the radio resources for one
or more BTSs. It handles radio channel setup, frequency
hopping, and handovers. The BSC also translates the 13
Kbps voice channel used over the radio link to the
standard 64 Kbps channel used by the Public Switched
Telephone Network (PSDN) or ISDN.

4. The MSC- The MSC controls various BSCS under it and


also saves certain information about the user in various
registers built into it like the VLR, HLR etc.
A. Modulation- The GSM uses Gaussian Minimum Shift
Keying (GMSK) modulation method.

Access Methods-GSM devised a combination of


TDMA/FDMA as the method to divide the bandwidth
among the users. In this process, the FDMA part divides
the frequency of the total 25 MHz bandwidth into 124
carrier frequencies of 200 kHz bandwidth.Each BS is
assigned with one or multiple frequencies, and each of this
frequency is divided into eight timeslots using a TDMA
scheme. Each of these slots are used for both transmission
as well as reception of data

Channel Spacing-Channel spacing indicates the spacing


between adjacent carrier frequencies. For GSM, it is 200
kHz.
BSNL offers high speed Internet service at a minimum transfer rate of
2Mbps over the traditional telephone line(copper pair) by utilizing the
unused bandwidth of the medium.High speed plans are also available.

Digital Subscriber Line(DSL)- Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) is a very high-


speed connection that uses the same wires as a regular telephone Line
to connect to the Internet and transport high-bandwidth data, such as
multimedia and video, to service subscribers.
Despite its name, DSL does not refer to a physical line but to a modem
or rather a pair of modems.

A DSL modem pair creates a digital subscriber line.

DSL modem transmits duplex (i.e., data in both directions


simultaneously) at 160 kbps over copper lines of up to 18,000 feet.

DSL modems use twisted-pair bandwidth from 0 to approximately 80


kHz which precludes the simultaneous use of analog telephone service
in most cases
ADSL stands for asymmetric DSL, a form of DSL which is designed by presuming that
average users download more than they upload.

ADSL transmits more than 6 Mbps to a subscriber, and as much as 640 kbps more in
both directions(duplex).

Products with downstream rates up to 8 Mbps and duplex rates up to 640 kbps are
available.

The customer premise equipment(CPE) includes a splitter- to split voice and data
channels, and a ADSL modem. A wi-fi router can be installed optionally as well.

DSL CONNECTION PATH


FROM EXCHANGE TO USER
Fibre to the Home (FTTH) is a unique technology being deployed by BSNL
for the first time in India. The fibre connectivity having unlimited
bandwidth and state of the art technology provides fix access platform
to deliver the high speed broadband from 256 Kbps to 100 Mbps.

The end user is directly connected with the optical fibre cable which
provides much better data transmission rates than the

SERVICES OVER FTTH


TV over IP Service (MPEG2).
Video on Demand (VoD)
Bandwidth on Demand (User and or service configurable)
Remote Education
Voice and Video Telephony over IP: Connection under control of centrally
located soft switches
Interactive Gaming
VPN on broadband
A BASE STATION CONTROLLER

POWER SUPPLY AND


SUBSCRIBER CARDS
IN THE OCB
EXCHANGE RACK.
IP TAX ROOM

POWER SUPPLY OF IP
TAX
HUAWEI IP TAX
CISCO 7609
AGGREGATION ROUTER