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Chapter 8

International Investment and


All the people like us are We,
And everyone else is They.
And They live over the sea,
While We live over the way.
But would you believe it?
They look upon We
As only a sort of They.

- Rudyard Kipling
Why international diversification makes
theoretical sense
Foreign exchange risk
Investments in emerging markets
Political risk
Other topics related to international
The marketplace of the twenty-first century
is global
U.S. equities represent only about 51% of the
worlds equity capitalization
Over the period 1980-2000, the U.S. was the
best-performing market only once
In September 1999, each of the 66 U.S. pension
funds had more than $1 billion in actively
managed international investment portfolios
Introduction (contd)
International investments carry additional
sources of risk

Managers can reduce total portfolio risk via

global investment

Why International
Diversification Makes Sense
Remembering Evans and Archer
Remembering capital market theory

Evans and Archer
Portfolio theory works to the investors
benefit even if he selects securities at
Ideally, the portfolio manager selects
securities because of their fit with the rest of
the portfolio
By choosing poorly correlated securities, a
manager can reduce total portfolio risk
Evans and Archer (contd)
Totalrisk contains both systematic and
unsystematic risk
Evans and Archer show that holding 15 to 20
equity securities substantially reduces the
unsystematic risk

Capital Market Theory
risk, and return
Variance of a linear combination
Relationship of world exchanges
Fundamental logic of diversification
Other considerations

Utility, Risk, and Return
Unsystematicrisk reduction is possible with
more than 20 securities
For a given level of return, any reduction in
risk, no matter how small, is a worthy goal

A rational invest will reduce risk if given the


Variance of
A Linear Combination
Aslong as assets are less than perfectly
correlated, there will be diversification
More pronounced the lower the correlation

No two shares move in perfect lockstep

Diversification benefits accrue every time we add a
new position to a portfolio

Relationship of
World Exchanges
U.S. securities, market risk account for
about 25% of a securitys total risk

Forless developed countries, market risk

tends to be higher because:
Fewer securities make up the market
The securities are exposed to more extreme
economic and political events

Relationship of
World Exchanges (contd)
capital markets continue to
show independent price behavior
International diversification offers potential

Repeating the Evans and Archer methodology

for international securities should result in a
lower level of systematic risk
Relationship of
World Exchanges (contd)
Portfolio Variance

U.S. Securities: Systematic Risk 27%

International Securities: Systematic Risk 11.7%

Number of Securities

Logic of Diversification
Investors are, on average, rational
Rational people do not like unnecessary
By holding one more security, an investor
can reduce portfolio risk without giving up
any expected return
Rational investors, therefore, will hold as
many securities as they can
Fundamental Logic of
Diversification (contd)
The most securities investors can hold is
all of them

The collection of all securities makes up

the world market portfolio

Rational investors will hold some

proportion of the world market portfolio
Other Considerations
Optimum portfolio size involves a trade-off
The benefits of additional diversification

Commissions and capital constraints

Foreign Exchange Risk
Business example
Investment example
From whence cometh the risk?
Dealing with the risk
The eurobond market
Combining the currency and market decisions
Key issues in foreign exchange risk management
Foreignexchange risk refers to the
changing relationships among currencies
Modest changes in exchange rates can result in
significant dollar differences

Business Example
A U.S. importer has agreed to purchase 40 New Zealand
leather vests at a price of NZ$110 each. The vests will take
two months to produce, and payment is due before the
vests are shipped.

The current spot rate of the NZ$ is $0.5855.

What is the price of the vests to the importer if the spot

rate remains unchanged in the next two months? If it is
$0.5500? If it is $0.6200?
Business Example (contd)
Solution: If the spot rate does not change, the cost to the importer is:

40 x NZ$110 x $0.5855 = $2,576.20

If the spot rate is $0.5500:

40 x NZ$110 x $0.5500 = $2,420.00

If the spot rate is $0.6200:

40 x NZ$110 x $0.6200 = $2,728.00

Investment Example
You just purchased 1,000 of Kangaroo Lager trading on
the Sydney Stock Exchange for AUD1.45 per share. The
exchange rate for the Australian dollar at the time of
purchase was $0.7735.

What is the U.S. dollar purchase price? If Kangaroo

Lager stock rises to AUD1.95 per share and if the
Australian dollar depreciates to $0.7000, what is your
holding period return if you sell the shares?

Investment Example (contd)
Solution: The purchase price in U.S. dollars is:

1,000 x AUD1.45 x $0.7735 = $1,121.58

If the Australian dollar depreciates and you sell the shares, you will

1,000 x AUD1.95 x $0.7000 = $1,365.00

The holding period return is:

($1,365.00 - $1,121.58)/$1,121.58 = 21.7%

From Whence
Cometh the Risk?
Role of interest rates
Forward rates
Interest rate parity
Covered interest arbitrage
Purchasing power parity

Role of Interest Rates
Real rate of interest
Inflation premium
Risk premium

Real Rate of Interest
The real rate of interest reflects the rate of
return investors demand for giving up the
current use of funds

In a world of no risk and no inflation, the

real rate indicates peoples willingness to
postpone spending their money

Inflation Premium
The inflation premium reflects the way the
general price level is changing

Inflation is normally positive

The inflation premium measures how rapidly
the money standard is losing its purchasing

Risk Premium
The risk premium is the component of
interest rates that reflects compensation for
risk to risk-averse investors

risk premium is a function of how
much risk a security carries
E.g., common stock vs. T-bills

Forward Rates
The forward rate is a contractual rate
between a commercial bank and a client for
the future delivery of a specified quantity of
foreign currency
Typically quoted on the basis of 1, 2, 3, 6, and
12 months

Forward Rates (contd)
The forward rate is the best estimate of the
future spot rate
If the forward rate indicates the dollar will
strengthen, importers should delay payment

If the forward rate indicates the dollar will

weaken, importers should lock in a rate now

Forward Rates (contd)
Forward rate premium or discount:

Forward rate - Spot rate 12

Spot rate n

where n the contract length in months

Forward Rates (contd)

On June 12, 2002, the British pound had a spot rate of

$1.4728. The 3-month forward rate of the pound was
$1.4645 on that date.

What is the forward premium or discount?

Forward Rates (contd)
Example (contd)

Solution: The forward premium or discount is calculated

as follows:
Forward rate - Spot rate 12 $1.4645 $1.4728 12
100 100
Spot rate n $1.4728 3

There is a forward discount of 2.25%.

Interest Rate Parity
Interest rate parity states that differences in
national interest rates will be reflected in the
currency forward market
Two securities of similar risk and maturity will
show a difference in their interest rates equal to
the forward premium or discount, but with the
opposite sign

Covered Interest Arbitrage
Covered interest arbitrage is possible when
the conditions of interest rate parity are
If the foreign interest rate is too high, convert
dollars to the foreign currency and invest in the
foreign country

If the U.S. interest rate is too high, borrow the

foreign currency and invest in the U.S.
Example of CIA

Purchasing Power Parity
Purchasing power parity (PPP) refers to
the situation in which the exchange rate
equals the ratio of domestic and foreign
price levels
A relative change in the prevailing inflation rate
in one country will be reflected as an equal but
opposite change in the value of its currency

Purchasing Power
Parity (contd)
Absolutepurchasing power parity follows
from the law of one price:
A basket of goods in one country should cost
the same in another country after conversion to
a common currency
Not very accurate due to:
Transportation costs
Trade barriers
Cultural differences

Purchasing Power
Parity (contd)
Relative purchasing power parity states
that differences in countries inflation rates
determine exchange rates:
1 IF
S 1
1 ID
where S change in the spot exchange rate
I F foreign country inflation rate
I D domestic country inflation rate
Purchasing Power
Parity (contd)
A countrywith an increase in inflation will
experience a depreciation of its currency
Exports decline
Imports increase
There is less demand for goods from that

Dealing With the Risk
The concept of exposure
Dealing with the exposure

The Concept of Exposure
Accounting exposure
Transaction exposure
Translation exposure
Economic exposure

Exposure is a measure of the extent to
which a person faces foreign exchange risk

Ingeneral, there are two types of exposure:

accounting and economic
Economic exposure is more important

Accounting Exposure
Accounting exposure is:
Of concern to MNCs that have subsidiaries in a
number of foreign countries
Important to people who hold foreign securities
and must prepare dollar-based financial reports

U.S.firms must prepare consolidated

financial statements in U.S. dollars
Transaction Exposure
FASB Statement No. 8 addresses
transaction exposure:
A transaction involving purchase or sale of
goods or services with the price states in
foreign currency is incomplete until the amount
in dollars necessary to liquidate a related
payable or receivable is determined

Translation Exposure
Translation exposure results from the
holding of foreign assets and liabilities that
are denominated in foreign currencies
E.g., foreign real estate and mortgage holdings
must be translated to U.S. dollars before they
are incorporated into a U.S. balance sheet

Economic Exposure
Economic exposure measures the risk that
the value of a security will decline due to an
unexpected change in relative foreign
exchange rates

Security analysts should include expected

changes in exchange rates in forecasted
cash flows
Dealing With the Exposure
Ignorethe exposure
Reduce or eliminate the exposure
Hedge the exposure

Ignore the Exposure
Ignoring the exposure may be appropriate
for an investor if:
Foreign exchange movements are expected to
be modest
The dollar mount of the exposure is small
relative to the cost of inconvenience of hedging
The U.S. dollar is expected to depreciate
relative to the foreign currency
Reduce or Eliminate
the Exposure
If the dollar is expected to appreciate
dramatically, an investor may reduce or
eliminate foreign currency holdings

Hedge the Exposure
Hedging with forward contracts
Hedging with futures contracts
Hedging with foreign currency options

Hedging involves taking one position in the
market that offsets another position
Covering foreign exchange risk means hedging
foreign exchange risk

Hedging With
Forward Contracts
A forward contract is a private, non-
negotiable transaction between a client and
a commercial bank
No money changes hands until the foreign
currency is delivered, but the rate is determined

The forward rate reflects relative interest rates

and associated risks
Hedging With
Futures Contracts
A futures contract is a promise to buy or sell a
specified quantity of a particular good at a
predetermined price by a specified delivery date

On the delivery date, there will be a gain or loss in

the futures market that will offset the gain or loss
experienced when converting the foreign currency

Hedging With
Futures Contracts (contd)
Tohedge an investment, sell foreign
currency futures

Tohedge a liability, buy foreign currency


Hedging With
Foreign Currency Options
Thereare two types of foreign currency
Call options give their owner the right to buy a
set quantity of foreign currency
Put options give their owner the right to sell a
set quantity of foreign currency
The price at which you have the right to buy or
sell is the striking (exercise) price
Hedging With Foreign
Currency Options (contd)
Currency option characteristics:
A call option with an exercise price quoted in
dollars for the purchase of euros is the same as
a put option on dollars with an exercise price
quoted in euros

Put-call parity for foreign currency options is a

restatement of interest rate parity
Hedging With Foreign
Currency Options (contd)
Thedisadvantage of hedging with currency
options is that the hedger must pay a
premium to established the hedge
Options provide more precision than futures

Options are more expensive than futures

The Eurobond Market
Eurobonds are debt agreements that are
denominated in a currency other than that of the
country in which they are held
E.g., a bond denominated in yen sold in the United

A foreign bond is denominated in the local

currency but is issued by a foreigner
E.g., a bond denominated in yen sold in Japan, issued
by a firm in the United Kingdom
The Eurobond Market (contd)
About 75% of eurobonds are denominated
in U.S. dollars

Firms issuing dollar-denominated

Eurobonds pay a slightly lower interest rate
than they would pay in the U.S.

Combining the Currency and
Market Decisions
Itis often desirable to cross-hedge a foreign
investment into a different currency
E.g., a U.S. investor might invest in Japan, use
the forward market to sell yen for British
pounds and convert the pounds back to dollars

The currency return comes from the forward

market premium or discount and the actual
change in the exchange rate
Key Issues in Foreign
Exchange Risk Management
The steps in foreign exchange risk
1) Define and measure foreign exchange
2) Organize a system that monitors this exposure
and exchange rate changes
3) Assign responsibility for hedging
4) Formulate a strategy for hedging
Investments in
Emerging Markets
Adding value
Reducing risk
Following the crowd
Special risks
Asymmetric correlations
Market microstructure considerations
Emerging market investments:
Offer substantial potential rewards to the
careful investor in added return and risk
Are accompanied by special risks:
Foreign exchange risk
High political and economic risk
Unreliable investment information
High trading costs

Over$20 billion is invested globally in
securities issued in underdeveloped

Pensionfunds largest emerging market

exposure is in:
Asia (39.1%)
Latin America (32.7%)
Background (contd)
Dollars invested in emerging markets has
increased at a compound rate of almost 50%
over the last 10 years

Private sector growth in emerging markets

E.g., Hungary and Poland after 1989

Adding Value
Prices in developing markets often contain
significant inefficiencies
Tend to sell for lower price/earnings multiples
than do firms in developed markets
Emerging market firms have greater expected
growth and are cheaper

Reducing Risk
Low correlations are attractive as a means
of reducing portfolio variability
Emerging markets show low correlation with
developed markets

Emerging markets show low correlation with

each other

Following the Crowd
Some professional money managers
carefully analyze emerging markets for:
Profit potential
Portfolio risk reduction

Some professional money managers follow

the crowd because they must invest in
emerging markets
Special Risks
Incomplete accounting information
Foreign currency risk
Fraud and scandals
Weak legal system

Accounting Information
Insome countries, financial statements are
more than 6 months old when they become
The acquisition of reliable investment
information generally requires on-site security

Incomplete Accounting
Information (contd)
Accounting standards differ substantially
across countries
Accounting information is frequently
unavailable for an emerging market security
Some emerging market brokerage firms
focus on the income statement but ignore
the balance sheet

Foreign Currency Risk
Foreignexchange securities are
denominated in a foreign currency
Introduces foreign exchange risk for foreign
E.g., Mexican peso crisis and Asian crisis

Inemerging markets, traditional hedging

vehicles may be unavailable
Fraud and Scandals
Emerging markets carry a substantial risk of
E.g., accounting misstatements, counterfeit
securities, bucket shops

Redressavailable to victims of a scandal in

a developing country may be inadequate

Weak Legal System
Low confidence in a countrys legal system:
Leads to increased uncertainty

Leads to an increased risk premium required by


Asymmetric Correlations
Correlationbetween emerging and
developed markets:
Increases during bear markets

Is low during bull markets

The extent of portfolio managers

diversification depends on whether they are
experiencing an up or a down market
Correlations (contd)
Investment returns show:
Homogeneity within emerging markets
Securities tend to move as a group within a single
emerging market

Heterogeneity across emerging markets

Emerging markets show low correlation across

Microstructure Considerations
Trading costs
Market pressure
Marketability risk
Country risk

Liquidity Risk
Some emerging markets investors are mostly
Increases political risk
Sets the stage for a market collapse if everyone pulls
out at once

Some emerging markets lack depth

The bid/ask spread tends to be wide with few standing
order to buy and to sell
Trading Costs
market trading costs are more than
1% higher than domestic trading costs
E.g., bid/ask spread is an average of 95 basis
points for Barings Securities emerging market

This indicates an investment must appreciate

more to show a given net return
Market Pressure
Anorder to buy or sell a large number of
shares might cause a substantial
supply/demand imbalance
Causes the price to move adversely from the
investors perspective

Indicates that emerging market investments

should be viewed as long-term investments
rather than a source of trading profits
Marketability Risk
Aninvestor may be unable to close out a
position at a reasonable price

Country Risk
Country risk refers to a countrys ability
and willingness to meet its foreign
exchange obligations
Especially important in emerging markets

Country risk has two components:

Political risk
Economic risk

Political Risk
Factorscontributing to political risk
Macro risk versus micro risk
Dealing with political risk

Politicalrisk is a measure of a countrys
willingness to honor its foreign obligations
A function of:
The stability of the governments and its leadership
Attitudes of labor unions
The countrys ideological background
The countrys past history with foreign investors

Introduction (contd)
Real (direct) investment is an investment
over which the investor retains control
E.g., a plant in a foreign country

Portfolioinvestment refers to foreign

investment via the securities market
E.g., buying a number of shares of a foreign
Introduction (contd)
Extremeforms of country risk for portfolio
Government takeover of a company
Political unrest leading to work stoppages
Physical damage to facilities
Forced renegotiation of contracts

Introduction (contd)
Modestforms of country risk for portfolio
A requirement that a minimum percentage of
supervisory positions be held by locals
Changes in operating rules
Restrictions on repatriation of capital

Factors Contributing
to Political Risk
Buy local attitude
Public attitude
Government attitude

Buy Local Attitude
Buylocal campaigns seek to make foreign
consumers buy local goods instead of goods
produced by a foreign firm or its

Contributes to political risk

Public Attitude
In emerging markets, people may see no
opportunity to improve their standard of living
Foreign subsidiaries may contribute to this attitude with
luxury items

The gap between the publics aspirations and its

expectations contributes to political risk

Government Attitude
Unstable governments can lead to foreign
investors being a volatile political issue
Foreign investors can be blamed for local

Foreign governments can suspend a firms

ability to send funds back to its home country

Macro Risk Versus Micro Risk
Macro risk refers to government actions that
affect all foreign firms in a particular industry

Micro risk refers to politically motivated changes

in the business environment directed to selected
fields of business activity or to foreign enterprises
with specific characteristics

Dealing With Political Risk
Seeka foreign investment guarantee from
the Overseas Private Investment
Provides coverage against:
Loss due to expropriation

Nonconvertibility of profits

War or civil disorder

Dealing With
Political Risk (contd)
Avoid engaging in behavior that stirs up
trouble with the host people or government:
Constructing flamboyant office buildings

Giving the impression of natural resource


Economic Risk
Economic risk is a measure of a countrys
ability to pay
Assess economic risk by:
Using coverage ratios

Assessing the countrys capital base

Other Topics
Multinational corporations
American depository receipts
International mutual funds

Multinational Corporations
Investing in a multinational corporation
may provide a ready-made means of getting
the risk-reduction benefits of international
Research is unclear whether MNCs are better
investments than purely domestic firms

American Depository Receipts
American depository receipts (ADRs) are receipts
representing shares of stock that are held on the
ADR holders behalf in a bank in the country of
An alternative to purchasing shares in a foreign
company directly on the foreign exchange

By 2000, 1,534 ADRS from dozens of countries

traded in the U.S.
International Mutual Funds
Mutual funds permit diversification to an
extent that would not otherwise be possible
Some mutual funds invest only in securities
issued outside the U.S.

Buying an international mutual fund is a good

way to achieve international diversification