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SPSS for Windows® Intermediate & Advanced Applied Statistics Zayed University Office of Research SPSS for Windows® Workshop Series Presented by Dr. Maher Khelifa Associate Professor Department of Humanities and Social Sciences College of Arts and Sciences
© Dr. Maher Khelifa
Understanding Factor Analysis
y This workshop discusses factor analysis as an
exploratory and confirmatory multivariate technique.
© Dr. Maher Khelifa
Understanding Factor Analysis
y Factor analysis is commonly used in: Data reduction Scale development The evaluation of the psychometric quality of a measure, and The assessment of the dimensionality of a set of variables.
© Dr. Maher Khelifa
Maher Khelifa . y They are constructs that are derived from the measurement of other. weight. y Unlike variables directly measured such as speed. creativity. © Dr. comfort are not a single measurable entity.Understanding Factor Analysis 4 y Regardless of purpose. happiness. religiosity. height. directly observable variables . etc. some variables such as egoism.. factor analysis is used in: y the determination of a small number of factors based on a particular number of inter-related quantitative variables.
y Example: the construct of teaching effectiveness.: y motivation/love/hate/care/altruism/anxiety/worry/stress/product quality/physical aptitude/democracy /reliability/power. Maher Khelifa . E.Understanding Factor Analysis 5 y Constructs are usually defined as unobservable latent variables. © Dr.g. measuring several of its underlying dimensions. y Factor analysis measures not directly observable constructs by y The identification of such underlying dimensions (factors) simplifies the understanding and description of complex constructs. Several variables are used to allow the measurement of such construct (usually several scale items are used) because the construct may include several dimensions.
y From this angle. the number of factors is much smaller than the number of measures. y Therefore. factor analysis is viewed as a data- reduction technique as it reduces a large number of overlapping variables to a smaller set of factors that reflect construct(s) or different dimensions of contruct(s). © Dr. Maher Khelifa .Understanding Factor Analysis 6 y Generally. the expectation is that a factor represents a set of measures.
y Example: Correlations between a person¶s test scores might be linked to shared factors such as general intelligence. critical thinking and reasoning skills. Maher Khelifa . reading comprehension etc. © Dr. y Observed correlations between variables result from their sharing of factors.Understanding Factor Analysis 7 y The assumption of factor analysis is that underlying dimensions (factors) can be used to explain complex phenomena.
Maher Khelifa . y A good factor solution is both simple and interpretable.Ingredients of a Good Factor Analysis Solution 8 y A major goal of factor analysis is to represent relationships among sets of variables parsimoniously yet keeping factors meaningful. new insights are possible. y When factors can be interpreted. © Dr.
© Dr.Application of Factor Analysis 9 y This workshop will examine three common applications of factor analysis: Defining indicators of constructs Defining dimensions for an existing measure Selecting items or scales to be included in a measure. Maher Khelifa .
as much as possible. and logic. previous research. y The choice of measures should. © Dr. be guided by theory.Application of Factor Analysis 10 y Defining indicators of constructs: y Ideally 4 or more measures should be chosen to represent each construct of interest. Maher Khelifa .
Maher Khelifa .Application of Factor Analysis 11 y Defining dimensions for an existing measure: In this case the variables to be analyzed are chosen by the initial researcher and not the person conducting the analysis. Ù © Dr. Results of factor analysis may not always be satisfactory: The items or scales may be poor indicators of the construct or constructs. Ù There may be too few items or scales to represent each underlying dimension. Factor analysis is performed on a predetermined set of items/scales.
Maher Khelifa . Decisions should be taken in conjunction with the theory and what is known about the construct(s) that the items or scales assess.Application of Factor Analysis 12 y Selecting items or scales to be included in a measure. Results of the analysis should not be used alone in making decisions of inclusions or exclusions. Factor analysis may be conducted to determine what items or scales should be included and excluded from a measure. © Dr.
Steps in Factor Analysis 13 y Factor analysis usually proceeds in four steps: 1st Step: the correlation matrix for all variables is computed 2nd Step: Factor extraction 3rd Step: Factor rotation 4th Step: Make final decisions about the number of underlying factors © Dr. Maher Khelifa .
Correlation coefficients greater than 0. Examine visually the appropriateness of the factor model. Maher Khelifa . Think of correlations in absolute value. it is unlikely that they share common factors (variables must be related to each other for the factor model to be appropriate).3 in absolute value are indicative of acceptable correlations. © Dr.Steps in Factor Analysis: The Correlation Matrix 14 y 1st Step: the correlation matrix Generate a correlation matrix for all variables Identify variables not related to other variables If the correlation between variables are small.
the use of the factor model should be reconsidered. Maher Khelifa . © Dr. it is unlikely that the population correlation matrix is an identity. If the value of the test statistic for sphericity is large and the associated significance level is small. If the hypothesis that the population correlation matrix is an identity cannot be rejected because the observed significance level is large.Steps in Factor Analysis: The Correlation Matrix 15 Bartlett Test of Sphericity: used to test the hypothesis the correlation matrix is an identity matrix (all diagonal terms are 1 and all off-diagonal terms are 0).
© Dr.7 is acceptable. Reasonably large values are needed for a good factor analysis.5 is unaccaptable ). less than . Maher Khelifa .6 is mediocre. . The closer the KMO measure to 1 indicate a sizeable sampling adequacy (.Steps in Factor Analysis: The Correlation Matrix 16 The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measure of sampling adequacy: is an index for comparing the magnitude of the observed correlation coefficients to the magnitude of the partial correlation coefficients. .8 and higher are great. Small KMO values indicate that a factor analysis of the variables may not be a good idea.
y Estimates of initial factors are obtained using Principal components analysis. Other factor extraction methods include: y Maximum likelihood method y Principal axis factoring y Alpha method y Unweighted lease squares method y Generalized least square method y Image factoring. y Initial decisions can be made here about the number of factors underlying a set of measured variables.Steps in Factor Analysis: Factor Extraction 17 y 2nd Step: Factor extraction y The primary objective of this stage is to determine the factors. y The principal components analysis is the most commonly used extraction method . Maher Khelifa . © Dr.
of the total sample variance. y Successive components explain progressively smaller portions © Dr. and all are uncorrelated with each other. y The 2nd principle component accounts for the next largest amount of variance and is uncorrelated with the first (2nd extracted factor).Steps in Factor Analysis: Factor Extraction 18 y In principal components analysis. linear combinations of the observed variables are formed. y The 1st principal component is the combination that accounts for the largest amount of variance in the sample (1st extracted factor). Maher Khelifa .
009 Loadings % of Variance 30. Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.465 18.465 48.414 89.046 1.547 96.307 83.737 4.934 .915 100. © Dr.711 .107 5.902 76.091 Cumulativ e% 30. we use 2 statistical criteria: Total Variance Explained Extraction Sums of Squared Initial Eigenvalues Comp % of Total 3.476 58.337 .011 10.Steps in Factor Analysis: Factor Extraction 19 y To decide on how many factors we need to represent the data.801 1.465 18.476 58.091 9.009 .404 7.046 1.566 67.151 93. since each variable is expected to have a variance of 1.308 Variance 30. y Factors with a variance less than 1 6 7 8 9 10 are no better than a single variable.011 10.396 3. Maher Khelifa .801 1.440 . onent 1 2 3 4 5 y The determination of the number of factors is usually done by considering only factors with Eigen values greater than 1.336 8.465 48.840 .085 Cumulativ e% 30.566 Eigen Values.368 3. and The Scree Plot.000 Total 3.574 .
the decision about the number of factors is not final. The gradual trailing off (scree) shows the rest of the factors usually lower than an Eigen value of 1. The steep slope shows the large factors. At this stage.Steps in Factor Analysis: Factor Extraction 20 y The examination of the Scree plot provides a visual of the total variance associated with each factor. in addition to the statistical criteria. In choosing the number of factors. one should make initial decisions based on conceptual and theoretical grounds. Maher Khelifa . y y y y © Dr.
640 -.752 .545 .771 .398 2 -. .225 .368 .081 .264 . a.441 -.121 .362 . Maher Khelifa .580 .576 -.436 .443 . 3 components extracted.117 -.311 .537 .271 .530 -.356 3 .594 .184 .265 -.705 . attended workshops.074 .374 © Dr.272 . or sought someother educational approach to correct the problem I tried to be emotionally honest with my self about the problems I sought advice from others on how I should solve the problems I explored the emotions caused by the problems I took direct action to try to correct the problems I told someone I could trust about how I felt about the problems I put aside other activities so that I could work to solve the problems Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.Steps in Factor Analysis: Factor Extraction 21 Component Matrix using Principle Component Analysis Component Matrixa Component 1 I discussed my frustrations and feelings with person(s) in school I tried to develop a step-by-step plan of action to remedy the problems I expressed my emotions to my family and close friends I read.351 .
identification of somewhat different factors. factors are rotated. y In this step. y Factors are rotated to make them more meaningful and easier to interpret (each variable is associated with a minimal number of factors).Steps in Factor Analysis: Factor Rotation 22 y 3rd Step: Factor rotation. y Un-rotated factors are typically not very interpretable (most factors are correlated with may variables). Maher Khelifa . y Different rotation methods may result in the © Dr.
This enhances the interpretability of the factors. y Varimax attempts to minimize the number of variables that have high loadings on a factor. © Dr. y Varimax use orthogonal rotations yielding uncorrelated factors/components.Steps in Factor Analysis: Factor Rotation 23 y The most popular rotational method is Varimax rotations. Maher Khelifa .
Steps in Factor Analysis: Factor Rotation 24 y Other common rotational method used include Oblique rotations which yield correlated factors. y Oblique rotations are less frequently used because their results are more difficult to summarize. y Other rotational methods include: y y y Quartimax (Orthogonal) Equamax (Orthogonal) Promax (oblique) © Dr. Maher Khelifa .
633 .050 .037 .172 .023 .694 I expressed my emotions to my family and close friends I read.050 -.145 .042 .186 . Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.706 . . © Dr.815 -.222 -.117 .772 -.657 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Maher Khelifa a.040 .038 -.248 -.120 .014 .059 . Rotated Component Matrixa Component 1 I discussed my frustrations and feelings with person(s) in school I tried to develop a step-by-step plan of action to remedy the problems .792 .Steps in Factor Analysis: Factor Rotation 25 y A factor is interpreted or named by examining the largest values linking the factor to the measured variables in the rotated factor matrix.270 2 . or sought someother educational approach to correct the problem I tried to be emotionally honest with my self about the problems I sought advice from others on how I should solve the problems I explored the emotions caused by the problems I took direct action to try to correct the problems I told someone I could trust about how I felt about the problems I put aside other activities so that I could work to solve the problems . Rotation converged in 5 iterations. attended workshops.782 -.803 .685 .304 3 .036 .155 .
Steps in Factor Analysis: Making Final Decisions 26 y 4th Step: Making final decisions The final decision about the number of factors to choose is the number of factors for the rotated solution that is most interpretable. © Dr. The relative interpretability of rotated solutions computed in step 3. Plots of loadings provide a visual for variable clusters. Interpret factors according to the meaning of the variables y This decision should be guided by: A priori conceptual beliefs about the number of factors from past research or theory Eigen values computed in step 2. To identify factors. Maher Khelifa . group variables that have large loadings for the same factor.
© Dr. Maher Khelifa . The data should have a bi-variate normal distribution for each pair of variables. The factor analysis model assumes that variables are determined by common factors and unique factors. Ù This assumption is likely to be violated if items limited response scales (two-point response scale like True/False. All unique factors are assumed to be uncorrelated with each other and with the common factors. Observations are independent.Assumptions Underlying Factor Analysis 27 y Assumption underlying factor analysis include. Right/Wrong items). The measured variables are linearly related to the factors + errors.
Obtaining a Factor Analysis 28 y Click: Analyze and select Ù Ù Ù Dimension Reduction Factor A factor Analysis Box will appear © Dr. Maher Khelifa .
Maher Khelifa .Obtaining a Factor Analysis 29 y Move variables/scale items to Variable box © Dr.
select: Extractio n © Dr.Obtaining a Factor Analysis 30 y Factor extraction y When variables are in variable box. Maher Khelifa .
select: y Scree Plot y keep all default selections including: Principle component Analysis Based on Eigen Value of 1. Maher Khelifa .Obtaining a Factor Analysis 31 y When the factor extraction Box appears. and Un-rotated factor solution © Dr.
Maher Khelifa .Obtaining a Factor Analysis 32 y During factor extraction keep factor rotation default of: None Press continue © Dr.
Under Rotation Choose Varimax Press continue Then OK © Dr. Maher Khelifa .Obtaining a Factor Analysis 33 y y y y y y During Factor Rotation: Decide on the number of factors based on actor extraction phase and enter the desired number of factors by choosing: Fixed number of factors and entering the desired number of factors to extract.
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(1991). Release 6. (1993). Upper Saddle River. Designing experiments and analyzing data: Amodel comparison perspective. & Delaney. M. (1997).Bibliographical References 35 y y y y y y y y y y Keppel. NJ. SPSS Statistics 17. © Dr.D. SPSS Statistics 15. Maxwell. Chicago. SPSS for Windows Advanced Statistics.0 Guide to Data Analysis. SPSS for Windows Base System User¶s Guide. J. (2008). Upper Saddle River. Upper Saddle River. Englwood Cliffs. (2000). (1993). Norusis. (2008).: Prentice Hall. New York: Harcourt Brace College Publishers. Multiple regression in behavioral research.)..: Prentice Hall.A. Design and Analysis: A researcher¶s handbook (3rd Ed. J. E. Maher Khelifa .0. NJ: Prentice Hall.C. L. Norusis. J. G. J. (2006). R. Norusis. Mahwah. Norusis. M.J. Upper Saddle River. M. Norusis. NJ.. NJ. (2008). & Serlin.: Prentice Hall. Statistical methods for the social and behavioral sciences. M. : Lawrence Erlbaum.0 Statistical Procedures Companion. J. IL: SPSS Inc. M. SPSS Statistics 17. Release 6. IL: SPSS Inc. J. Maracuilo.E. S. (1988).0. New York: Freeman and Company. Pedhazur.0 Guide to Data Analysis. NJ. M. Chicago.0 Advanced Statistical Procedures Companion. NJ. SPSS Statistics 17. third edition. Norusis. H.: Prentice Hall.
0 Application Guide (1998).Bibliographical References 36 y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y SPSS Base 7. Chicago. (2001). IL: SPSS Inc. Chicago. SPSS Base 7. IL: SPSS Inc.. IL: SPSS Inc. Chicago.5 User¶s Guide (2002). Chicago. SPSS 13. IL: SPSS Inc. Chicago. SPSS Statistics Base 17.0 User¶s Guide (2005). IL: SPSS Inc. SPSS Interactive graphics (1999).. Chicago. SPSS Base 10. SPSS Base 11. IL: SPSS Inc.0 User¶s Guide (2003). IL: SPSS Inc. SPSS Base 9.0 Application Guide (1999). Chicago. SPSS Base 15. Using multivariate statistics (4th Ed). Chicago. Chicago. SPSS Base 12.0 (2001). SPSS Base 8. © Dr. IL: SPSS Inc.0 Application Guide (1996). SPSS Base 10. Chicago.0 Syntax Reference Guide (1998). SPSS Base 14. Maher Khelifa . SPSS Base 16.5 (2002) Chicago. IL: SPSS Inc. MA: Allyn and Bacon.0 Base User¶s Guide (2004).0 Application Guide (1999). Chicago. IL: SPSS Inc. IL: SPSS Inc. Boston. IL: SPSS Inc.0 User¶s Guide (2007). Chicago. IL: SPSS Inc.G.S. Chicago. L.5 For Windows User¶s Guide (1996). Chicago. SPSS Advanced Models 11. IL: SPSS Inc.0 User¶s Guide (2007). Chicago. Chicago. SPSS Regression Models 11. IL: SPSS Inc.0 User¶s Guide (2007). & Fidell. IL: SPSS Inc.0 User¶s Guide (1999). IL: SPSS Inc. Tabachnik. SPSS Base 8. B.
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