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You are on page 1of 23

down and released it will continue to

oscillate until something retards its

motion.

Damped Harmonic Motion

4.3.1 State what is meant by damping.

with a frictional or drag force. If the damping is

small, we can treat it as an envelope that

modifies the undamped oscillation.

Damped Harmonic Motion

However, if the

damping is large, it

no longer

resembles SHM at

all.

A: underdamping:

there are a few

small oscillations

before the oscillator

comes to rest.

Damped Harmonic Motion

is the fastest way to get

to equilibrium.

C: overdamping:

system comes to rest

without oscillating, but

does not achieve in the

shortest possible time.

http://www.patana.ac.th/secondary/scienc

e/anrophysics/ntopic4/commentary.htm

Damped Harmonic Motion

such as clocks and watches.

Then there are systems in which it is wanted, and

often needs to be as close to critical damping as

possible, such as automobile shock absorbers and

earthquake protection for buildings.

Damped Harmonic Motion

4.3.2 Describe examples of damped oscillations. Reference should be

made to the degree of damping and the importance of critical damping.

Examples

Under-damping mass on a stiff spring

Critical damping door closing damper

Damped Harmonic Motion

4.3.2 Describe examples of damped oscillations. Reference should be

made to the degree of damping and the importance of critical damping.

air viscosity, and work is taken from the energy of

oscillation.

Damping is the process whereby energy is taken

from the oscillating system

For example a playground swing

If you push it will oscillate

It will eventually slow down as energy is lost to

friction

Energy needs to be supplied to keep it oscillating,

that comes from you!

Forced Vibrations; Resonance

oscillations.

periodic driving force. This force may or may

not have the same period as the natural

frequency of the system.

If the frequency is the same as the natural

frequency, the amplitude becomes quite

large. This is called resonance.

Forced Vibrations; Resonance

or natural oscillations, which the system has been

given some energy and left alone.

The frequency of oscillation depends on the

inertia and elasticity factors of the system

For example

Guitar string, it will always play the same notes

regardless of how hard you pluck it

A childs swing, it will always swing at the

same rate regardless of how hard you push it

This is called the natural frequency, f0

Forced Vibrations; Resonance

single push to start them moving

Often oscillations are subjected to a constant

force, called the driving force, f

The effect that the driving for has depends on its

frequency

Forced Vibrations; Resonance

4.3.4 Describe graphically the variation with forced frequency of the

amplitude of vibration of an object close to its natural frequency of vibration.

Students should be able to describe qualitatively factors that affect the

frequency response and sharpness of the curve.

Amplitude

The amplitude is decreases with damping

(cuts down the sharp peak)

The maximum amplitude is at a frequency

less than the natural frequency

Energy

The power of the driver is controlled by

damping

Wine glass demo

The glass can be forced to vibrate at its

natural resonant frequency.

Resonance occurs when these forced

vibrations reach maximum amplitude.

Microwaves natural resonant frequency

of 2450 MHz.

Gallstones, Kidney stones

Tacoma Narrows Bridge, Troops Marching

Applications of Resonance

4.3.6 Describe examples of resonance where the effect is useful and where it should

be avoided.

Quartz Oscillators

-A quartz feels a force if placed in an electric field and will

oscillate when removed.

-Appropriate electronics are added to generate an

oscillating voltage from the mechanical movements of the

crystal and this is used to drive the crystal at its own

natural frequency.

-These devices provide accurate clocks for

microprocessor systems.

Musical Instruments

-Produce their sounds by arranging for column of air or a

string to be driven at its natural frequency, which causes

the amplitude of the oscillations to increase.

Forced Vibrations; Resonance

4.3.5 State what is meant by resonance.

Resonance occurs when the an oscillator is

acted upon by a driving force that has the same

frequency as the natural frequency

The driving force easily transfers its energy to

the oscillator

From the picture the amplitude of oscillation will

become very high

This can be a useful and sometimes very bad

Applications of Resonance

Electricity, tuning a radio

The natural frequency of the radio circuit is made

equal to the incoming electromagnetic wave by

changing its capacitance

The electrons in the circuit will oscillate with the

incoming electromagnetic wave.

The electric current will oscillate and this can be

turned into sound, through a speaker

Microwave ovens

Microwaves are produced at the same frequency

as the natural frequency of water molecules

Water molecules absorb the energy from the

microwaves and transfer their energy to the food

in the form of thermal energy

Applications of Resonance

A Driving force at resonance increases the

oscillations, sometimes this is unwanted

Structures

Tacoma Narrows bridge, this bridge was

destroyed as the wind (driving force) was at the

same as the natural frequency. The bridge

vibrated and shook itself apart

Applications of Resonance

An additional unwanted resonance would be

Tower blocks, the same effect as the bridge the wind,

or earthquakes, can cause vibrations to destroy the

buildings

Vibrations in machinery, if the driving force equals

the natural frequency the amplitude may get

dangerously high. Ex. At a particular speed in a

trucks rear view mirror can be seen to vibrate

This can be stopped by designing the building with

heavy damping

High stiffness

Large mass

Shape

Good at absorbing energy

Energy in the Simple Harmonic Oscillator

4.2.1 Describe the interchange between kinetic energy and potential energy

during SHM.

spring is an example of an energy transformation

between potential energy and kinetic energy.

Energy in the Simple Harmonic Oscillator

4.2.2 Apply the

Potential Energy expressions Ek=1/2 m2

At extension x: (xo2-x2) for the kinetic

x energy of a particle

E p Fdx

undergoing SHM, ET=1/2

m2xo2 for the total

0 energy and EP=1/2

m2x2 for the potential

x

energy.

kxdx

0

1 2 2 k

kx

2 m

1

m x

2 2

2

Energy in the Simple Harmonic Oscillator

Kinetic Energy

At extension x:

1 2 1

Ek mv m x0 x

2 2

2 2 2

Energy in the Simple Harmonic Oscillator

4.2.3 Solve problems, both graphically and by calculation, involving energy changes

during SHM.

Total energy

Total energy E p Ek

1 1

m x m 2 x02 x

2

2 2

2

1

m 2 x02

2

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