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Damped Harmonic Motion

4.3.1 State what is meant by damping.

If a mass on the end of a spring is pulled


down and released it will continue to
oscillate until something retards its
motion.
Damped Harmonic Motion
4.3.1 State what is meant by damping.

Damped harmonic motion is harmonic motion


with a frictional or drag force. If the damping is
small, we can treat it as an envelope that
modifies the undamped oscillation.
Damped Harmonic Motion

However, if the
damping is large, it
no longer
resembles SHM at
all.
A: underdamping:
there are a few
small oscillations
before the oscillator
comes to rest.
Damped Harmonic Motion

B: critical damping: this


is the fastest way to get
to equilibrium.
C: overdamping:
system comes to rest
without oscillating, but
does not achieve in the
shortest possible time.
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Damped Harmonic Motion

There are systems where damping is unwanted,


such as clocks and watches.
Then there are systems in which it is wanted, and
often needs to be as close to critical damping as
possible, such as automobile shock absorbers and
earthquake protection for buildings.
Damped Harmonic Motion
4.3.2 Describe examples of damped oscillations. Reference should be
made to the degree of damping and the importance of critical damping.

Examples
Under-damping mass on a stiff spring
Critical damping door closing damper
Damped Harmonic Motion
4.3.2 Describe examples of damped oscillations. Reference should be
made to the degree of damping and the importance of critical damping.

Damping is caused my dissipative forces, such as


air viscosity, and work is taken from the energy of
oscillation.
Damping is the process whereby energy is taken
from the oscillating system
For example a playground swing
If you push it will oscillate
It will eventually slow down as energy is lost to
friction
Energy needs to be supplied to keep it oscillating,
that comes from you!
Forced Vibrations; Resonance

4.3.3 State what is meant by natural frequency of vibration and forced


oscillations.

Forced vibrations occur when there is a


periodic driving force. This force may or may
not have the same period as the natural
frequency of the system.
If the frequency is the same as the natural
frequency, the amplitude becomes quite
large. This is called resonance.
Forced Vibrations; Resonance

The oscillations so far have been free oscillations,


or natural oscillations, which the system has been
given some energy and left alone.
The frequency of oscillation depends on the
inertia and elasticity factors of the system
For example
Guitar string, it will always play the same notes
regardless of how hard you pluck it
A childs swing, it will always swing at the
same rate regardless of how hard you push it
This is called the natural frequency, f0
Forced Vibrations; Resonance

Previously the oscillations have been given a


single push to start them moving
Often oscillations are subjected to a constant
force, called the driving force, f
The effect that the driving for has depends on its
frequency
Forced Vibrations; Resonance
4.3.4 Describe graphically the variation with forced frequency of the
amplitude of vibration of an object close to its natural frequency of vibration.
Students should be able to describe qualitatively factors that affect the
frequency response and sharpness of the curve.

The damping of the system has these effects:


Amplitude
The amplitude is decreases with damping
(cuts down the sharp peak)
The maximum amplitude is at a frequency
less than the natural frequency
Energy
The power of the driver is controlled by
damping
Wine glass demo
The glass can be forced to vibrate at its
natural resonant frequency.
Resonance occurs when these forced
vibrations reach maximum amplitude.
Microwaves natural resonant frequency
of 2450 MHz.
Gallstones, Kidney stones
Tacoma Narrows Bridge, Troops Marching
Applications of Resonance
4.3.6 Describe examples of resonance where the effect is useful and where it should
be avoided.
Quartz Oscillators
-A quartz feels a force if placed in an electric field and will
oscillate when removed.
-Appropriate electronics are added to generate an
oscillating voltage from the mechanical movements of the
crystal and this is used to drive the crystal at its own
natural frequency.
-These devices provide accurate clocks for
microprocessor systems.
Musical Instruments
-Produce their sounds by arranging for column of air or a
string to be driven at its natural frequency, which causes
the amplitude of the oscillations to increase.
Forced Vibrations; Resonance
4.3.5 State what is meant by resonance.
Resonance occurs when the an oscillator is
acted upon by a driving force that has the same
frequency as the natural frequency
The driving force easily transfers its energy to
the oscillator
From the picture the amplitude of oscillation will
become very high
This can be a useful and sometimes very bad
Applications of Resonance
Electricity, tuning a radio
The natural frequency of the radio circuit is made
equal to the incoming electromagnetic wave by
changing its capacitance
The electrons in the circuit will oscillate with the
incoming electromagnetic wave.
The electric current will oscillate and this can be
turned into sound, through a speaker
Microwave ovens
Microwaves are produced at the same frequency
as the natural frequency of water molecules
Water molecules absorb the energy from the
microwaves and transfer their energy to the food
in the form of thermal energy
Applications of Resonance
A Driving force at resonance increases the
oscillations, sometimes this is unwanted
Structures
Tacoma Narrows bridge, this bridge was
destroyed as the wind (driving force) was at the
same as the natural frequency. The bridge
vibrated and shook itself apart
Applications of Resonance
An additional unwanted resonance would be
Tower blocks, the same effect as the bridge the wind,
or earthquakes, can cause vibrations to destroy the
buildings
Vibrations in machinery, if the driving force equals
the natural frequency the amplitude may get
dangerously high. Ex. At a particular speed in a
trucks rear view mirror can be seen to vibrate
This can be stopped by designing the building with
heavy damping
High stiffness
Large mass
Shape
Good at absorbing energy
Energy in the Simple Harmonic Oscillator
4.2.1 Describe the interchange between kinetic energy and potential energy
during SHM.

The simple harmonic motion of a mass on a


spring is an example of an energy transformation
between potential energy and kinetic energy.
Energy in the Simple Harmonic Oscillator
4.2.2 Apply the
Potential Energy expressions Ek=1/2 m2
At extension x: (xo2-x2) for the kinetic
x energy of a particle

E p Fdx
undergoing SHM, ET=1/2
m2xo2 for the total
0 energy and EP=1/2
m2x2 for the potential
x
energy.
kxdx
0

1 2 2 k
kx
2 m
1
m x
2 2

2
Energy in the Simple Harmonic Oscillator

Kinetic Energy
At extension x:

1 2 1
Ek mv m x0 x
2 2
2 2 2

Energy in the Simple Harmonic Oscillator

4.2.3 Solve problems, both graphically and by calculation, involving energy changes
during SHM.

Total energy

Total energy E p Ek
1 1
m x m 2 x02 x
2
2 2

2

1
m 2 x02
2