Biology Project

. a clinical syndrome (a group of various illnesses that together characterize a disease.) ‡It results from damage to the immune system caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).‡Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). HIV-1 (in green) budding from cultured lymphocyte.

there is a gradual loss of immune cells (called CD4+ T-lymphocytes) and immune function. although direct infection of CD4+ T-lymphocytes by HIV certainly plays a role.‡In HIVinfected individuals. ‡The mechanisms by which HIV causes this immune deficiency are still not completely understood. HIV-1 attacking the CD4lymphocytes .

Saudi Arabia. Afghanistan .ObservationsMost affected regions.China . South Africa .USA. Russia.Eastern Africa. Brazil. India Severely affected regions. Vietnam Less affected regions Australia.

weakness. . viruses. fungi and parasites. ‡The symptoms of AIDS are primarily the result of conditions that do not normally develop in individuals with healthy immune systems.‡People with AIDS often have systemic symptoms of infection like fevers. chills. and weight loss. swollen glands. ‡Most of these conditions are infections caused by bacteria. sweats(particularly at night).

y People with AIDS also have an increased risk of developing various cancers such as Kaposi s sarcoma- ‡ y High-grade B cell lymphomas such as Burkitt s lymphoma pictured left- .

HIV antibody test‡HIV antibody tests are the most appropriate test for routine diagnosis of HIV among adults. ‡When a person is infected with HIV. . their body responds by producing special proteins that fight infection. saliva or urine. Antibody tests are inexpensive and very accurate ‡An HIV antibody test looks for these antibodies in blood. called antibodies. If antibodies are detected. it means a person has been infected with HIV.

In the middle of the virus is its viral genetic material. . ‡But. they are very expensive and more complicated to administer and interpret than a standard antibody test.PCR (Polymerase chain reaction ) Test‡A PCR test (Polymerase Chain Reaction test) can detect the genetic material of HIV rather than the antibodies to the virus. and so can identify HIV in the blood within two or three weeks of infection. A Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) virus.

‡Some examples‡Aptivus ‡Norvir ‡Atripla These drugs are often known as ‡Antiretrovirals ‡Anti-HIV drugs or Anti-AIDS drugs ‡HIV antiviral drugs ‡ARVs .‡Drugs are not a cure. ‡The treatment consists of drugs that have to be taken every day for the rest of a person s life. but they can stop people from becoming ill for many years.

HIV would quickly become resistant to it. ‡If only one drug was taken. making treatment more effective in the long term. .‡Taking two or more antiretroviral drugs at a time is called combination therapy. ‡Taking two or more antiretrovirals at the same time Antiretrovirals kept vastly reduces the rate at which together in a box. resistance would develop.

. the virus that causes AIDS. AIDS: Your Problem. such as gonorrhoea. ‡Condoms also help to prevent infection by STDs.‡Globally. Chlamydia. ‡The use of condoms is vital in helping to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV. Control With Condoms . A road sign in Botswana. the most common route of HIV transmission is through sexual contact. and hepatitis B.

A condom prevents the transmission of AIDS through the sexual contact .Condom A condom awareness programme in Argentina.

. These are some of the birth control devices which prevent the contact of the egg and the sperm.Such groups have helped raise public awareness about acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). which affects millions of people worldwide.

HIV-infected mothers should avoid breast-feeding their infant if replacement feeding is acceptable. affordable. sustainable and safe .Many cases of HIV transmission occurred through contaminated blood and transfusions which is prevented by screening and heat procedures. feasible.

‡Sex education is now started in some schools to promote Sexual awareness. HIV-infected individuals were included in the Americans with Disabilities Act so that it became illegal to discriminate against such individuals for jobs. The AIDS quilt travels on display to promote public awareness of AIDS Each panel is individually designed and is dedicated to the memory of someone who has died of AIDS.‡In 1990. housing. and other social benefits. .

"Magic" Johnson . . .referring to his HIV-positive status.Magic Johnson Princess Diana Bill Clinton I'm going to beat it and I'm going to have fun.

ThankThank-You Made byParamdeep Singh .

com ‡ .org ‡Encarta Encyclopedia ‡Unaids.‡Google Images ‡Wikipedia.

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