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Chapter 3, Part A

Descriptive Statistics: Numerical Measures


Measures of Central Tendency
Measures of Variability

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Measures of Location

Mean
If the measures are computed
Median
for data from a sample,
Mode they are called sample statistics.
Percentiles
Quartiles If the measures are computed
for data from a population,
they are called population parameters.

A sample statistic is referred to


as the point estimator of the
corresponding population parameter.

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Mean

The mean provides a measure of central location.


The mean of a data set is the average of all the data
values.
The sample mean x is the point estimator of the
population mean m.

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Sample Mean x

Sum of the values


of the n observations

x i
x
n

Number of
observations
in the sample

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Population Mean m

Sum of the values


of the N observations

x i
m
N

Number of
observations in
the population

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or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Sample Mean

Example: Exam Score


Seventy students were randomly
sampled in a college. The scores of these students
in a course are listed below.

445 615 430 590 435 600 460 600 440 615
440 440 440 525 425 445 575 445 450 450
465 450 525 450 450 460 435 460 465 480
450 470 490 472 475 475 500 480 570 465
600 485 580 470 490 500 549 500 500 480
570 515 450 445 525 535 475 550 480 510
510 575 490 435 600 435 445 435 430 440

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Sample Mean

Example:Score

x x

34, 356
i
490.80
n 70
445 615 430 590 435 600 460 600 440 615
440 440 440 525 425 445 575 445 450 450
465 450 525 450 450 460 435 460 465 480
450 470 490 472 475 475 500 480 570 465
600 485 580 470 490 500 549 500 500 480
570 515 450 445 525 535 475 550 480 510
510 575 490 435 600 435 445 435 430 440

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Median

The median of a data set is the value in the middle


when the data items are arranged in ascending order.
Whenever a data set has extreme values, the median
is the preferred measure of central location.

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Median

For an odd number of observations:

26 18 27 12 14 27 19 7 observations

12 14 18 19 26 27 27 in ascending order

the median is the middle value.

Median = 19

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Median

For an even number of observations:

26 18 27 12 14 27 30 19 8 observations

12 14 18 19 26 27 27 30 in ascending order

the median is the average of the middle two values.

Median = (19 + 26)/2 = 22.5

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Median

Example: Scores
Averaging the 35th and 36th data values:
Median = (475 + 475)/2 = 475
425 430 430 435 435 435 435 435 440 440
440 440 440 445 445 445 445 445 450 450
450 450 450 450 450 460 460 460 465 465
465 470 470 472 475 475 475 480 480 480
480 485 490 490 490 500 500 500 500 510
510 515 525 525 525 535 549 550 570 570
575 575 580 590 600 600 600 600 615 615

Note: Data is in ascending order.

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Mode

The mode of a data set is the value that occurs with


greatest frequency.
The greatest frequency can occur at two or more
different values.
If the data have exactly two modes, the data are
bimodal.
If the data have more than two modes, the data are
multimodal.

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Mode

Example: Scores
450 occurred most frequently (7 times)
Mode = 450
425 430 430 435 435 435 435 435 440 440
440 440 440 445 445 445 445 445 450 450
450 450 450 450 450 460 460 460 465 465
465 470 470 472 475 475 475 480 480 480
480 485 490 490 490 500 500 500 500 510
510 515 525 525 525 535 549 550 570 570
575 575 580 590 600 600 600 600 615 615

Note: Data is in ascending order.

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Positional Measure

Note affected by extreme values as they are at


particular position of data

Quartiles, Deciles and Percentiles

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Percentiles

Percentile - measures of central tendency that divide a


group of data into 100 parts
At least n% of the data lie at or below the nth percentile,
and at most (100 - n)% of the data lie above the nth
percentile
Example: 90th percentile indicates that at 90% of the data
are equal to or less than it, and 10% of the data lie above it

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Percentiles
Arrange the data with n observations in ascending
order.

Compute index i, the position of the pth percentile.


i = (p/100)n

If i is not an integer, round up to the greatest positive


integer. The pth percentile is the value in the
ith position.
If i is an integer, the pth percentile is the average
of the values in positions i and i+1.

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80th Percentile

Example: Scores
i = (p/100)n = (80/100)70 = 56
Averaging the 56th and 57th data values:
80th Percentile = (535 + 549)/2 = 542
425 430 430 435 435 435 435 435 440 440
440 440 440 445 445 445 445 445 450 450
450 450 450 450 450 460 460 460 465 465
465 470 470 472 475 475 475 480 480 480
480 485 490 490 490 500 500 500 500 510
510 515 525 525 525 535 549 550 570 570
575 575 580 590 600 600 600 600 615 615

Note: Data is in ascending order.


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80th Percentile

Example: scores
At least 80% of the At least 20% of the
items take on a items take on a
value of 542 or less. value of 542 or more.
56/70 = .8 or 80% 14/70 = .2 or 20%

425 430 430 435 435 435 435 435 440 440
440 440 440 445 445 445 445 445 450 450
450 450 450 450 450 460 460 460 465 465
465 470 470 472 475 475 475 480 480 480
480 485 490 490 490 500 500 500 500 510
510 515 525 525 525 535 549 550 570 570
575 575 580 590 600 600 600 600 615 615

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or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Quartiles

Quartile - measures of central tendency that divide a


group of data into four subgroups
Q1: 25% of the data set is below the first quartile
Q2: 50% of the data set is below the second quartile
Q3: 75% of the data set is below the third quartile

Q1 Q2 Q3

25% 25% 25% 25%

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Quartiles

Quartiles are specific percentiles.


First Quartile = 25th Percentile
Second Quartile = 50th Percentile = Median
Third Quartile = 75th Percentile

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Third Quartile

Example: scores
Third quartile = 75th percentile
i = (p/100)n = (75/100)70 = 52.5 = 53
Third quartile = 525
425 430 430 435 435 435 435 435 440 440
440 440 440 445 445 445 445 445 450 450
450 450 450 450 450 460 460 460 465 465
465 470 470 472 475 475 475 480 480 480
480 485 490 490 490 500 500 500 500 510
510 515 525 525 525 535 549 550 570 570
575 575 580 590 600 600 600 600 615 615
Note: Data is in ascending order.
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Consider an ordered population of 11 data
values
{3, 6, 7, 8, 8, 9, 10, 13, 15, 16, 20}. What are the
25th, 50th, 75th and 100th percentiles of this
list?

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Grouped Data

During 3 hours at airport 55 aircraft arrived


late. The number of minutes they were late is
shown in the grouped frequency table below.
minutes late frequency
0 - 10 27
10 - 20 10
20 - 30 7
30 - 40 5
40 - 50 4
50 - 60 2

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minutes Late Frequency,f midpoint(x) fx

0 - 10 27 5 135
10 - 20 10 15 150
20 - 30 7 25 175

30 - 40 5 35 175

40 - 50 4 45 180

50 - 60 2 55 110

f 55 f x 925
Mean estimate = 925/55 = 16.8 minutes

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The following data shows distance covered by 100
persons to perform their routine jobs.

Distance(Km) 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40

No. of persons 10 20 40 30

Find the mean distance covered by the persons

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Distance Number of
Mid Points
Covered in Persons u=(x15)/10 fu
x
(Km) f

010 10 5 1 10
1020 20 15 0 0
2030 40 25 +1 40
3040 30 35 +2 60
Total f=100 fu=90

Now we will find the Arithmetic Mean as


MEAN=A+(fu/f)h
Where
A=15, fu=90, f=100 and h=10
Mean=15+(90/100)10=24 Km
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Note:

For positional measures convert the inclusive


intervals into exclusive intervals

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Median = 20.5 + [(25-22)/12]*10

=23

Thus 25 persons take less than 23 minutes to travel to


work and another 25 take more than 23 minutes

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or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
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Measures of Variability

It is often desirable to consider measures of variability


(dispersion), as well as measures of location.
For example, in choosing supplier A or supplier B we
might consider not only the average delivery time for
each, but also the variability in delivery time for each.

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or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Measures of Variability

Range
Interquartile Range
Variance
Standard Deviation
Coefficient of Variation

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Range

The range of a data set is the difference between the


largest and smallest data values.
It is the simplest measure of variability.
It is very sensitive to the smallest and largest data
values.

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Range

Example: scores
Range = largest value - smallest value
Range = 615 - 425 = 190
425 430 430 435 435 435 435 435 440 440
440 440 440 445 445 445 445 445 450 450
450 450 450 450 450 460 460 460 465 465
465 470 470 472 475 475 475 480 480 480
480 485 490 490 490 500 500 500 500 510
510 515 525 525 525 535 549 550 570 570
575 575 580 590 600 600 600 600 615 615

Note: Data is in ascending order.

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or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Interquartile Range

The interquartile range of a data set is the difference


between the third quartile and the first quartile.
It is the range for the middle 50% of the data.
It overcomes the sensitivity to extreme data values.

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Interquartile Range

Example: scores
3rd Quartile (Q3) = 525
1st Quartile (Q1) = 445
Interquartile Range = Q3 - Q1 = 525 - 445 = 80
425 430 430 435 435 435 435 435 440 440
440 440 440 445 445 445 445 445 450 450
450 450 450 450 450 460 460 460 465 465
465 470 470 472 475 475 475 480 480 480
480 485 490 490 490 500 500 500 500 510
510 515 525 525 525 535 549 550 570 570
575 575 580 590 600 600 600 600 615 615

Note: Data is in ascending order.

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or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Variance

The variance is a measure of variability that utilizes


all the data.

It is based on the difference between the value of


each observation (xi) and the mean ( x for a sample,
m for a population).

The variance is useful in comparing the variability


of two or more variables.

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Variance

The variance is the average of the squared


differences between each data value and the mean.

The variance is computed as follows:

2 ( xi x )
2
( xi m )
2
s
2
n 1 N

for a for a
sample population

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Standard Deviation

The standard deviation of a data set is the positive


square root of the variance.

It is measured in the same units as the data, making


it more easily interpreted than the variance.

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Standard Deviation

The standard deviation is computed as follows:

s s2 2

for a for a
sample population

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Coefficient of Variation

The coefficient of variation indicates how large the


standard deviation is in relation to the mean.

The coefficient of variation is computed as follows:

s
100 % 100 %
x m
for a for a
sample population

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Sample Variance, Standard Deviation,
And Coefficient of Variation
Example: scores
Variance i
( x x ) 2
s2 2, 996.16
n1

Standard Deviation the standard


deviation is
s s 2 2996.16 54.74
about 11%
of the mean
Coefficient of Variation
s 54.74
100 % 100 % 11.15%
x 490.80

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End of Chapter 3, Part A

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