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# Chapter 3, Part A

## Descriptive Statistics: Numerical Measures

Measures of Central Tendency
Measures of Variability

Slide 1
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Measures of Location

Mean
If the measures are computed
Median
for data from a sample,
Mode they are called sample statistics.
Percentiles
Quartiles If the measures are computed
for data from a population,
they are called population parameters.

## A sample statistic is referred to

as the point estimator of the
corresponding population parameter.

Slide 2
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Mean

## The mean provides a measure of central location.

The mean of a data set is the average of all the data
values.
The sample mean x is the point estimator of the
population mean m.

Slide 3
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Sample Mean x

## Sum of the values

of the n observations

x i
x
n

Number of
observations
in the sample

Slide 4
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Population Mean m

## Sum of the values

of the N observations

x i
m
N

Number of
observations in
the population

Slide 5
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Sample Mean

## Example: Exam Score

Seventy students were randomly
sampled in a college. The scores of these students
in a course are listed below.

445 615 430 590 435 600 460 600 440 615
440 440 440 525 425 445 575 445 450 450
465 450 525 450 450 460 435 460 465 480
450 470 490 472 475 475 500 480 570 465
600 485 580 470 490 500 549 500 500 480
570 515 450 445 525 535 475 550 480 510
510 575 490 435 600 435 445 435 430 440

Slide 6
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Sample Mean

Example:Score

x x

34, 356
i
490.80
n 70
445 615 430 590 435 600 460 600 440 615
440 440 440 525 425 445 575 445 450 450
465 450 525 450 450 460 435 460 465 480
450 470 490 472 475 475 500 480 570 465
600 485 580 470 490 500 549 500 500 480
570 515 450 445 525 535 475 550 480 510
510 575 490 435 600 435 445 435 430 440

Slide 7
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Median

## The median of a data set is the value in the middle

when the data items are arranged in ascending order.
Whenever a data set has extreme values, the median
is the preferred measure of central location.

Slide 8
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Median

## For an odd number of observations:

26 18 27 12 14 27 19 7 observations

12 14 18 19 26 27 27 in ascending order

## the median is the middle value.

Median = 19

Slide 9
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Median

## For an even number of observations:

26 18 27 12 14 27 30 19 8 observations

12 14 18 19 26 27 27 30 in ascending order

## Median = (19 + 26)/2 = 22.5

Slide 10
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Median

Example: Scores
Averaging the 35th and 36th data values:
Median = (475 + 475)/2 = 475
425 430 430 435 435 435 435 435 440 440
440 440 440 445 445 445 445 445 450 450
450 450 450 450 450 460 460 460 465 465
465 470 470 472 475 475 475 480 480 480
480 485 490 490 490 500 500 500 500 510
510 515 525 525 525 535 549 550 570 570
575 575 580 590 600 600 600 600 615 615

## Note: Data is in ascending order.

Slide 11
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Mode

## The mode of a data set is the value that occurs with

greatest frequency.
The greatest frequency can occur at two or more
different values.
If the data have exactly two modes, the data are
bimodal.
If the data have more than two modes, the data are
multimodal.

Slide 12
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Mode

Example: Scores
450 occurred most frequently (7 times)
Mode = 450
425 430 430 435 435 435 435 435 440 440
440 440 440 445 445 445 445 445 450 450
450 450 450 450 450 460 460 460 465 465
465 470 470 472 475 475 475 480 480 480
480 485 490 490 490 500 500 500 500 510
510 515 525 525 525 535 549 550 570 570
575 575 580 590 600 600 600 600 615 615

## Note: Data is in ascending order.

Slide 13
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Positional Measure

## Note affected by extreme values as they are at

particular position of data

## Quartiles, Deciles and Percentiles

Slide 14
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Percentiles

## Percentile - measures of central tendency that divide a

group of data into 100 parts
At least n% of the data lie at or below the nth percentile,
and at most (100 - n)% of the data lie above the nth
percentile
Example: 90th percentile indicates that at 90% of the data
are equal to or less than it, and 10% of the data lie above it

Slide 15
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Percentiles
Arrange the data with n observations in ascending
order.

i = (p/100)n

## If i is not an integer, round up to the greatest positive

integer. The pth percentile is the value in the
ith position.
If i is an integer, the pth percentile is the average
of the values in positions i and i+1.

Slide 16
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80th Percentile

Example: Scores
i = (p/100)n = (80/100)70 = 56
Averaging the 56th and 57th data values:
80th Percentile = (535 + 549)/2 = 542
425 430 430 435 435 435 435 435 440 440
440 440 440 445 445 445 445 445 450 450
450 450 450 450 450 460 460 460 465 465
465 470 470 472 475 475 475 480 480 480
480 485 490 490 490 500 500 500 500 510
510 515 525 525 525 535 549 550 570 570
575 575 580 590 600 600 600 600 615 615

## Note: Data is in ascending order.

Slide 17
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80th Percentile

Example: scores
At least 80% of the At least 20% of the
items take on a items take on a
value of 542 or less. value of 542 or more.
56/70 = .8 or 80% 14/70 = .2 or 20%

425 430 430 435 435 435 435 435 440 440
440 440 440 445 445 445 445 445 450 450
450 450 450 450 450 460 460 460 465 465
465 470 470 472 475 475 475 480 480 480
480 485 490 490 490 500 500 500 500 510
510 515 525 525 525 535 549 550 570 570
575 575 580 590 600 600 600 600 615 615

Slide 18
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Quartiles

## Quartile - measures of central tendency that divide a

group of data into four subgroups
Q1: 25% of the data set is below the first quartile
Q2: 50% of the data set is below the second quartile
Q3: 75% of the data set is below the third quartile

Q1 Q2 Q3

## 25% 25% 25% 25%

Slide 19
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Quartiles

## Quartiles are specific percentiles.

First Quartile = 25th Percentile
Second Quartile = 50th Percentile = Median
Third Quartile = 75th Percentile

Slide 20
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Third Quartile

Example: scores
Third quartile = 75th percentile
i = (p/100)n = (75/100)70 = 52.5 = 53
Third quartile = 525
425 430 430 435 435 435 435 435 440 440
440 440 440 445 445 445 445 445 450 450
450 450 450 450 450 460 460 460 465 465
465 470 470 472 475 475 475 480 480 480
480 485 490 490 490 500 500 500 500 510
510 515 525 525 525 535 549 550 570 570
575 575 580 590 600 600 600 600 615 615
Note: Data is in ascending order.
Slide 21
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Consider an ordered population of 11 data
values
{3, 6, 7, 8, 8, 9, 10, 13, 15, 16, 20}. What are the
25th, 50th, 75th and 100th percentiles of this
list?

Slide 22
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Slide 23
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Grouped Data

## During 3 hours at airport 55 aircraft arrived

late. The number of minutes they were late is
shown in the grouped frequency table below.
minutes late frequency
0 - 10 27
10 - 20 10
20 - 30 7
30 - 40 5
40 - 50 4
50 - 60 2

Slide 24
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minutes Late Frequency,f midpoint(x) fx

0 - 10 27 5 135
10 - 20 10 15 150
20 - 30 7 25 175

30 - 40 5 35 175

40 - 50 4 45 180

50 - 60 2 55 110

f 55 f x 925
Mean estimate = 925/55 = 16.8 minutes

Slide 25
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Slide 26
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Slide 27
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The following data shows distance covered by 100
persons to perform their routine jobs.

## Distance(Km) 0-10 10-20 20-30 30-40

No. of persons 10 20 40 30

## Find the mean distance covered by the persons

Slide 28
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Distance Number of
Mid Points
Covered in Persons u=(x15)/10 fu
x
(Km) f

010 10 5 1 10
1020 20 15 0 0
2030 40 25 +1 40
3040 30 35 +2 60
Total f=100 fu=90

## Now we will find the Arithmetic Mean as

MEAN=A+(fu/f)h
Where
A=15, fu=90, f=100 and h=10
Mean=15+(90/100)10=24 Km
Slide 29
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Slide 30
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Note:

## For positional measures convert the inclusive

intervals into exclusive intervals

Slide 31
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Slide 32
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Median = 20.5 + [(25-22)/12]*10

=23

## Thus 25 persons take less than 23 minutes to travel to

work and another 25 take more than 23 minutes

Slide 33
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Slide 34
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Slide 35
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Slide 36
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Slide 37
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Slide 38
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Measures of Variability

## It is often desirable to consider measures of variability

(dispersion), as well as measures of location.
For example, in choosing supplier A or supplier B we
might consider not only the average delivery time for
each, but also the variability in delivery time for each.

Slide 39
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Measures of Variability

Range
Interquartile Range
Variance
Standard Deviation
Coefficient of Variation

Slide 40
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Range

## The range of a data set is the difference between the

largest and smallest data values.
It is the simplest measure of variability.
It is very sensitive to the smallest and largest data
values.

Slide 41
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Range

Example: scores
Range = largest value - smallest value
Range = 615 - 425 = 190
425 430 430 435 435 435 435 435 440 440
440 440 440 445 445 445 445 445 450 450
450 450 450 450 450 460 460 460 465 465
465 470 470 472 475 475 475 480 480 480
480 485 490 490 490 500 500 500 500 510
510 515 525 525 525 535 549 550 570 570
575 575 580 590 600 600 600 600 615 615

## Note: Data is in ascending order.

Slide 42
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Interquartile Range

## The interquartile range of a data set is the difference

between the third quartile and the first quartile.
It is the range for the middle 50% of the data.
It overcomes the sensitivity to extreme data values.

Slide 43
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Interquartile Range

Example: scores
3rd Quartile (Q3) = 525
1st Quartile (Q1) = 445
Interquartile Range = Q3 - Q1 = 525 - 445 = 80
425 430 430 435 435 435 435 435 440 440
440 440 440 445 445 445 445 445 450 450
450 450 450 450 450 460 460 460 465 465
465 470 470 472 475 475 475 480 480 480
480 485 490 490 490 500 500 500 500 510
510 515 525 525 525 535 549 550 570 570
575 575 580 590 600 600 600 600 615 615

## Note: Data is in ascending order.

Slide 44
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Variance

all the data.

## It is based on the difference between the value of

each observation (xi) and the mean ( x for a sample,
m for a population).

## The variance is useful in comparing the variability

of two or more variables.

Slide 45
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Variance

## The variance is the average of the squared

differences between each data value and the mean.

## The variance is computed as follows:

2 ( xi x )
2
( xi m )
2
s
2
n 1 N

for a for a
sample population

Slide 46
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Standard Deviation

## The standard deviation of a data set is the positive

square root of the variance.

## It is measured in the same units as the data, making

it more easily interpreted than the variance.

Slide 47
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Standard Deviation

## The standard deviation is computed as follows:

s s2 2

for a for a
sample population

Slide 48
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Coefficient of Variation

## The coefficient of variation indicates how large the

standard deviation is in relation to the mean.

## The coefficient of variation is computed as follows:

s
100 % 100 %
x m
for a for a
sample population

Slide 49
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Sample Variance, Standard Deviation,
And Coefficient of Variation
Example: scores
Variance i
( x x ) 2
s2 2, 996.16
n1

## Standard Deviation the standard

deviation is
s s 2 2996.16 54.74
of the mean
Coefficient of Variation
s 54.74
100 % 100 % 11.15%
x 490.80