1. OBJECTIVES
2. POWER QUALITY
3. SOURCES OF HARMONICS
4. EFFECTS OF HARMONICS ON ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
5. HARMONIC STANDARDS
6. HARMONIC MITIGATING TECHNIQUES
7. FILTERS PASSIVE, ACTIVE AND HYBRID FILTERS
8. CONCLUSIONS
1 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
WHY HARMONIC ANALYSIS ?
When a voltage and/or current waveform is distorted, it causes
abnormal operating conditions in a power system such as:
Voltage Harmonics can cause additional heating in induction and
synchronous motors and generators.
Voltage Harmonics with high peak values can weaken insulation in
cables, windings, and capacitors.
Voltage Harmonics can cause malfunction of different electronic
components and circuits that utilize the voltage waveform for
synchronization or timing.
Current Harmonics in motor windings can create Electromagnetic
Interference (EMI).
2 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
Current Harmonics flowing through cables can cause higher
heating over and above the heating that is created from the
fundamental component.
Current Harmonics flowing through a transformer can cause
higher heating over and above the heating that is created by the
fundamental component.
Current Harmonics flowing through circuit breakers and switch
gear can increase their heating losses.
RESONANT CURRENTS which are created by current harmonics
and the different filtering topologies of the power system can
cause capacitor failures and/or fuse failures in the capacitor or
other electrical equipment.
False tripping of circuit breakers ad protective relays.
3 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
HARMONIC SOURCES
a) Current Source nonlinear load
Thyristor rectifier for dc drives, Perphase equivalent circuit
heater drives, etc. of thyristor rectifier
b) Voltage source nonlinear load
Diode rectifier for ac drives, Perphase equivalent circuit
electronic equipment, etc of diode rectifier
4 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
INPUT CURRENT OF DIFFERENT
NOLINEAR LOADS
TYPE OF TYPICAL WAREFORM THD%
NONLINEAR LOAD
1.0
1φ 0.5 80%
Uncontrolled (high 3rd
Current
0.0
Rectifier component)
0.5
10 20 30 40
0
1.0
Time (mS)
1.0
2nd, 3rd, 4th ,......
1φ 0.5
harmonic
Current
Semicontrolled 0.0 components
Rectifier Bridge 0.5
10 20 30 40
1.0 0
Time (mS)
1.0
6 –Pulse Rectifier 0.5
with output voltage 80%
Current
0.0
filtering and without
0.5
input reactor filter 0
10 20 30 40 5, 7, 11, ……….
1.0
Time (mS)
5 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
1.0
6  Pulse Rectifier
0.5
with output voltage 40%
Current
filtering and with 3% 0.0 5, 7, 11, ………..
reactor filter or with 0.5
continues output 0
10 20 30 40
1.0
current Time (mS)
1.0
6  Pulse Rectifier 0.5
with large output 0.0 Current 28%
inductor 0.5 5, 7, 11, ………..
0 10 20 30 40
1.0 Time (mS)
1.0
0.5
12  Pulse Rectifier 15%
Current
0.0
0.5
11, 13, ………..
0 10 20 30 40
1.0 Time (mS)
6 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
CURRENT HARMONICS GENERATED BY 6PULSE CSI CONVERTERS
HARMONIC P.U PULSE
1 1.00
5 0.2
7 0.143
11 0.09
13 0.077
17 0.059
19 0.053
23 0.04
CURRENT HARMONICS GENERATED BY 12PULSE CSI CONVERTERS
HARMONIC P.U PULSE IEEE 519 std
1 1.00 
5 0.030.06 5.6%
7 0.020.06 5.6%
11 0.050.09 2.8%
13 0.030.08 2.8%
THD 7.5%14.2% 7.0%
7 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
Current waveform and its respective spectrum
at the inputs of a motor drive system
8 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
THD υ % Percentage of the Total Harmonic Distortion of
a nonsinusoidal voltage waveform
Vh2
h 2
100
V1
THDi % Percentage of the Total Harmonic Distortion of
a nonsinusoidal current waveform
2
Ih
h 2
100
I1
Vh hth harmonic component of the voltage
I h hth harmonic component of the current
~ ~2
VH RMS value of the voltage distortion h
V
h 2
9 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
~ ~2
IH RMS value of the current distortion Ih
h 2
~
I RMS value of a nonsinusoidal current =
~2 (7)
Ih
h 1
~
V RMS value of a nonsinusoidal voltage =
~2
Vh
(8)
h 1
Drive kVA
THD υ % HF 100 (9)
SC kVA
h 2 I 2h / I1 (10)
HF Harmonic Factor = h 5
10 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
Drive kVA Full load kVA rating of the Drive system
SC kVA Short Circuit kVA of the distribution system at
the point of connection
SINUSOIDAL VOLTAGE NONSINUSOIDAL CURRENT
~~
P V Ii,1 cos φ1
~~ ~~
Q V Ii,1 sin φ1 , S V I
D Distortion VA S2 P 2 Q2
11 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
~ ~ ~ ~2
D S V 2 Ii,21 V 2
2 2
Ii,h (14)
h 2
P Ii,1
λ True Power Factor cos φ1 (15)
S I
Distortion Factor Displace ment Factor
NONSINUSOIDAL VOLTAGE AND NONSINUSOIDAL CURRENT
~ ~ ~ ~
P Vh Ih cos φ h , Q Vh Ih sin φ h (16)
h 1 h 1
D Distortion Power Snm S*nm S S*
n m (17)
n m n m
n m n m
12 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
S2 P 2 Q 2 D 2 (18)
~ 2~ 2
~~ 2 ~~
S Vh Ih V1 I1 V1 IH 2 V~H~I1 2
h 1
~ ~
VH IH
2
S12 S2N (19)
~~
S1 Fundamenta l Apparent Power V1 I1
SN Nonfundame ntal Apparent Power
~~ 2 ~ ~ 2 ~ ~ 2
S2N V1 IH VH I1 VH IH
13 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
~~
V1 IH Current Distortion Power (20)
~ ~
VH I1 Voltage Distortion Power (21)
~ ~
VH IH Harmonic Apparent Power (22)
S2H PH2 N 2H Total Harmonic Active Power
(23)
Total Harmonic Non Active Power
XC Reactance of the capacitor VLL 2 / VAR 3phase
14 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
Harmonic sequence is the phase rotation relationship with respect to
the fundamental component.
Positive sequence harmonics ( 4th, 7th, 10th , ……. (6n+1) th ) have
the same phase rotation as the fundamental component. These
harmonics circulate between the phases.
Negative sequence harmonics ( 2nd, 5th, 8th ……… (6n1) th ) have
the opposite phase rotation with respect to the fundamental component.
These harmonics circulate between the phases.
Zero sequence harmonics ( 3rd, 6th, 9th, ….. (6n3) th ) do not produce
a rotating field. These harmonics circulate between the phase and neutral
or ground. These third order or zero sequence harmonics, unlike positive
and negative sequence harmonic currents, do not cancel but add up
arithmetically at the neutral bus.
15 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
EXAMPLE 1
SINUSOIDAL VOLTAGENONSINIMUSOIDAL CURRENT
A periodic, sinusoidal voltage of instantaneous value v 200 2 sin ωt
Is applied to a nonlinear load impedance. The resulting instantaneous current is
given by:
i 2 20sin ωt 45o 10sin 2ωt 60o 10sin 3ωt 60o
Calculate the components P, Q, D of the apparent voltamperes and hence
calculate the displacement factor, the distortion factor and the power factor.
Solution
v 200 2 sin ωt
i 2 20sin ωt 45o 10sin 2ωt 60o 10sin 3ωt 60o
The presence of the nonlinearity causes frequency components of current (i.e. the
second and third harmonic terms) that are not present in the applied voltage.
The rms voltage and current at the supply are:
~
V 200V
~2
I 202 102 102
6102 A2
16 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
The apparent voltamperes at the input is therefore given by
~ 2~ 2
S V I 2002 6 102 24 106 VA 2
2
In this example only the fundamental frequency components are common to
both voltage and current. Therefore, the real power P and the apparent
power Q are
~~
P V I1 cos ψ1
ψ1 = displacement angle between the fundamental of
the voltage and the fundamental of the current
200 20 cos 45o
4000
W
2
~~
Q V I1 sin ψ1
200 20 sin 45o
4000
VA
2
17 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
~
D2 V 2 ~I ~I
2
1
2
~
V2 ~I ~I
2 3
2
200 10 10 8 10 VA
2 2 2 6 2
~ ~
P2 Q2 D2 V2 I 2
~~ ~
P V I1 cos ψ1 I1
PF power factor ~~ cos ψ1
S VI I
Displacement factor cos ψ1
1
0.707
2
I
Distortion factor 1
20
0.817
I 600
Therefore, the power factor is
1 2
PF 0.577
2 6
18 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
EXAMPLE 2
NONSINUSOIDAL VOLTAGERL LOAD
A periodic, sinusoidal voltage given by v 2 200sin ωt 200sin 5ωt 30o
is applied to a series, linear, resistanceinductance load of resistance 4Ω and
fundamental frequency reactance 10Ω.
Calculate the degree of power factor improvement realizable by capacitance
Compensation when f1 50HZ.
~
Solution. The rms terminal voltage V is given by
~ ~2 ~2
V V1 V5
200 2 200 2
Therefore
~
V 283V
Z1 4 j10
Z1 10.8
1 tan 1 10 / 4 68.2o
19 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
5 51 50
Z5 4 j50
Z5 50
5 tan 1 50 / 4 85.4o
The instantaneous load current is given by
i 2
200
sin t 68.2o
200
sin 5t 30o 85.4o
10.8 50
~
The rms load current I is therefore given by
~ 2 ~ 2
~ 2 ~ 2 ~ 2 V1 V5
I I1 I5
Z1 Z5
18.52 2 4 2 359A 2
20 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
Apparent voltamperes S at the load terminals in the absence of capacitance is
therefore
S2 V 2 I 2 28.72 106 VA
~ ~ 2
Average power P In this case is
n
~ ~ ~~ ~ ~
P Vn In cos L V1 I1 cos 1 V2 I2 cos 2 ...
1
200 18.52 cos 68.2o 200 4 cos85.4o
1440W
The power factor before compensation is therefore
P 1440
PF 0.27
S 28.72 10 6
21 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
EXAMPLE 3
NONSINUSOIDAL VOLTAGE AND NONSINIMUSOIDAL CURRENT
A periodic, nonsinusoidal voltage with instantaneous value given by
v 2 200sin ωt 200sin 2ωt  30o is applied to a nonlinear impedance.
The resulting current has an instantaneous value given by
i 2 20 sinωt 45 10 sin2ωt 60 10 sin3ωt 60
L
o o o
Calculate the components SLR , SLX , SLD of the load apparent voltamperes
and compare thee with the classical values PL , QL , DL respectively.
Solution.
v 2 200sin ωt 200sin 2ωt  30o
iL 2 20 sinωt 45 10 sin2ωt 60 10 sin3ωt 60
o o o
Note that the presence of the load nonlinearity causes a frequency component
of load current (I.e. the third harmonic term) that is not present in the supply
voltage.
22 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
The rms voltage and current at the supply are given by
~
V2 2002 2002 8 104 V2
~2
IL 202 102 102 6 102 A2
~ and ~
The load apparent voltamperes SL therefore has a value defined in terms V IL
S2L V 2 IL2 48 106 VA
~ ~ 2
Instantaneous expressions of the hypothetical currents i R , i X , i D are given by
i R 2 20 cos 45o sin t 10 cos 300 sin 2t 30o
~2
ILR 2
20 cos 45o 10 cos 30o
2
11
4
10 2 A 2
i X 2 20 sin 45o cos ωt 10 sin 300 cos 2ωt 30o
~2
ILX 2
20 sin 45o 10 sin 30o 2 9
10 2 A 2
4
iD 2 10 sin 3t 60 o
~2
ILD 10 2 A 2
23 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
Note that current components i R , i X contain only those harmonic terms which
are common to both voltage and current. These are therefore consistent with the
n1 terms.
~ ~ ~
The rms load current components ILR , ILX , ILD are found, as expected to sum
~
to the total rms load current IL
~2 ~2 ~2 11 9 ~
ILD ILR ILD 10 2 1 6 10 2 IL2
4 4
Components SLR , SLX , SLD of the apparent voltamperes can now be obtained
V ILR 10 8 10 4 22 106 VA
2 ~ 2 ~ 2 11 2 2
S LR
4
V ILX 10 8 10 4 18 106 VA
2 ~ 2~ 2 9 2 2
S LX
4
10 2 8 10 4 8 106 VA
~ ~2
S2LD V 2 ILD
2
24 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
The component voltamperes are seen to sum to the total apparent voltamperes
S2LR S2LX S2LD 106 22 18 8
48106 VA 2
S2L
Components PL , QL , DL of SL are found as follows:
2
n
~ ~
PL Vn1 In1 cos ψ n1
2
1
o
200 20 cos 45 200 10 cos 30
o 2
2
100 20 2 10 3
2
10 6 2 2 3
2
10 6 8 3 4 6 20.8 10 6 S2LR
25 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
2
n
~ ~
Q L Vn1 In1 sin ψ n1
2
1
200 20 sin 45o 200 10 sin 30o 2
106 2 2 1 14.6 106 S2LX
D2L S2L PL2 Q2L
48 20.8 14.6 106 12.6 106 VA 2 S2LD
From the possible compensation viewpoint it is interesting to note that SLX
and Q L differ by significant amount.
SLX could be defined as “that component of the load apparent voltamperes that
Is obtained by the combination of supply voltage harmonics with quadrature
Components of corresponding frequency load current harmonics”.
26 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
Similarly the definition of active voltamperes SLR could be given by “that
component of the load apparent voltamperes that is obtained by the combination
of supply voltage harmonics with inphase components of corresponding
frequency load current harmonics”.
Both SLR and SLX are entirely fictitious and nonphysical. The active
voltamperes SLR Is not to be compares in importance with the average power
PL which is a real physical property of the circuit. Term SLR Is merely the
analytical complement of term SLX
Term SLX the energystorage reactive voltamperes, is that component
of the load apparent voltamperes that can be entirely compensated (for sinusoidal
supply voltage) or minimized (for nonsinusoidal supply voltage) by energystorage
methods.
27 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
Voltage and current profiles in a
commercial building
28 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
HARMONIC STANDARDS
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) European
Standards.
 EN 6100032 Harmonic Emissions standards were first published
as IEC 552 1982 and applied only to household appliances. It was
revised and reissued in 1987 and 1995 with the applicability
expanded to include all equipment with input current 16A per
phase. However, until January 1st, 2001 a transition period is in
effect for all equipment not covered by the standard prior to 1987.
 The objective of EN 6100032 (harmonics) is to test the equipment
under the conditions that will produce the maximum harmonic
amplitudes under normal operating conditions for each harmonic
component. To establish limits for similar types of harmonics current
distortion, equipment under test must be categorized in one of the
following four classes.
29 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
CLASSA: Balanced threephase equipment and all other equipment
except that stated in one of the remaining three classes.
CLASSB: Portable electrical tools, which are hand held during normal
operation and used for a short time only (few minutes)
CLASSC: Lighting equipment including dimming devices.
CLASSD: Equipment having an input current with special wave shape
( e.g.equipment with offline capacitorrectifier AC input
circuitry and switch Mode power Supplies) and an active
input power 600W.
 Additional harmonic current testing, measurement techniques and
instrumentation guidelines for these standards are covered in IEC
100047.
30 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
• IEEE 5191992 United States Standards on harmonic limits
 IEEE limits service entrance harmonics.
 The IEEE standard 5191992 limits the level of harmonics at the
customer service entrance or Point of Common Coupling (PCC).
 With this approach the costumer’s current distortion is limited based
on relative size of the load and the power supplier’s voltage
distortion based on the voltage level.
IEEE 519 and IEC 100032 apply different philosophies, which
effectively limit harmonics at different locations. IEEE 519 limits
harmonics primarily at the service entrance while IEC 100032 is
applied at the terminals of enduser equipment. Therefore, IEC limits
will tend to reduce harmonicrelated losses in an industrial plant
wiring, while IEEE harmonic limits are designed to prevent
interactions between neighbors and the power system.
31 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
POWER QUALITY STANDARDS –
IEEE 5191992 STANDARDS
TABLE I
CURRENT DISTORTION LIMITS FOR GENERAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
(12069000 V)
Isc/IL <11 11<h<17 17<h<23 23<h<35 35<h TDD
<20* 4.0 2.0 1.5 0.6 0.3 5.0
20<50 7.0 3.5 2.5 1.0 0.5 8.0
50<100 10.0 4.5 4.0 1.5 0.7 12.0
100<1,000 12.0 5.5 5.0 2.0 1.0 15.0
>1,000 15.0 7.0 6.0 2.5 1.4 20.0
Source: IEEE Standard 5191992.
Note: Even harmonics are limited to 25 percent of the odd harmonic limits above.
Current distortions that result in a direct current offset; for example, half wave
converters are not allowed.
Table I is for 6pulse rectifiers. For converters higher than 6 pulse, the limits for
characteristic harmonics are increased by a factor o f q/6 , where q is the pule number,
provided that the
amplitudes of noncharacteristic harmonics are less than 25 percent.
*All power generation equipment is limited to these values of current distortion, regardless of
actual ISC/IL.
Where ISC = Maximum short circuit at PCC.
And IL = Average Maximum demand load current (fundamental frequency
component at PCC).
32 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
TABLE II
LOW VOLTAGE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION AND DISTORTION LIMITS
IEEE 5191992 STANDARTS
Special General Dedicated
Applications System System
Notch Depth 10% 20% 50%
THD (Voltage) 3% 5% 10%
Notch Area 16,400 22,800 36,500
(AN)*
Source: IEEE Standard 5191992.
Note: The value AN for another than 480Volt systems should be
multiplied by V/480 .
The notch depth, the total voltage distortion factor (THD) and
the notch area limits are specified for line to line voltage.
In the above table, special applications include hospitals and
airports. A dedicated system is exclusively dedicated to converter load.
*In voltmicroseconds at rated voltage and current.
33 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
2) Seriespassive filter for voltagesource nonlinear loads
• Harmonic dam
• Highimpedance
• Cheapest
• VA ratings = Load current (Fundamental drop across filter + Load Harmonic Voltage)
34 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
3) Basic parallelactive filter for current source in nonlinear loads
35 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
4) Basic seriesactive filter for voltagesource in nonlinear loads
36 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
5) Parallel combination of parallel active and parallel passive
6) Series combination of series active and series passive
37 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
7) Hybrid of series active and parallel passive
8) Hybrid of parallel active and series passive
38 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
9) Series combination of parallelpassive and parallelactive
10) Parallel combination of seriespassive and seriesactive
39 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
11) Combined system of seriesactive and parallelactive
12) Combined system of parallelactive and seriesactive
40 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
A SIMPLE EXAMPLE OF AN INDUSTRIAL
POWER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
41 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
HARMONIC LIMITS EVALUATION WHEN
POWERFACTORCORRECTION CAPASITORS
ARE USED
 As it can be seen from the power distribution circuit the powerfactor
correction capacitor bank, which is connected on the 480 Volts bus, can
create a parallel resonance between the capacitors and the system
source inductance.
 The single phase equivalent circuit of the distribution system is shown
below.
Rtot Ltot IS If
C Ih
VS
AC Source Harmonic
Load
Z in
Using the above circuit the following equations hold:
42 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
 Harmonic current components that are close to the parallel resonant frequency are amplified.
 Higher order harmonic currents at the PCC are reduced because the capacitors are low
impedance at these frequencies.
 The figure below shows the effect of adding capacitors on the 480 Volts bus for power factor
correction.
This figure shows that by adding some typical sizes of power factor correction capacitors will
result in the magnification of the 5th and 7th harmonic components, which in turns makes it
even more difficult to meet the IEEE 5191992 harmonic current standards .
 Power factor correction capacitors should not be used without turning reactors in case the
adjustable speed drives are >10% of the plant load.
43 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
EXAMPLE
Let us examine an industrial plant with the following data:
 Medium voltage = 20KVLL
 Low voltage = 0.4 KVLL
 Utility three phase short circuit power = 250 MVA
 For asymmetrical current, the X ratio of system impedance 2.4
R
The Transformer is rated:
1000 KVA, 20 KV400 Y/230 V
Rpu = 1%, Xpu = 7%
 The system frequency is: fsys = 50 HZ.
 For power factor correction capacitors the following cases are examined:
a. 200 KVAR
b. 400 KVAR
c. 600 KVAR
d. 800 KVAR
44 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
Case b:
1000 0.42
Xc 0.4 Ω
400
C 7.96 103 F
f o 291.45HZ
h 5.83
Case c:
1000 0.42
Xc 0.267 Ω
600
C 11.94 103 F
f o 237.97HZ
h 4.76
45 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
Case d:
1000 0.42
Xc 0.2 Ω
800
C 15.92 103 F
f o 206.08HZ
h 4.12
It is clear for the above system that in the 600 KVAR case, there
exists a parallel resonant frequency f o close to the 5th harmonic.
46 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
POWER FACTOR CORRECTION AND
HARMONIC TREATMENT
USING TUNED FILTERS
 Basic configuration of a tuned 3φ capacitor bank for power factor
correction and harmonic treatment.
Simple and cheap filter
Prevents of current harmonic magnification
47 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
 IN ORDER TO AVOID HARMONIC MAGNIFICATION WE CHOOSE A
TUNED FREQUENCY < FITH HARMONIC (i.e 4.7)
 The frequency characteristic of the tuned filter at 4.7 is shown below
As it can be seen from the above figure significant reduction of the 5th
harmonic is achieved. Moreover, there is some reduction for all the other
harmonic components.
48 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
The single phase equivalent circuit of the power distribution system
with the tuned filter is shown below
Using the above circuit the following equations hold:
49 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
SIMULATED RESULTS USING
MATLAB/SIMULINK
T1
i
+

C motor . +
v

380kw/490rpm V
Bus Bar (horiz)2 compens
T
Ground (input)
+ Gnd
v

200m cable 4x240 50m cable 4x1 V1
Ground (output)1
Voltage Measurement3
+
v

+
Current Measurement4

i
voltage
Series RLC Branch
Scope3
Source
Scope1
i

itot
+
Scope2 +
i
Scope4

Source1 Current Measurement6 Scope
Bus Bar (horiz)3
chock2%5
chock2%3 chock2%1
AC Voltage Source
Ground (input)8
Ground (input)5 Ground (input)4
Ground (output)
Current Measurement5
i i
+ +
 
Current Measurement3
Bus Bar (horiz)7 Bus Bar (horiz)5
AC Current Source7 AC Current Source4
Series RLC Branch3 AC Current Source5 Series RLC Branch2
AC Current Source8
AC Current Source6 AC Current Source3
Bus Bar (horiz)6 Bus Bar (horiz)4
Ground (input)3 Ground (input)2
+
Current Measurement1

i
Bus Bar (horiz)1
AC Current Source1
AC Current Source2 Series RLC Branch1
AC Current Source
Bus Bar (horiz)
Ground (input)1
50 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
ACTIVE FILTERING
Parallel type Series type
51 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
RESULTS OF ACTIVE FILTERING
2500
30
1500 25
500 20
I
[% I1]
[A] 15
500
10
1500
5
2500 0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 2 5 8 11 14 17 20 23
Time [ms] Harmonics
Input current of a 6pulse Rectifier driving a DC machine without any input filtering
5000
35%
30%
2500
I Dynacomp [A]
25%
20%
[%I1]
0
15%
2500 10%
5%
5000 0%
0 10 20 30 40 2 5 8 11 14 17 20 23
Time [ms] Harmonics
Input current with Active Filtering
52 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
1000 14
12
500
10
U [V]
8
[% U1]
0
6
500 4
2
1000 0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 2 5 8 11 14 17 20 23
Time [ms] Harmonics
Typical 6pulse drive voltage waveform
1000 14
12
500
10
U [V]
8
[% U]
0
6
500 4
2
1000 0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 2 5 8 11 14 17 20 23
Time [ms] Harmonics
Voltage source improvement with active filtering
53 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
SHUNT ACTIVE FILTERS
By inserting a parallel active filter in a nonlinear load location we can
inject a harmonic current component with the same amplitude as that of
the load in to the AC system.
LF
C
Equivalent circuit
54 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
ADVANTAGES OF THE SHUNT OR PARALLEL
ACTIVE FILTER
Low implementation cost.
Do not create displacement power factor problems and utility loading.
Supply inductance LS, does not affect the harmonic compensation of
parallel active filter system.
Simple control circuit.
Can damp harmonic propagation in a distribution feeder or between
two distribution feeders.
Easy to connect in parallel a number of active filter modules in order to
achieve higher power requirements.
Easy protection and inexpensive isolation switchgear.
Easy to be installed.
Provides immunity from ambient harmonic loads.
55 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
WAVEFORMS OF THE PARALLEL ACTIVE
FILTER
Source voltage
Load current
Source current
A. F. output current
56 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
PQ THEORY
For identifying the harmonic currents in general the method of computing
instantaneous active and reactive power is used.
Transformation of the threephase voltages v u , v v and v w and the three
phase load currents i Lv , i Lu and i Lw into αβ orthogonal coordinate.
vu
vα 2 1 1/ 2 1/ 2
v vv
β 3 0 3/2 3 / 2
v w
i Lu
i Lα 2 1 1/ 2 1/ 2
i i
Lv
Lβ 3 0 3/2 3 / 2
i Lw
57 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
Then according to p  q theory, the instantaneous real power p L and the
instantaneous imaginary (reactive) power q L are calculated.
p L v α vβ i Lα
q v vα i Lβ
L β
where
p L pL p L ~
pL DC + low frequency comp. + high freq. comp.
q L qL q L ~
qL DC + low frequency comp. + high freq. comp.
58 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
~
The conventional active power is corresponding to p L, the conventional reactive
~
power to q L and the negative sequence to the 2 f components of p L and q L .
The commands of the threephase compensating currents injected by the
shunt active conditioner, iCu , iCv and iCware given by:
iCu 1 0 1
2 vα v β p
i Cv 3 1/ 2 3/2
 vβ v α q
i 1 / 2 3 / 2
Cw
p = Instantaneous real power command
q = Instantaneous reactive power command
59 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
Substituting
p ~
pL
~ Current Harmonics compensation is achieved
q qL
p ~
pL
~ Current Harmonics and low frequency variation
q q L qL
Components of reactive power compensation
p pL ~
pL
Current Harmonics and low frequency variation
q q L ~
Components of active and reactive power compensation
qL
60 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
HARMONIC DETECTION METHODS
i) Load current detection iAF= iLh
It is suitable for shunt active filters which are installed near
one or more nonlinear loads.
ii) Supply current detection iAF= KS iSh
Is the most basic harmonic detection method for series
active filters acting as a voltage source vAF.
iii) Voltage detection
It is suitable for shunt active filters which are used as
Unified Power Quality Conditioners. This type of Active
Filter is installed in primary power distribution systems. The
Unified Power Quality Conditioner consists of a series and a
shunt active filter.
61 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
SHUNT ACTIVE FILTER CONTROL
a) Shunt active filter control based on voltage detection
62 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
Using this technique the threephase voltages, which are detected at the point of
installation, are transformed to v d and vq on the dq coordinates. Then two first
order highpass filters of 5HZ in order to extract the ac components vd and ~
~ vq
from v d and vq . Next the ac components are applied to the inverse dq
transformation circuit, so that the control circuit to provide the threephase
harmonic voltages at the point of installation. Finally, amplifying each harmonic
voltage by a gain Kv produces each phase current reference.
iAF K V vh
The active filter behaves like a resistor 1/KV ohms to the external circuit for
harmonic frequencies without altering the fundamental components.
The current control circuit compares the reference current i AF with the actual
current of the active filter i AF and amplifies the error by a gain KI . Each phase
voltage detected at the point of installation, v is added to each magnified error
signal, thus constituting a feed forward compensation in order to improve current
controllability. As a result, the current controller yields threephase voltage
references. Then, each reference voltage v i is compared with a high frequency
triangular waveform to generate the gate signals for the power semiconductor
devices.
63 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
b) Reference current calculation scheme using source currents (is),
load currents (iL) and voltages at the point of installation (vS).
64 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
3φ HYBRID ACTIVEPASSIVE FILTER
Compensation of current harmonics and displacement power
factor can be achieved simultaneously.
65 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
In the current harmonic compensation mode, the active filter improves the
filtering characteristic of the passive filter by imposing a voltage harmonic
waveform at its terminals with an amplitude
VCh KISh
66 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
If the AC mains voltage is pure sinusoidal, then
ZF
ISh
ZF Lh K Z Z
I
h 2 F S
I Lh K ZF ZS THD i
IS1
• THDi decreases if K increases.
• The larger the voltage harmonics generated by the active filter a better filter
compensation is obtained.
• A high value of the quality factor defines a large band width of the passive
filter, improving the compensation characteristics of the hybrid topology.
• A low value of the quality factor and/or a large value in the tuned factor
increases the required voltage generated by the active filter necessary to
keep the same compensation effectiveness, which increases the active
filter rated power.
67 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
Displacement power factor correction is achieved by controlling the voltage
drop across the passive filter capacitor.
VC βVT
Displacement power factor control can be achieved since at fundamental
frequency the passive filter equivalent impedance is capacitive.
68 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
HYBRID ACTIVEPASSIVE FILTER
Singlephase equivalent circuit Singlephase equivalent circuit
for 5th Harmonic
69 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
This active filter detects the 5th harmonic current component that flows
into the passive filter and amplifies it by a gain K in order to determine its
voltage reference which is given by
vAF K i F5
As a result, the active filter acts as a pure resistor of K ohms for the 5th
harmonic voltage and current. The impedance of the hybrid filter at the 5th
harmonic frequency, Z5 is given by
1
Z5 j5ωL F rf K
j5ωC F
K0 The active filter presents a negative resistance to the external
Circuit, thus improving the Q of the filter.
1
K rF VBUS5 0 , IS5 VS5
j5ωL T
70 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
CONTROL CIRCUIT
The control circuit consists of two parts; a circuit for extracting the
5th current harmonic component from the passive filter iF and a circuit
that adjusts automatically the gain K. The reference voltage for the
active filter
v AF K i F5
HARMONICEXTRACTING CIRCUIT
The extracting circuit detects the threephase currents that flow into
the passive filter using the AC current transformers and then the αβ
coordinates are transformed to those on the dg coordinates by
using a unit vector (cos5ωt, sin5ωt) with a rotating frequency of
five times as high as the line frequency.
71 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
SERIES ACTIVE FILTERS
By inserting a series Active Filter between the AC source and the load
where the harmonic source is existing we can force the source current to
become sinusoidal. The technique is based on a principle of harmonic
isolation by controlling the output voltage of the series active filter.
Equivalent Circuit
72 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
 The series active filter exhibits high impedance to harmonic current
and consequently blocks harmonic current flow from the load to the
source.
VC Output vol tage of the A.F. KGI S (61)
ZL I L VS
IS (62)
ZS ZL KG ZS ZL KG
G = Equivalent transfer function of the detection circuit of
harmonic current, including delay time of the control
circuit.
G1 0 , G h 1 (63)
73 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
K = A gain in pu ohms
The voltage distortion of the input AC source VSh is much smaller
than the current distortion.
If K ZL h and K ZS ZL h (64)
Then
VC ZLILh VSh (65)
IS 0 (66)
74 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
HYBRID SERIES AND SHUNT
ACTIVE FILTER
At the Point of Common Coupling provides:
• Harmonic current isolation between the sub transmission and the
distribution system (shunt A.F)
• Voltage regulation (series A.F)
• Voltage flicker/imbalance compensation (series A.F)
75 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
SELECTION OF AF’ S FOR SPECIFIC APPLICATION CONSIDERATIONS
AF Configuration with higher number of * is more preferred
Compensation for Active Filters
Specific Application
Active Active Hybrid of Hybrid of
Series Shunt Active Series Active Shunt
and Passive and Active
Shunt Series
Current Harmonics ** *** *
Reactive Power *** ** *
Load Balancing *
Neutral Current ** *
Voltage Harmonics *** ** *
Voltage Regulation *** * ** *
Voltage Balancing *** ** *
Voltage Flicker ** *** *
Voltage Sag&Dips *** * ** *
76 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
CONCLUSIONS
Solid State Power Control results in harmonic pollution above the tolerable limits.
Harmonic Pollution increases industrial plant downtimes and power losses.
Harmonic measurements should be made in industrial power systems in order (a) aid
in the design of capacitor or filter banks, (b) verify the design and installation of
capacitor or filter banks, (c) verify compliance with utility harmonic distortion
requirements, and (d) investigate suspected harmonic problems.
Computer software programs such as PSPICE and SIMULINK can be used in order to
obtain the harmonic behavior of an industrial power plant.
The series LC passive filter with resonance frequency at 4.7 is the most popular filter.
The disadvantages of the the tuned LC filter is its dynamic response because it cannot
predict the load requirements.
The most popular Active Filter is the parallel or shunt type.
Active Filter technology is slowly used in industrial plants with passive filters as a
hybrid filter. These filters can be used locally at the inputs of different nonlinear loads.
Active Filter Technology is well developed and many manufactures are fabricating
Active filters with large capacities.
A large number of Active Filters configurations are available to compensate harmonic
current, reactive power, neutral current, unbalance current, and harmonics.
The active filters can predict the load requirements and consequently they exhibit very
good dynamic response.
LC tuned filters can be used at PCC and the same time active filters can be used
locally at the input of nonlinear loads.
77 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
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78 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
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83 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002
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85 IEEE PESC02 JUNE 2002