You are on page 1of 85

PLAN OF PRESENTATION

1. OBJECTIVES
2. POWER QUALITY
3. SOURCES OF HARMONICS
4. EFFECTS OF HARMONICS ON ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
5. HARMONIC STANDARDS
6. HARMONIC MITIGATING TECHNIQUES
7. FILTERS- PASSIVE, ACTIVE AND HYBRID FILTERS
8. CONCLUSIONS

1 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
WHY HARMONIC ANALYSIS ?

When a voltage and/or current waveform is distorted, it causes
abnormal operating conditions in a power system such as:

 Voltage Harmonics can cause additional heating in induction and
synchronous motors and generators.
 Voltage Harmonics with high peak values can weaken insulation in
cables, windings, and capacitors.
 Voltage Harmonics can cause malfunction of different electronic
components and circuits that utilize the voltage waveform for
synchronization or timing.
 Current Harmonics in motor windings can create Electromagnetic
Interference (EMI).

2 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
 Current Harmonics flowing through cables can cause higher
heating over and above the heating that is created from the
fundamental component.
 Current Harmonics flowing through a transformer can cause
higher heating over and above the heating that is created by the
fundamental component.
 Current Harmonics flowing through circuit breakers and switch-
gear can increase their heating losses.
 RESONANT CURRENTS which are created by current harmonics
and the different filtering topologies of the power system can
cause capacitor failures and/or fuse failures in the capacitor or
other electrical equipment.
 False tripping of circuit breakers ad protective relays.

3 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
HARMONIC SOURCES
a) Current Source nonlinear load

Thyristor rectifier for dc drives, Per-phase equivalent circuit
heater drives, etc. of thyristor rectifier
b) Voltage source nonlinear load

Diode rectifier for ac drives, Per-phase equivalent circuit
electronic equipment, etc of diode rectifier

4 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
INPUT CURRENT OF DIFFERENT
NOLINEAR LOADS

TYPE OF TYPICAL WAREFORM THD%
NONLINEAR LOAD

1.0

1-φ 0.5 80%
Uncontrolled (high 3rd
Current
0.0

Rectifier component)
-0.5

10 20 30 40
0
-1.0
Time (mS)

1.0
2nd, 3rd, 4th ,......
1-φ 0.5
harmonic
Current

Semicontrolled 0.0 components
Rectifier Bridge -0.5
10 20 30 40
-1.0 0
Time (mS)

1.0

6 –Pulse Rectifier 0.5

with output voltage 80%
Current

0.0
filtering and without
-0.5
input reactor filter 0
10 20 30 40 5, 7, 11, ……….
-1.0
Time (mS)

5 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
1.0
6 - Pulse Rectifier
0.5
with output voltage 40%

Current
filtering and with 3% 0.0 5, 7, 11, ………..
reactor filter or with -0.5
continues output 0
10 20 30 40
-1.0
current Time (mS)

1.0

6 - Pulse Rectifier 0.5

with large output 0.0 Current 28%
inductor -0.5 5, 7, 11, ………..
0 10 20 30 40
-1.0 Time (mS)

1.0

0.5

12 - Pulse Rectifier 15%
Current

0.0

-0.5
11, 13, ………..
0 10 20 30 40
-1.0 Time (mS)

6 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
CURRENT HARMONICS GENERATED BY 6-PULSE CSI CONVERTERS
HARMONIC P.U PULSE
1 1.00
5 0.2
7 0.143
11 0.09
13 0.077
17 0.059
19 0.053
23 0.04
CURRENT HARMONICS GENERATED BY 12-PULSE CSI CONVERTERS
HARMONIC P.U PULSE IEEE 519 std
1 1.00 -
5 0.03-0.06 5.6%
7 0.02-0.06 5.6%
11 0.05-0.09 2.8%
13 0.03-0.08 2.8%
THD 7.5%-14.2% 7.0%
7 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
Current waveform and its respective spectrum
at the inputs of a motor drive system

8 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
THD υ %  Percentage of the Total Harmonic Distortion of
a nonsinusoidal voltage waveform

 Vh2
h 2
  100
V1
THDi %  Percentage of the Total Harmonic Distortion of
a nonsinusoidal current waveform

2
 Ih
 h 2
 100
I1
Vh  hth harmonic component of the voltage

I h  hth harmonic component of the current
~ ~2
VH  RMS value of the voltage distortion   h
V
h 2

9 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
~ ~2
IH  RMS value of the current distortion   Ih
h 2
~
I RMS value of a nonsinusoidal current =
~2 (7)
  Ih
h 1
~
V RMS value of a nonsinusoidal voltage =

 ~2
  Vh
(8)
h 1
Drive kVA
THD υ %  HF   100 (9)
SC kVA

 h 2 I 2h / I1 (10)
HF  Harmonic Factor = h 5

10 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
Drive kVA  Full load kVA rating of the Drive system

SC kVA  Short Circuit kVA of the distribution system at
the point of connection

SINUSOIDAL VOLTAGE NONSINUSOIDAL CURRENT
~~
P  V Ii,1 cos φ1
~~ ~~
Q  V Ii,1 sin φ1 , S  V I

D  Distortion VA  S2  P 2  Q2

11 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
 

~ ~ ~ ~2
D  S  V 2 Ii,21  V 2
2 2
 Ii,h (14)
h 2
P  Ii,1 
λ  True Power Factor     cos φ1 (15)
S  I 

 Distortion Factor  Displace ment Factor
NONSINUSOIDAL VOLTAGE AND NONSINUSOIDAL CURRENT

 
~ ~ ~ ~
P   Vh Ih cos φ h , Q   Vh Ih sin φ h (16)
h 1 h 1
 
D  Distortion Power   Snm S*nm  S S*
 n m (17)
n m n m
n m n m

12 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
S2  P 2  Q 2  D 2 (18)


~ 2~ 2
  
~~ 2 ~~
S   Vh Ih  V1 I1  V1 IH 2  V~H~I1 2 
h 1


~ ~
 VH IH 
2
 S12  S2N (19)
~~
S1  Fundamenta l Apparent Power  V1 I1

SN  Nonfundame ntal Apparent Power

  
~~ 2 ~ ~ 2 ~ ~ 2
 
S2N  V1 IH  VH I1  VH IH 

13 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
~~
V1 IH  Current Distortion Power (20)

~ ~
VH I1  Voltage Distortion Power (21)

~ ~
VH IH  Harmonic Apparent Power (22)

S2H  PH2  N 2H  Total Harmonic Active Power 
(23)
 Total Harmonic Non Active Power

XC  Reactance of the capacitor  VL-L 2 / VAR 3phase

14 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
Harmonic sequence is the phase rotation relationship with respect to
the fundamental component.

Positive sequence harmonics ( 4th, 7th, 10th , ……. (6n+1) th ) have
the same phase rotation as the fundamental component. These
harmonics circulate between the phases.

Negative sequence harmonics ( 2nd, 5th, 8th ……… (6n-1) th ) have
the opposite phase rotation with respect to the fundamental component.
These harmonics circulate between the phases.

Zero sequence harmonics ( 3rd, 6th, 9th, ….. (6n-3) th ) do not produce
a rotating field. These harmonics circulate between the phase and neutral
or ground. These third order or zero sequence harmonics, unlike positive
and negative sequence harmonic currents, do not cancel but add up
arithmetically at the neutral bus.

15 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
EXAMPLE 1
SINUSOIDAL VOLTAGE-NONSINIMUSOIDAL CURRENT

A periodic, sinusoidal voltage of instantaneous value v  200 2 sin ωt
Is applied to a nonlinear load impedance. The resulting instantaneous current is
given by:     
i  2 20sin ωt  45o  10sin 2ωt  60o  10sin 3ωt  60o  
Calculate the components P, Q, D of the apparent voltamperes and hence
calculate the displacement factor, the distortion factor and the power factor.
Solution
v  200 2 sin ωt
    
i  2 20sin ωt  45o  10sin 2ωt  60o  10sin 3ωt  60o 
The presence of the nonlinearity causes frequency components of current (i.e. the
second and third harmonic terms) that are not present in the applied voltage.

The rms voltage and current at the supply are:
~
V  200V
~2
I  202  102  102
 6102 A2
16 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
The apparent voltamperes at the input is therefore given by
~ 2~ 2
S  V I  2002  6 102  24 106 VA 2
2

In this example only the fundamental frequency components are common to
both voltage and current. Therefore, the real power P and the apparent
power Q are
~~
P  V I1 cos ψ1
ψ1 = displacement angle between the fundamental of
the voltage and the fundamental of the current
 200 20 cos 45o
4000
 W
2
~~
Q  V I1 sin ψ1
 200 20 sin 45o
4000
 VA
2
17 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
~
D2  V 2 ~I  ~I 
2
1
2

~
 V2 ~I  ~I 
2 3
2

 200 10  10   8 10 VA 
2 2 2 6 2

~ ~
P2  Q2  D2  V2 I 2
~~ ~
P V I1 cos ψ1  I1 
PF  power factor   ~~   cos ψ1 
S VI  I
Displacement factor  cos ψ1 
1
 0.707
2
I
Distortion factor  1 
20
 0.817
I 600
Therefore, the power factor is
1 2
PF   0.577
2 6
18 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
EXAMPLE 2
NONSINUSOIDAL VOLTAGE-RL LOAD

 
A periodic, sinusoidal voltage given by v  2 200sin ωt  200sin 5ωt  30o 
is applied to a series, linear, resistance-inductance load of resistance 4Ω and
fundamental frequency reactance 10Ω.
Calculate the degree of power factor improvement realizable by capacitance
Compensation when f1  50HZ.
~
Solution. The rms terminal voltage V is given by
~ ~2 ~2
V  V1  V5
 200 2  200 2
Therefore
~
V  283V
Z1  4  j10
Z1  10.8

1  tan 1 10 / 4  68.2o
19 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
5  51  50
Z5  4  j50
Z5  50
 5  tan 1 50 / 4  85.4o
The instantaneous load current is given by

i  2
 200

sin t  68.2o  
200
 
sin 5t  30o  85.4o 
 10.8 50 
~
The rms load current I is therefore given by

 ~ 2  ~ 2
~ 2 ~ 2 ~ 2  V1   V5 
I  I1  I5     
 Z1   Z5 
 18.52 2  4 2  359A 2

20 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
Apparent voltamperes S at the load terminals in the absence of capacitance is
therefore

S2  V 2 I 2  28.72 106 VA 
~ ~ 2

Average power P In this case is

n
~ ~ ~~ ~ ~
P   Vn In cos  L  V1 I1 cos 1  V2 I2 cos  2  ...
1

 200 18.52 cos 68.2o  200  4  cos85.4o
 1440W

The power factor before compensation is therefore
P 1440
PF    0.27
S 28.72  10 6

21 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
EXAMPLE 3
NONSINUSOIDAL VOLTAGE AND NONSINIMUSOIDAL CURRENT
A periodic, nonsinusoidal voltage with instantaneous value given by
  
v  2 200sin ωt  200sin 2ωt - 30o is applied to a nonlinear impedance.
The resulting current has an instantaneous value given by
i  2 20 sinωt  45   10 sin2ωt  60   10 sin3ωt  60 
L
o o o

Calculate the components SLR , SLX , SLD of the load apparent voltamperes
and compare thee with the classical values PL , QL , DL respectively.

Solution.
 
v  2 200sin ωt  200sin 2ωt - 30o 
iL  2 20 sinωt  45   10 sin2ωt  60   10 sin3ωt  60 
o o o

Note that the presence of the load nonlinearity causes a frequency component
of load current (I.e. the third harmonic term) that is not present in the supply
voltage.

22 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
The rms voltage and current at the supply are given by
~
V2  2002  2002  8 104 V2
~2
IL  202  102  102  6 102 A2
~ and ~
The load apparent voltamperes SL therefore has a value defined in terms V IL
S2L  V 2 IL2  48 106 VA 
~ ~ 2

Instantaneous expressions of the hypothetical currents i R , i X , i D are given by


i R  2 20 cos 45o sin t  10 cos 300 sin 2t  30o  
~2
 ILR  2
 
 20 cos 45o  10 cos 30o 
2

11
4
10 2 A 2


i X   2 20 sin 45o cos ωt  10 sin 300 cos 2ωt  30o  
~2
 ILX  2
 
 20 sin 45o  10 sin 30o  2 9
 10 2 A 2
4
iD  2 10 sin 3t  60  o

~2
 ILD  10 2 A 2

23 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
Note that current components i R , i X contain only those harmonic terms which
are common to both voltage and current. These are therefore consistent with the
n1 terms.
~ ~ ~
The rms load current components ILR , ILX , ILD are found, as expected to sum
~
to the total rms load current IL
~2 ~2 ~2  11 9  ~
ILD  ILR  ILD  10 2 1     6 10 2  IL2
 4 4
Components SLR , SLX , SLD of the apparent voltamperes can now be obtained

 V ILR  10  8 10 4  22 106 VA 
2 ~ 2 ~ 2 11 2 2
S LR
4

 V ILX  10  8 10 4  18 106 VA 
2 ~ 2~ 2 9 2 2
S LX
4

 10 2  8 10 4  8 106 VA 
~ ~2
S2LD  V 2 ILD
2

24 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
The component voltamperes are seen to sum to the total apparent voltamperes

S2LR  S2LX  S2LD  106 22  18  8

 48106 VA 2
 S2L
Components PL , QL , DL of SL are found as follows:
2
 n
~ ~ 
PL    Vn1 In1 cos ψ n1 
2 
 1 
 o
 200  20  cos 45  200 10  cos 30 
o 2

2

 100 20 2  10 3 
2

 10 6 2 2  3 
2
 
 10 6 8  3  4 6  20.8 10 6  S2LR

25 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
2
 n
~ ~ 
Q L    Vn1 In1 sin ψ n1 
2 
 1 

 200  20  sin 45o  200  10  sin 30o 2

 
 106 2 2  1  14.6  106  S2LX

D2L  S2L  PL2  Q2L

 48  20.8  14.6 106  12.6  106 VA 2  S2LD
From the possible compensation viewpoint it is interesting to note that SLX
and Q L differ by significant amount.
SLX could be defined as “that component of the load apparent voltamperes that
Is obtained by the combination of supply voltage harmonics with quadrature
Components of corresponding frequency load current harmonics”.

26 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
Similarly the definition of active voltamperes SLR could be given by “that

component of the load apparent voltamperes that is obtained by the combination
of supply voltage harmonics with in-phase components of corresponding
frequency load current harmonics”.

Both SLR and SLX are entirely fictitious and non-physical. The active

voltamperes SLR Is not to be compares in importance with the average power
PL which is a real physical property of the circuit. Term SLR Is merely the
analytical complement of term SLX

Term SLX the energy-storage reactive voltamperes, is that component

of the load apparent voltamperes that can be entirely compensated (for sinusoidal
supply voltage) or minimized (for nonsinusoidal supply voltage) by energy-storage

methods.

27 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
Voltage and current profiles in a
commercial building

28 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
HARMONIC STANDARDS
 International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) European
Standards.

- EN 61000-3-2 Harmonic Emissions standards were first published
as IEC 55-2 1982 and applied only to household appliances. It was
revised and reissued in 1987 and 1995 with the applicability
expanded to include all equipment with input current  16A per
phase. However, until January 1st, 2001 a transition period is in
effect for all equipment not covered by the standard prior to 1987.
- The objective of EN 61000-3-2 (harmonics) is to test the equipment
under the conditions that will produce the maximum harmonic
amplitudes under normal operating conditions for each harmonic
component. To establish limits for similar types of harmonics current
distortion, equipment under test must be categorized in one of the
following four classes.

29 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
CLASS-A: Balanced three-phase equipment and all other equipment
except that stated in one of the remaining three classes.
CLASS-B: Portable electrical tools, which are hand held during normal
operation and used for a short time only (few minutes)
CLASS-C: Lighting equipment including dimming devices.
CLASS-D: Equipment having an input current with special wave shape
( e.g.equipment with off-line capacitor-rectifier AC input
circuitry and switch Mode power Supplies) and an active
input power 600W.

- Additional harmonic current testing, measurement techniques and
instrumentation guidelines for these standards are covered in IEC
1000-4-7.

30 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
• IEEE 519-1992 United States Standards on harmonic limits

- IEEE limits service entrance harmonics.
- The IEEE standard 519-1992 limits the level of harmonics at the
customer service entrance or Point of Common Coupling (PCC).
- With this approach the costumer’s current distortion is limited based
on relative size of the load and the power supplier’s voltage
distortion based on the voltage level.

IEEE 519 and IEC 1000-3-2 apply different philosophies, which
effectively limit harmonics at different locations. IEEE 519 limits
harmonics primarily at the service entrance while IEC 1000-3-2 is
applied at the terminals of end-user equipment. Therefore, IEC limits
will tend to reduce harmonic-related losses in an industrial plant
wiring, while IEEE harmonic limits are designed to prevent
interactions between neighbors and the power system.

31 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
POWER QUALITY STANDARDS –
IEEE 519-1992 STANDARDS
TABLE I
CURRENT DISTORTION LIMITS FOR GENERAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
(120-69000 V)
Isc/IL <11 11<h<17 17<h<23 23<h<35 35<h TDD
<20* 4.0 2.0 1.5 0.6 0.3 5.0
20<50 7.0 3.5 2.5 1.0 0.5 8.0
50<100 10.0 4.5 4.0 1.5 0.7 12.0
100<1,000 12.0 5.5 5.0 2.0 1.0 15.0
>1,000 15.0 7.0 6.0 2.5 1.4 20.0
Source: IEEE Standard 519-1992.
Note: Even harmonics are limited to 25 percent of the odd harmonic limits above.
Current distortions that result in a direct current offset; for example, half wave
converters are not allowed.
Table I is for 6-pulse rectifiers. For converters higher than 6 pulse, the limits for
characteristic harmonics are increased by a factor o f q/6 , where q is the pule number,
provided that the
amplitudes of noncharacteristic harmonics are less than 25 percent.
*All power generation equipment is limited to these values of current distortion, regardless of
actual ISC/IL.
Where ISC = Maximum short circuit at PCC.
And IL = Average Maximum demand load current (fundamental frequency
component at PCC).
32 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
TABLE II
LOW VOLTAGE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION AND DISTORTION LIMITS
IEEE 519-1992 STANDARTS

Special General Dedicated
Applications System System
Notch Depth 10% 20% 50%

THD (Voltage) 3% 5% 10%

Notch Area 16,400 22,800 36,500
(AN)*

Source: IEEE Standard 519-1992.
Note: The value AN for another than 480Volt systems should be
multiplied by V/480 .
The notch depth, the total voltage distortion factor (THD) and
the notch area limits are specified for line to line voltage.
In the above table, special applications include hospitals and
airports. A dedicated system is exclusively dedicated to converter load.
*In volt-microseconds at rated voltage and current.

33 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
2) Series-passive filter for voltage-source nonlinear loads

• Harmonic dam
• High-impedance
• Cheapest
• VA ratings = Load current (Fundamental drop across filter + Load Harmonic Voltage)

34 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
3) Basic parallel-active filter for current source in nonlinear loads

35 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
4) Basic series-active filter for voltage-source in nonlinear loads

36 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
5) Parallel combination of parallel active and parallel passive

6) Series combination of series active and series passive

37 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
7) Hybrid of series active and parallel passive

8) Hybrid of parallel active and series passive

38 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
9) Series combination of parallel-passive and parallel-active

10) Parallel combination of series-passive and series-active

39 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
11) Combined system of series-active and parallel-active

12) Combined system of parallel-active and series-active

40 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
A SIMPLE EXAMPLE OF AN INDUSTRIAL
POWER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

41 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
HARMONIC LIMITS EVALUATION WHEN
POWER-FACTOR-CORRECTION CAPASITORS
ARE USED

- As it can be seen from the power distribution circuit the power-factor-
correction capacitor bank, which is connected on the 480 Volts bus, can
create a parallel resonance between the capacitors and the system
source inductance.
- The single phase equivalent circuit of the distribution system is shown
below.

Rtot Ltot IS If

C Ih
VS
AC Source Harmonic
Load

Z in

Using the above circuit the following equations hold:

42 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
- Harmonic current components that are close to the parallel resonant frequency are amplified.
- Higher order harmonic currents at the PCC are reduced because the capacitors are low
impedance at these frequencies.
- The figure below shows the effect of adding capacitors on the 480 Volts bus for power factor
correction.

This figure shows that by adding some typical sizes of power factor correction capacitors will
result in the magnification of the 5th and 7th harmonic components, which in turns makes it
even more difficult to meet the IEEE 519-1992 harmonic current standards .
- Power factor correction capacitors should not be used without turning reactors in case the
adjustable speed drives are >10% of the plant load.
43 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
EXAMPLE
Let us examine an industrial plant with the following data:
- Medium voltage = 20KVLL
- Low voltage = 0.4 KVLL
- Utility three phase short circuit power = 250 MVA
- For asymmetrical current, the X ratio of system impedance  2.4
R
The Transformer is rated:

1000 KVA, 20 KV-400 Y/230 V
Rpu = 1%, Xpu = 7%

- The system frequency is: fsys = 50 HZ.
- For power factor correction capacitors the following cases are examined:
a. 200 KVAR
b. 400 KVAR
c. 600 KVAR
d. 800 KVAR
44 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
Case b:
1000  0.42
Xc   0.4 Ω
400
C  7.96 103 F
f o  291.45HZ
h  5.83
Case c:

1000  0.42
Xc   0.267 Ω
600
C  11.94 103 F
f o  237.97HZ
h  4.76
45 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
Case d:

1000  0.42
Xc   0.2 Ω
800
C  15.92 103 F

f o  206.08HZ

h  4.12

It is clear for the above system that in the 600 KVAR case, there
exists a parallel resonant frequency f o close to the 5th harmonic.

46 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
POWER FACTOR CORRECTION AND
HARMONIC TREATMENT
USING TUNED FILTERS

- Basic configuration of a tuned 3-φ capacitor bank for power factor
correction and harmonic treatment.

 Simple and cheap filter
 Prevents of current harmonic magnification

47 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
- IN ORDER TO AVOID HARMONIC MAGNIFICATION WE CHOOSE A
TUNED FREQUENCY < FITH HARMONIC (i.e 4.7)
- The frequency characteristic of the tuned filter at 4.7 is shown below

As it can be seen from the above figure significant reduction of the 5th
harmonic is achieved. Moreover, there is some reduction for all the other
harmonic components.
48 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
The single phase equivalent circuit of the power distribution system
with the tuned filter is shown below

Using the above circuit the following equations hold:

49 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
SIMULATED RESULTS USING
MATLAB/SIMULINK
T1
i
+
-
C motor . +
v
-
380kw/490rpm V

Bus Bar (horiz)2 compens

T
Ground (input)

+ Gnd
v
-
200m cable 4x240 50m cable 4x1 V1
Ground (output)1
Voltage Measurement3
+
v
-

+
Current Measurement4

-
i
voltage

Series RLC Branch
Scope3
Source

Scope1
i
-

itot
+

Scope2 +
i
Scope4
-

Source1 Current Measurement6 Scope
Bus Bar (horiz)3

chock2%5
chock2%3 chock2%1
AC Voltage Source
Ground (input)8
Ground (input)5 Ground (input)4

Ground (output)
Current Measurement5
i i
+ +
- -
Current Measurement3

Bus Bar (horiz)7 Bus Bar (horiz)5

AC Current Source7 AC Current Source4

Series RLC Branch3 AC Current Source5 Series RLC Branch2
AC Current Source8
AC Current Source6 AC Current Source3

Bus Bar (horiz)6 Bus Bar (horiz)4

Ground (input)3 Ground (input)2
+

Current Measurement1
-
i

Bus Bar (horiz)1

AC Current Source1

AC Current Source2 Series RLC Branch1

AC Current Source

Bus Bar (horiz)

Ground (input)1

50 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
ACTIVE FILTERING

Parallel type Series type

51 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
RESULTS OF ACTIVE FILTERING
2500
30
1500 25

500 20
I

[% I1]
[A] 15
-500
10
-1500
5

-2500 0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 2 5 8 11 14 17 20 23
Time [ms] Harmonics

Input current of a 6-pulse Rectifier driving a DC machine without any input filtering
5000
35%
30%
2500
I Dynacomp [A]

25%
20%

[%I1]
0
15%
-2500 10%
5%
-5000 0%
0 10 20 30 40 2 5 8 11 14 17 20 23
Time [ms] Harmonics
Input current with Active Filtering

52 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
1000 14
12
500
10
U [V]

8

[% U1]
0
6
-500 4
2
-1000 0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 2 5 8 11 14 17 20 23
Time [ms] Harmonics
Typical 6-pulse drive voltage waveform
1000 14
12
500
10
U [V]

8

[% U]
0
6
-500 4
2
-1000 0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 2 5 8 11 14 17 20 23
Time [ms] Harmonics

Voltage source improvement with active filtering

53 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
SHUNT ACTIVE FILTERS
By inserting a parallel active filter in a non-linear load location we can
inject a harmonic current component with the same amplitude as that of
the load in to the AC system.

LF

C

Equivalent circuit
54 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
ADVANTAGES OF THE SHUNT OR PARALLEL
ACTIVE FILTER

 Low implementation cost.
 Do not create displacement power factor problems and utility loading.
 Supply inductance LS, does not affect the harmonic compensation of
parallel active filter system.
 Simple control circuit.
 Can damp harmonic propagation in a distribution feeder or between
two distribution feeders.
 Easy to connect in parallel a number of active filter modules in order to
achieve higher power requirements.
 Easy protection and inexpensive isolation switchgear.
 Easy to be installed.
 Provides immunity from ambient harmonic loads.

55 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
WAVEFORMS OF THE PARALLEL ACTIVE
FILTER

Source voltage

Load current

Source current

A. F. output current

56 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
P-Q THEORY

For identifying the harmonic currents in general the method of computing
instantaneous active and reactive power is used.
Transformation of the three-phase voltages v u , v v and v w and the three-
phase load currents i Lv , i Lu and i Lw into α-β orthogonal coordinate.

 vu 
 vα  2 1  1/ 2  1/ 2   
v      vv 
 β 3 0 3/2  3 / 2
 v w 

 i Lu 
i Lα  2 1  1/ 2  1/ 2  
i    i
 Lv 
 Lβ  3 0 3/2  3 / 2 
i Lw 

57 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
Then according to p - q theory, the instantaneous real power p L and the
instantaneous imaginary (reactive) power q L are calculated.

p L   v α vβ  i Lα 
q     v vα  i Lβ 
 L  β

where


p L  pL  p L  ~
pL  DC + low frequency comp. + high freq. comp.


q L  qL  q L  ~
qL  DC + low frequency comp. + high freq. comp.

58 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
~
The conventional active power is corresponding to p L, the conventional reactive
~
power to q L and the negative sequence to the 2 f components of p L and q L .

The commands of the three-phase compensating currents injected by the
shunt active conditioner, iCu , iCv and iCware given by:

 iCu   1 0  1
   2    vα v β   p 
 i Cv   3   1/ 2 3/2  
- vβ v α  q 
i   1 / 2  3 / 2 
 Cw 

p = Instantaneous real power command

q = Instantaneous reactive power command

59 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
Substituting

p  ~
pL 

 ~   Current Harmonics compensation is achieved
q  qL 

p  ~
pL 

  ~   Current Harmonics and low frequency variation
q  q L  qL 
 Components of reactive power compensation


p  pL  ~

pL 
 Current Harmonics and low frequency variation
  
q  q L  ~
Components of active and reactive power compensation
qL 

60 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
HARMONIC DETECTION METHODS

i) Load current detection iAF= iLh
It is suitable for shunt active filters which are installed near
one or more non-linear loads.

ii) Supply current detection iAF= KS iSh
Is the most basic harmonic detection method for series
active filters acting as a voltage source vAF.

iii) Voltage detection
It is suitable for shunt active filters which are used as
Unified Power Quality Conditioners. This type of Active
Filter is installed in primary power distribution systems. The
Unified Power Quality Conditioner consists of a series and a
shunt active filter.

61 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
SHUNT ACTIVE FILTER CONTROL

a) Shunt active filter control based on voltage detection

62 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
Using this technique the three-phase voltages, which are detected at the point of
installation, are transformed to v d and vq on the dq coordinates. Then two first
order high-pass filters of 5HZ in order to extract the ac components vd and ~
~ vq
from v d and vq . Next the ac components are applied to the inverse dq
transformation circuit, so that the control circuit to provide the three-phase
harmonic voltages at the point of installation. Finally, amplifying each harmonic
voltage by a gain Kv produces each phase current reference.

iAF  K V  vh

The active filter behaves like a resistor 1/KV ohms to the external circuit for
harmonic frequencies without altering the fundamental components. 
The current control circuit compares the reference current i AF with the actual
current of the active filter i AF and amplifies the error by a gain KI . Each phase
voltage detected at the point of installation, v is added to each magnified error
signal, thus constituting a feed forward compensation in order to improve current
controllability. As a result, the current controller yields three-phase voltage

references. Then, each reference voltage v i is compared with a high frequency
triangular waveform to generate the gate signals for the power semiconductor
devices.

63 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
b) Reference current calculation scheme using source currents (is),
load currents (iL) and voltages at the point of installation (vS).

64 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
3-φ HYBRID ACTIVE-PASSIVE FILTER

Compensation of current harmonics and displacement power
factor can be achieved simultaneously.

65 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
In the current harmonic compensation mode, the active filter improves the
filtering characteristic of the passive filter by imposing a voltage harmonic
waveform at its terminals with an amplitude
VCh  KISh

66 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
If the AC mains voltage is pure sinusoidal, then

 ZF 
ISh

ZF   Lh K  Z  Z 
 I
h  2 F S
I Lh K  ZF  ZS THD i 
IS1

• THDi decreases if K increases.
• The larger the voltage harmonics generated by the active filter a better filter
compensation is obtained.
• A high value of the quality factor defines a large band width of the passive
filter, improving the compensation characteristics of the hybrid topology.
• A low value of the quality factor and/or a large value in the tuned factor
increases the required voltage generated by the active filter necessary to
keep the same compensation effectiveness, which increases the active
filter rated power.

67 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
Displacement power factor correction is achieved by controlling the voltage
drop across the passive filter capacitor.

VC  βVT

Displacement power factor control can be achieved since at fundamental
frequency the passive filter equivalent impedance is capacitive.

68 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
HYBRID ACTIVE-PASSIVE FILTER

Single-phase equivalent circuit Single-phase equivalent circuit
for 5th Harmonic

69 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
This active filter detects the 5th harmonic current component that flows
into the passive filter and amplifies it by a gain K in order to determine its
voltage reference which is given by

vAF  K  i F5
As a result, the active filter acts as a pure resistor of K ohms for the 5th
harmonic voltage and current. The impedance of the hybrid filter at the 5th
harmonic frequency, Z5 is given by

1
Z5  j5ωL F   rf  K
j5ωC F

K0 The active filter presents a negative resistance to the external
Circuit, thus improving the Q of the filter.

1
K  rF VBUS5  0 , IS5  VS5
j5ωL T

70 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
CONTROL CIRCUIT

The control circuit consists of two parts; a circuit for extracting the
5th current harmonic component from the passive filter iF and a circuit
that adjusts automatically the gain K. The reference voltage for the
active filter 
v AF  K  i F5

HARMONIC-EXTRACTING CIRCUIT
The extracting circuit detects the three-phase currents that flow into
the passive filter using the AC current transformers and then the α-β
coordinates are transformed to those on the d-g coordinates by
using a unit vector (cos5ωt, sin5ωt) with a rotating frequency of
five times as high as the line frequency.

71 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
SERIES ACTIVE FILTERS

By inserting a series Active Filter between the AC source and the load
where the harmonic source is existing we can force the source current to
become sinusoidal. The technique is based on a principle of harmonic
isolation by controlling the output voltage of the series active filter.

Equivalent Circuit

72 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
- The series active filter exhibits high impedance to harmonic current
and consequently blocks harmonic current flow from the load to the
source.

VC  Output vol tage of the A.F.  KGI S (61)

ZL I L VS
IS   (62)
ZS  ZL  KG ZS  ZL  KG

G = Equivalent transfer function of the detection circuit of
harmonic current, including delay time of the control
circuit.

G1  0 , G h 1 (63)

73 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
K = A gain in pu ohms

The voltage distortion of the input AC source VSh is much smaller
than the current distortion.

If K  ZL h and K  ZS  ZL h (64)

Then

VC  ZLILh  VSh (65)

IS  0 (66)

74 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
HYBRID SERIES AND SHUNT
ACTIVE FILTER

At the Point of Common Coupling provides:

• Harmonic current isolation between the sub transmission and the
distribution system (shunt A.F)
• Voltage regulation (series A.F)
• Voltage flicker/imbalance compensation (series A.F)

75 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
SELECTION OF AF’ S FOR SPECIFIC APPLICATION CONSIDERATIONS
AF Configuration with higher number of * is more preferred
Compensation for Active Filters
Specific Application
Active Active Hybrid of Hybrid of
Series Shunt Active Series Active Shunt
and Passive and Active
Shunt Series
Current Harmonics ** *** *
Reactive Power *** ** *
Load Balancing *
Neutral Current ** *
Voltage Harmonics *** ** *
Voltage Regulation *** * ** *
Voltage Balancing *** ** *
Voltage Flicker ** *** *
Voltage Sag&Dips *** * ** *

76 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
CONCLUSIONS
 Solid State Power Control results in harmonic pollution above the tolerable limits.
 Harmonic Pollution increases industrial plant downtimes and power losses.
 Harmonic measurements should be made in industrial power systems in order (a) aid
in the design of capacitor or filter banks, (b) verify the design and installation of
capacitor or filter banks, (c) verify compliance with utility harmonic distortion
requirements, and (d) investigate suspected harmonic problems.
 Computer software programs such as PSPICE and SIMULINK can be used in order to
obtain the harmonic behavior of an industrial power plant.
 The series LC passive filter with resonance frequency at 4.7 is the most popular filter.
 The disadvantages of the the tuned LC filter is its dynamic response because it cannot
predict the load requirements.
 The most popular Active Filter is the parallel or shunt type.
 Active Filter technology is slowly used in industrial plants with passive filters as a
hybrid filter. These filters can be used locally at the inputs of different nonlinear loads.
 Active Filter Technology is well developed and many manufactures are fabricating
Active filters with large capacities.
 A large number of Active Filters configurations are available to compensate harmonic
current, reactive power, neutral current, unbalance current, and harmonics.
 The active filters can predict the load requirements and consequently they exhibit very
good dynamic response.
 LC tuned filters can be used at PCC and the same time active filters can be used
locally at the input of nonlinear loads.

77 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
REFERENCES
RECOMMENDED PRACTICES ON HARMONIC TREATMENT
[1] IEEE Std. 519-1992, ΄΄IEEE Recommended Practices and
Requirements for Harmonic Control in Electric Power Systems΄΄,
1993.
[2] IEC Sub-Committee 77B report, ΄΄Compatibility Levels in Industrial
Plants for Low Frequency Conducted Disturbances΄΄, 1990.
[3] IEC Sub-Committee 77A report, ΄΄Disturbances Caused by
Equipment Connected to the Public Low-Voltage Supply System
Part 2 : Harmonics ΄΄, 1990 (Revised Draft of IEC 555-2).
[4] UK Engineering Recommendation G.5/3: ΄΄Limits for Harmonics in
the UK Electricity Supply System΄΄, 1976.
[5] CIRGE WG 36.05 Report, ΄΄Equipment producing harmonics and
Conditions Governing their Connection to the Mains power
Supply΄΄, Electra, No. 123, March 1989, pp. 20-37.
[6] Australian Standards AS-2279.1-1991, ΄΄Disturbances in mains
Supply Networks-Part 2: Limitation of Harmonics Caused by
Industrial Equipment΄΄, 1991.

78 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
DEFINITIONS
[7] J. Arriilaga, D.A. Bradley, and P.S. Bodger, ΄΄Power System
Harmonics΄΄,New York: Wiley, 1985.
[8] N. Shepherd and P. Zand, ΄΄Energy flow and power factor in
nonsinusoidal circuits΄΄, Cambridge University Press, 1979.

EFFECTS OF HARMONICS
[9] J.M. Bowyer, ΄΄Three-Part Harmony: System Interactions Leading
to a Divergent Resonant System΄΄, IEEE Trans. on Industry
Applications, Vol. 31, No. 6, Nov/Dec 1995, pp. 1341-1349.
[10] R.D. Hondenson and P.J. Rose, ΄΄Harmonics: the Effects on power
Quality and Transformers΄΄, IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications,
Vol. 30, No.3, May/June 1994, pp. 528-532.
[11] J.S. Subjak and J. S. McQuilkin, ΄΄Harmonics-Causes, effects,
Measurements and Analysis: An Update΄΄, IEEE Trans. on Industry
Applications, Vol. 26, No. 6, Nov/Dec 1990, pp. 103-1042.
[12] P.Y. Keskar, ΄΄Specification of Variable Frequency Drive Systems
to Meet the New IEEE 51 Standard΄΄, IEEE Trans. on Industry
Applications, Vol.32, No.2, March/April 1996, pp. 393-402.
79 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
[13] T.S. Key, ΄΄Cost and Benefits of Harmonic Current Reduction for
Switch-Mode Power Supplies in a Commercial Building΄΄, IEEE
Trans. on Industry Applications, Vol. 32, No. 5,
September/October 1996, pp. 1017-1025.

PASSIVE HARMONIC TREATMENT TECHNIQUES
[14] M.F. McGranaghan and D.R. Mueller, ΄΄Designing Harmonic
Filters for Adjustable-Speed Drives to comply with IEEE-519
Harmonic limits΄΄, IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications, Vol. 35,
No 2, March/April 1999, pp. 312-18.
[15] F.Z. Peng, ΄΄Harmonic Sources and filtering Approaches΄΄, IEEE
Industry Applications Magazine, July/August 2001, pp. 18-25.
[16] J.K. Phipps, ΄΄A transfer Function Approach to Harmonic Filter
Design΄΄, IEEE Industry Applications Magazine March/April 1997.
[17] S.M. Peeran, ΄΄Application, Design, and Specification of Harmonic
Filters for Variable frequency Drives΄΄, IEEE Trans. on Industry
Applications, Vol. 31, No. 4, July/August 1995, pp. 841-847.

80 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
[18] J. Lai and T.S. Key, ΄΄Effectiveness of Harmonic Mitigation
Equipment for Commercial Office Buildings΄΄, IEEE Trans. on
Industry Applications, Vol. 33, No. 4, July/August 1997, pp.
1104-1110.
[19] D.E. Rice,΄΄A Detailed Analysis of Six-Pulse Converter harmonic
Currents΄΄, IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications, Vol. 30, No. 2,
March/April 1994, pp. 294-304.
[20] R.L. Almonte and Ashley, ΄΄Harmonics at the Utility Industrial
Interface: A Real World Example΄΄, IEEE Trans. on Industry
Applications, Vol. 31, No. 6, November/December 1995, pp.
1419-1426.
[21] K. A. Puskarich, W.E. Reid and P. S. Hamer, ΄΄Harmonic
Experiments with a large load-Commutated inverter drive΄΄,
IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications, Vol. 37, No. 1, Jan/Feb.
2001, pp. 129-136.
[22] L.S. Czarnecki and O. T. Tan, ΄΄Evaluation and Reduction of
Harmonic Distortion Caused by Solid State Voltage Controller of
Induction Motors΄΄, IEEE Trans. on Energy Conversion, Vol. 9,
No. 3, Sept. 1994, pp. 528-421.

81 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
[23] R.G. Ellis, ΄΄Harmonic Analysis of Industrial power Systems΄΄,
IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications, Vol. 32, No. 2, March/April
1996, pp. 417-421.
[24] D. Adrews et al, ΄΄ Harmonic Measurements, Analysis and Power
factor Correction in a Modern Steel Manufacturing Facility΄΄,
IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications, Vol. 32, No. 3, May/June
196, pp. 617-624.
[25] D. Shipp and W. S. Vilcheck, ΄΄Power Quality and Line
Considerations for Variable Speed AC Drivers΄΄, IEEE Trans. on
Industry Applications, Vol.32, No.2, March/April 1996, pp. 403-
410.
[26] J. A Bonner et al, ΄΄Selecting ratings for Capacitors and Reactors
In Applications Involving Multiple Single-Tuned Filters΄΄, IEEE
Trans. on Power Delivery, Vol. 10, No. 1, Jan. 1995, pp. 547-555.
[27] E. J. Currence, J.E Plizga, and H. N. Nelson, ΄΄Harmonic
Resonance at a medium-sized Industrial Plant΄΄, IEEE Trans. on
Industry Applications, Vol. 31, No. 4, July/August 1995, pp. 682-
690.

82 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
[28] G. Lemieux, ΄΄Power system harmonic resonance. A document
case΄΄, IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp.
483-487, May/June 1990.
[29] D. D. Shipp, ΄΄Harmonic Analysis and Suppression for electrical
systems΄΄, ΙEEE Trans. on Industry Applications Vol. 15, No. 5,
Sept./Oct. 1979.

ACTIVE HARMONIC TREATMENT TECHNIQUES
[30] H. Akagi, ΄΄New trends in active filters for Power conditioning΄΄,
IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications, Vol. 32, Nov/Dec. 1996, pp.
1312-1322.
[31] Bhim Singh et al, ΄΄A Review of Active Filters for Power Quality
Improvement΄΄, IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 46, No.
5, Oct. 1999, pp. 960-971.
[32] F. Z. Peng, ΄΄Application Issues of Active Power Filters΄΄, IEEE
Industry Applications Magazine, Sep./Oct. 1998, pp. 22-30.
[33] S. Bhattacharga et al, ΄΄Active Filter Systems Implementation΄΄,
IEEE Industry Applications Magazine, Sep./Oct. 1998, pp. 47-63.

83 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
[34] S. Bhattacharya et al, ΄΄Hybrid Solutions for improving Passive
Filter Performance in high power Applications΄΄, IEEE, Trans.
on Industry Applications, Vol. 33, No. 3, May/June 1997, pp.
732-747.
[35] H. Akagi, ΄΄Control Strategy and site selection of a shunt active
filter for damping of harmonies propagation in power
distribution systems ΄΄, IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, Vol. 12,
Jan. 1997, pp.354-363.
[36] H. Fujita, T. Yamasaki, and H. Akagi, ΄΄A Hybrid Active Filter for
Damping of Harmonic Resonance in Industrial Power
Systems΄΄, IEEE Trans. on Power Electronics, Vol. 15, No. 2,
March 2000, pp. 215-222.
[37] H. Akagi et al, ΄΄ Α shunt Active Filter Based on Voltage Detection
for Harmonic Termination of a Radial power Distribution Line΄΄,
IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications, Vol. 35, No. 3, May/June
1999, pp. 638-645.
[38] D. Rivas et al, ΄΄ A simple control scheme for hybrid Active
Power Filter΄΄, IEE PESC-00, pp. 991-996.

84 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002
[39] L. Zhou and Zi Li, ΄΄A Novel Active Power filter Based on the
Least compensation Current Control Method΄΄, IEEE Trans. on
Power Electronics, Vol. 15, No. 4, July 2000, pp. 655-659.

MODELING
[40] IEEE Task Force on Modeling and Simulation, ΄΄Modeling and
Simulation of the propagation of harmonies in electric power
networks, Part I: Concepts, models, and simulation techniques΄΄,
IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, Vol. 11, No. 1, Jan. 1996, pp. 452-
465.
[41] IEEE Task Force on Modeling and Simulation ΄΄Modeling and
Simulation of the propagation of harmonies in electric power
networks, Part II: Sample systems and examples΄΄, IEEE Trans.
on Power Delivery, Vol. 11, No. 1, Jan. 1996, pp. 466-474.
[42] W. Jewel et al, ΄΄Filtering Dispersed harmonic Sources on
Distribution΄΄, IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, Vol. 15, No. 3, July
2000, pp. 1045-1051.
[43] N.K. Madora and A. Kusko, ΄΄Computer-Aided Design and
Analysis of Power-Harmonic Filters΄΄ IEEE Trans. on Industry
Applications, Vol. 36, No. 2, March/April 2000, pp.604-613.
85 IEEE PESC-02 JUNE 2002