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HIGH INTENSITY DISCHARGE

LAMPS
TOPICS FOR DISCUSSION
High intensity discharge lamp definition
Current products
Low pressure sodium lights
High pressure lights
WHAT ARE HIGH INTENSITY DISCHARGE LAMPS?
are a type of gas discharge lamps which produce light by creating an electric arc
between two electrodes through and ionised gas.
HID lamps all utilize a compact arc tube in which very high temperature and
pressure exists. This small arc tube resembles a point source of light, making HID
lamps and their luminaires both compact and powerful.
Arc tubes may be made out of quartz needed for high pressure sulphur lamps.
However, because quartz cannot contain the hot and corrosive sodium and vapors,
high purity aluminum oxide or polycrystalline alumina is being utilized for its high-
temperature stability, strength and excellent light.
There are four main types of HID lamps:
Mercury vapor (MV), metal halide (MH), low-pressure sodium (LPS), highpressure
sodium (HPS)
How the does it work?
1. start a current flow between both tungsten electrodes through the
gas.
High pressure + high voltage = current flow
After current flow is established, voltage is reduced.
2. An arc is created between both electrodes that will be used to vaporize
mercury, sodium, metal salts to produce intense light
3. the gas inside the tube is ionised and acts as a conductor.
Electrons flow freely in the electrodes creating higher level
electrons, when they go back to the previous level, they emit
energy in form of radiation.
4. When the arc has been created and lamp operating, the temperature
and pressure inside the tube builds, which also heats the metal salts
located in the tube, this eventually increases the intensity and brightness
of the light produced by the lamp.
CURRENT PRODUCTS: METAL HALIDE LAMPS
Produced by radiation from a mixture of metallic vapour, metal halides and the products of the
dissociation of metal halides.
Wattage: 32-2000 watts
MAJOR VARIATIONS
Universal-burning position
Ability to burn in any operating position
Performs best when the arc tube is 15 degrees of vertical position.
These lamps generate 65-100 lumens per watt.
Vertical- or horizontal-burning position
When designed for specific burning positions, metal halide lamps generate more light and offer more color
options than are available with universal-position lamps.
VERTICAL BURNING-optimized for base-up,-down,-up/-down operation (standard clear, coated, warm color
clear, and coated lamps). Generates about 70-110 lumens per watt! (10% more than universal burning lamps)
HORIZONTAL BURNING have bowed arc tubes and position-fixing pin(called prefocus/position-orienting
mogul. Used in outdoor lighting (flood lighting and highway signs). Smallest wattage:175 watts.
CURRENT PRODUCTS: METAL HALIDE LAMPS
Color shift
between lamps and over time.
Lamp temperature and age contribute to changing mixture of halides and their moment-to-
moment light and color output.
Double ended
Operate in the range of 35-95 lumens per watt and the 70-watt lamp with electric ballast
achieves a system efficacy of about 75 lumens per watt.
Double-ended lamps must be operated with the arc tube within 45 degrees of horizontal
Open luminaire/protected lamps
These lamps typically employ an inner glass shield or reinforced arc tube so that, in the event of
arc tube failure, the pieces are contained within the lamp's outer envelope.
APPLICATION: car headlights, photography, indoor growing applications
CURRENT PRODUCTS: MERCURY LAMPS
High-pressure mercury (vapour) lamp are high-intensity discharge lamp
in which the major portion of the light is produced, directly or indirectly,
by radiation from mercury operating at a partial pressure in excess of 100
kilopascals.

APPLICATION: street light and other outdoor applications


CURRENT PRODUCTS: SODIUM LAMPS
HIGH PRESSURE SODIUM LAMPS LOW PRESSURE SODIUM LAMPS
Low-pressure sodium (vapour) lamps High-pressure sodium (vapour) lamp
are discharge lamps in which the are high-intensity discharge lamps
light is produced by radiation from in which the light is produced mainly by
sodium vapour operating at a partial radiation from sodium vapour
pressure of 0.1 pascal to 1.5 pascal operating at a partial pressure of the
order of 10 kilopascals.
monochromatic
Does not contain starting electrodes
APPLICATION: security, roadway, tunnel,
plant grow lights, interior lighting APPLICATION: high color rendering is
not a cruicial concern
HIGH PRESSURE SODIUM LAMP CONFIGURATIONS
a) Universal burning position-HPS lamps, unlike most metal halides, do not require
enclosure except to prevent moisture from accumulating on the lamp. This makes HPS
lamps especially easy to use in many fixture types.
b) Universal position directional HPS lamps - useful for compact directional light
sources, such as track lighting and outdoor lighting luminaires.
c) Double-ended HPS lamps - The double-ended HPS was designed to take
advantage of luminaires and lighting installations originally designed for the double-
ended metal halide lamp.
d) White sodium lamps- White HPS lamps offer lamp life and lumen maintenance
characteristics similar to those of other HPS lamps whose color temperatures and CRI
may be unsuitable for many interior spaces.