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ANGLE IN LOGO ENVIRONMENT

Turtle Paths set out to explore childrens


understanding
Amount of turn in work with angles
ANGLE IN LOGO ENVIRONMENT
Clements et al in 1990
after working in logo contexts designed to
address ideas of angle and turn, children
develop mathematically correct, coherent and
abstract ideas about these concepts
ANGLE IN LOGO ENVIRONMENT
ideas being studied
- paths and lengths of paths
- turns in paths
- paths with the same lengths involving
isometric exercises
ANGLE IN LOGO ENVIRONMENT
Studies found out:
role of the computer environment in the
development of childrens concept of turn
A dialectical relationship between two
cognitive schemes, extrinsic perspective and
intrinsic perspective in students knowledge of
turns
ANGLE IN LOGO ENVIRONMENT
EXTRINSIC PERSPECTIVE
frame of reference imposed from the
outside
THE TURN is determined by its relationship
to something fixed and external to it e.g. co-
ordinate geometry
ANGLE IN LOGO ENVIRONMENT
INTRINSIC PERSPECTIVE
children are in control and can direct the
turtle without any external constraint
ANGLE IN LOGO ENVIRONMENT
4 more specific themes (procedural
knowledge)
The concept of turn
Right and left directionality (clockwise and
anti-clockwise)
The measure of turn
Combining turns
ANGLE IN LOGO ENVIRONMENT
Clements et. al.
turns are less salient for children than motion
from one position to another
the reason suggested for childrens difficulties is
the fact:
a turn is represented by two straight line segments
being joined at a point and angle has something to
do with space between line segments
ANGLE IN LOGO ENVIRONMENT
Conclusion: 3 aspects to conceptualization
1. Children have to maintain record of mental
images of the initial and final heading of an
object as it turns
2. Children have to re-present the activity of
the rotation of an object from its initial to its
final heading and compare these images
ANGLE IN LOGO ENVIRONMENT
Conclusion: 3 aspects to conceptualization
3. Having to deal with multiplicity of ideas at
one time e.g. they are having to deal with both
length and turn and their relationship.
ANGLE IN LOGO ENVIRONMENT
points out the complexity of the concept of
angle
Misconceptions formed can be long lasting
and difficult to overcome.
ANGLE IN LOGO ENVIRONMENT
children have made valuable cognitive
constructions concerning rotation in the
course of investigation
CHILDRENS CONCEPT OF 3D SHAPE
Investigated by AngiIilieri and Baron (1997)
66 children
Poleidoblocs (cubes, cuboids, cylinders,
triangular prisms, cones and pyramids that
are interrelated)
Practical activities are involved
CHILDRENS CONCEPT OF 3D SHAPE
CHILDRENS CONCEPT OF 3D SHAPE
5 Kinds of Mathematical Experience
1. Sorting using shape, color and size and function
2. Balancing and intuitive notions of measurement
3. Ideas related to stability
4. Aspects of parallel sloping and horizontal faces
together with central positioning
5. Concept of symmetry
CHILDRENS CONCEPT OF 3D SHAPE
Differences between boys and girls
Boys Girls
1. tall and carefully 1. Focus on sorting
balanced structures
2. Built trains 2. Built palace and
playground
CHILDRENS CONCEPT OF 3D SHAPE
Basis of for the structured tasks at the
beginning:
1. Matching three-dimensional shapes and two-
dimensional faces
2. Building a tower beside another tower and
matching its height.
CHILDRENS CONCEPT OF 3D SHAPE
3. A tactile task where a cylinder was shown,
then the child had to select the same shape
from a feely bag
4. Sorting where all the bricks the same as the
green cylinder had to be selected from a set of
ten, then all the bricks the same shape.
CHILDRENS CONCEPT OF 3D SHAPE
5. Continuing a sequence of red bricks in the
order: cube, cuboid, cylinder, cube, cuboid and
two more bricks.
CHILDRENS CONCEPT OF 3D SHAPE
CONCLUSION:
Childrens learning about three dimensional
shapes achieved by handling and using them in
constructions can be improved upon through
experience with the shapes where only tactile
and visual experience are involved.
CHILDRENS CONCEPT OF 3D SHAPE
CONCLUSION:
Discussion involving the names and
characteristics of the 3-D shapes is necessary for
children to clarify mathematical understanding.
CHILDRENS CONCEPT OF 3D SHAPE
Clements et. al.
the students in the study is at the pre-
representational in the van Hiele hierarchy
TWO-DIMENSIONAL ARRAYS
(FIRST STUDY: Development of 7 and 8-year old
childrens spatial skills)
Battista et. al.
Found that the children were disorganized in
the way they approached counting the edges
of triangular prisms they themselves
constructed, and had no global schema in the
early stages to count in small groups of
composites
TWO-DIMENSIONAL ARRAYS
It is seen as kind of abstraction, and by applying
it in spatial situations children:
a) Have to identify the spatial components of
the situation
b) Combine these spatial components into
composites
c) Establish an interrelationship between the
components and the composites
TWO-DIMENSIONAL ARRAYS
progress beyond this stage when they
construct the notion of perspective,
recognize that the orthogonal views must
somehow be coordinated and become
capable of accomplishing such
coordination
TWO-DIMENSIONAL ARRAYS
SECOND STUDY
Stage 1: Children are interviewed
Stage 2: Data was analyzed to produce
descriptions of the mechanisms used; and if
possible, identify levels in their counting
approach
TWO-DIMENSIONAL ARRAYS
3 LEVELS OF CHILDRENS COUNTING APPROACH
1. Complete lack of any row-by-column
structuring
2. Partial structuring
3. A. structuring in sets of row-by-column
composites
B. Counting visually
TWO-DIMENSIONAL ARRAYS
Implication:
Children who have not reached a stage
of seeing arrays in composite units will
find it difficult to group objects or
symbols to represent multiplicative
structure
Cabri Geometry with 8- to 11-yr-olds
Constructionism
Learning approaches in which the learner
constructs knowledge through building a
meaningful product
Cabri Geometry with 8- to 11-yr-olds
Children by doing mathematics enter into
an increasingly informed relationship with
the mathematical concepts embedded
within that activity and the more
connections made ... the more concrete it
becomes for the learner
THE DEVELOPMENT OF SPATIAL
ABILITIES IN OLDER CHILDREN
MENTAL MODELS OF SPATIAL CONCEPTS
Chinnapan
Effective use of prior topic knowledge during
problem solving is dependent upon the
organization of that knowledge
Schema cluster of knowledge that contains
information about core concepts, the
relations bet these concepts and knowledge
about when and how to use it.
MENTAL MODELS OF SPATIAL CONCEPTS
Chinnapan
He notes that the more elaborate schema,
the more likely pupils will be able to
construct useful, as well as multiple
representations of problem ...schemas may
be used by pupils in their organization of
geometrical knowledge
MENTAL MODELS OF SPATIAL CONCEPTS
These organized knowledge structures
are viewed in terms of:
the acquisition of mathematical
concepts, principles and procedures
the organization of these into schemas
Leading to the provision of a
knowledge base for further
mathematical activity
MENTAL MODELS OF SPATIAL CONCEPTS
Chinnapan points out we need to develop
the necessary knowledge structures that
will help low achievers to become more
effective problem-solvers
PERCEPTION OF SHAPE ANGLE
Orton (1997)
Relationship between childrens
perception of pattern and their general
ability and issues in manipulating 2D
shapes
PERCEPTION OF SHAPE ANGLE
Orton (1997)
Pattern means included ideas of shape
recognition, congruence and
symmetry ...linked with
transformations
PERCEPTION OF SHAPE ANGLE
Orton (1997)
Children aged 9-10: established a body
of pattern recognition or knowledge
but lack the vocabulary with which to
describe it
PERCEPTION OF SHAPE ANGLE
Results indicate 3 Developmental stages
in pattern recognition:
Stage 1: copying a shape; detection of
embedded pictures; simple completion
of pattern; matching picture shape;
recognition of vertical axis; simple
rotation and reflection; completing task
with a frame of reference
PERCEPTION OF SHAPE ANGLE
Results indicate 3 Developmental stages
in pattern recognition:
Stage 2: matching of embedded shapes;
matching simple geometric shapes in
different orientations; more complex
rotation and reflection tasks with a frame
of reference
PERCEPTION OF SHAPE ANGLE
Results indicate 3 Developmental stages
in pattern recognition:
Stage 3: matching more complex shapes
in different orientations; more complex
completion of pattern tasks including
rotation; recognition of most reflection
and rotation
PERCEPTION OF SHAPE ANGLE
Main result of the study:
pupils lack the vocabulary to describe
what they see
thus reinforcing the importance of
language in developing spatial abilities
PERCEPTION OF SHAPE ANGLE
Understanding Perpendicularity
1. Two lines
2. Line intersects
3. The right angle is formed at the
intersection point
4. There are three other angles
5. 3 other angles are right angles
6. A right angle is a 90 angle
PERCEPTION OF SHAPE ANGLE
Understanding Perpendicularity
Difficulties that the Pupils encountered:
1. Identification
2. Selection
3. Inference
PERCEPTION OF SHAPE ANGLE
Understanding Perpendicularity
Confusion about perpendicularity that results
from:
1. Way of visual information is processed
2. Childrens thought processes
3. Childrens concept images
PERCEPTION OF SHAPE ANGLE
CONCLUSION:
visual links between right angles,
perpendicular lines, and the complex
figures in which they appear need to be
specifically addressed
using concrete models, drawings and
mental verifications
COMPUTER ENVIRONMENT STUDIES
Jones (1997)
when using computers or manipulatives
consider carefully what stands between the
learners and the knowledge that they are
intended to learn
focus on learning mediated through
employing such resources
DEVELOPING SPATIAL COMPETENCES
Jones (1997)
when using computers or manipulatives
consider carefully what stands between the
learners and the knowledge that they are
intended to learn
focus on learning mediated through
employing such resources