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Philippine

Biodiversity:
Issues,
Challenges,
and Initiatives
We all depend on biodiversity
to survive!

But what is biodiversity?


BIO = LIFE
DIVERSITY = VARIETY
Biodiversity - what is it?

Variety of life in our natural


environment - from the smallest
micro-organism to the largest
mammals, including the
ecosystems where they live -
forests and mountains, rivers
and seas.

Variety within and between


species.
LEVELS OF BIODIVERSITY

-The genes are


responsible for the
uniqueness of every
living organism
LEVELS OF BIODIVERSITY

-usually measured in terms of


the total number of species
found in a particular area www.stuartxchange.com Waling Waling
Kalantas

worldbirdwatching.wordpress.com
epenthes argentii
Cebu Flowerpecker
LEVELS OF BIODIVERSITY

-self sustaining collection


of organisms and habitat
Biodiversity - The Web of Life

Birds pick up seeds and drop them


on a rich soil enriched by ants,
microorganisms, etc.
The seeds grows into a variety of
trees, becoming a forest.
Forests and mountains provide
aquifer (source of fresh water)
and oxygen.
Man eats fruits from trees and
drops seeds.
Birds and other pollinators pick up
seeds again and the cycle
continues.
What benefits do we
get from biodiversity?
BIODIVERSITY FEEDS THE WORLD
Inthe olden days, humans had over 10,000 species for food.
Today - About 30 crops provide our bodys energy requirements; 40
species of mammals and birds domesticated for food; 14 species
account for 90% of livestock production.
Biodiversity provides
air and water

Forests generate oxygen


that we breathe.

Forests and mountains


provide aquifers - sources
of water we drink.
Biodiversity provides
materials for clothing and shelter

Fiber
Timber

Bamboo

Cogon

Anahaw

Rattan
Biodiversity heals

About 80 % of the world's


biodiversity resources with
medicinal values are in
forests. (The world loses
around 13 million hectares
of forest cover every year.)

Cone snail, living in corals, is


source of medicine for cancer
pain. (Around 88% of
ASEANs corals are at risk.)
Biodiversity brings income to millions

Livelihood (selling fish, fruits and vegetables; furniture


making and wood carving; pearl farming; livestock raising and
selling)
Forestry, Agriculture and Fisheries
Biotechnology, Pharmaceuticals
Ecotourism

1
Biodiversity brings
income to millions

Around 80 % of

ASEANs rural
poors income is
derived from
biodiversity.
Biodiversity soothes

Nature tripping
Mountain climbing
Bird watching
Enjoying the beach or verdant
forests
Comfort in nature by simply
looking at the green grass
Hearing the joyful chirping of
birds
Watching a puppy at play
Inspiration to artists for their
masterpieces
What services do we get
from our ecosystems?
ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

Provisioning (production of food, air


water, including purification of air and
water, etc.)
Regulating (stabilization of climate,
control of diseases, detoxification and
decomposition of wastes, creation of
drainage systems, etc.)
Supporting (nutrient cycling, crop
pollination, soil fertilization,
prevention of soil erosion, etc.)
Cultural (social, spiritual and
recreational benefits)
Wetlands and Mangroves

Provides timber and other Maintains plant, animal,


vegetation for human use and microbial biodiversity
Provides outdoor recreation,
education, and ecotourism

Sequesters Carbon Provides wildlife habitat

Provides fish and breeding


grounds and nurseries
Stores surface water and
Filters and recycles N and P released Recharges
reduces flood damage
by human activity into water underground aquifers
Forest canopy and leaf litter Forest trees and plants store Forest canopy purifies air by
protect the soil surface from the carbon and help slow human- filtering particulates and
erosive power of rain caused global climate change providing chemical reaction sites
where pollutants are detoxified
Forests help maintain the water
cycle and stabilize local climate Forests provide critical Provides outdoor recreation,
habitat for plants, education, and ecotourism
Forests provide goods animals, and microbes
such as food, timber, and Forest tree roots bind soils
medicines Deep forest soils store and help prevent erosion
large volumes of water

Forest soils purify


water, acting as a
massive filters

Forest Ecosystems
Marine Ecosystems

Provides fish and other


Sequesters Carbon marine fauna habitat

Maintains marine plant, animal, Provides fish and breeding


and microbial biodiversity grounds and nurseries

Provides outdoor recreation,


education, and ecotourism Filters and recycles N and P released by
human activity into water
Ecosystem Services in Southeast Asia valued
at over US$2.2 billion (ASEAN TEEB 2012)
Biodiversity is Life. Biodiversity is our Life.
We get our food and water
Biodiversity soothes from biodiversity

Biodiversity cures us

Biodiversity clothes us Biodiversity gives us shelter

Biodiversity provides us livelihood


How rich is our biodiversity?
PHILIPPINES
Natures Superpower!

Facts and Figures


Facts and Figures

Mt. Makiling contains more tree species than the whole


continental United States, which land area is 32 times bigger than the
Philippines.
Facts and Figures

The Philippines is SECOND in the world in terms of butterfly species


endemicity. Of its 895 species, 352 are endemic.
Facts and Figures

Of its 183
FIFTH in the world in mammalian endemicity.
species, 120 or 66% are endemic.
Facts and Figures

EIGHTH in the world in reptilian species endemicity. Of


its 258
species, 170 or 66% are endemic.
Facts and Figures

There are 171 species


of amphibians in the
Philippines, 78% of
these are
endemics.

Polillo forest frog


Facts and Figures

Philippine Eagle,
the worlds largest eagle.
Facts and Figures

There 54 species of mangroves in the world and 40 species of


these are found in the Philippines.
Facts and Figures

500 of the 800+ known coral species in the world is


found in our country.
Philippine Biodiversity
The Philippines is one of the 18 megadiverse countries.

Has more than 52, 177 described species, half of which


are endemic found nowhere else in the world.
We are in
great danger!
Hottest of the Hotspots
The Philippines is one of the 35 hotspots in the world.

Ona per unit area basis, the Philippines is the top


megadiversity country and the hottest of the hotspots.
Depletion of the Philippine biodiversity

Mangrove forests
149,000 hectares remain from the original 450,000 hectares in 1918.
Depletion of the Philippine biodiversity

Wetlands
- more than half of the countrys wetlands of international importance
covering 14,000 sq. km. are threatened.
Forest
- In 1935, there were 17 million hectares of forests. Today, there are
only six million hectares .
Overview of
biodiversity
loss in the
Philippines.

THREAT TO
BIODIVERSITY
Climate Change

Climate change is likely to become the dominant direct driver


of biodiversity loss by the end of the century.
(MA, 2005)
Climate Change

In Asia, the IPCC report predicts that up to 50 percent of biodiversity is


at risk.
As much as 88 percent of coral reefs may be lost in the next 30 years as
a result of climate change.
Climate Change

Globally, about 20 to 30 percent of species will be at increasingly high


risk of extinction possibly by year 2100 as global mean temperatures
exceed 2 to 3C above pre-industrial levels (Fischlin et al., 2007).
Climate Change

The ASEAN region is especially vulnerable to climate change


since a huge proportion of its population lives along
coastlines (ADB, 2009).
Deforestation
3 million hectares of peatland burned over
the past decade in Southeast Asia.

$9 billion in economic loss caused by forest


fires in Indonesia, including health damage
from smoke.

NASA: Forest fires released as many


greenhouse gases as all the cars and power
plants in Europe in an entire year." (Earth
Policy Institute, 2009)

Net annual forest area loss in Southeast


Asia at 2.4 M ha in the 1990s; 0.4M ha in
2000-2006; and 1.0 M ha in 2005-2010,
respectively (FAO, 2010).
Deforestation

Shifting cultivation and agricultural


expansion (Forest cover declining at about
1% per year due to expansion of agriculture
and human settlements to provide for the
growing population)

1 percent: deforestation rate in Southeast


Asia from 2000-2010 , which is lower than
the 1.5-1.7 percent estimates provided for
1900s (FAO, 2006). (National University of
Singapore).

If this continues, the region will lose up to


3/4 of its forests, and up to 42% of its
biodiversity by 2100.
Consequence of
deforestation
Loss of habitat for many
birds, mammals and
other animals

Reduced pollinator
activity

Overall reductions in
biodiversity
Invasive Alien Species

IAS - one of the major drivers of environmental change, thus, placing


considerable constraints on environmental conservation, economic growth,
and sustainable development.
When IAS enter new habitats, they compete with native species over food
supply and allow them to dominate the local ecosystem.
Cost of damage caused by invasive alien species (IAS) globally is around US$
1.4 trillion p.a. (Global Invasive Species Programme, 2008)
Illegal Wildlife Trade

Over 100 million animals are hunted for bush meat


Illegal wildlife trade valued at USD $ 10 to 20 billion (ASEAN-WEN)
Targets - Indonesia, Malaysia, and Myanmar. Smugglers frequently caught
utilizing transport links through Thailand and Viet Nam. (ASEAN WEN)
13,000 metric tons of turtles shipped into China every year
People have impacts on nature

Nature provides services for people


Humans: Both Problem and Solution
to Biodiversity Loss

As a problem, irresponsible human practices


contribute to biodiversity loss

As a solution, humans have the knowledge, expertise and


financial resources to conserve biodiversity
What can youths
and schools do
to conserve
biodiversity?
What can schools do to conserve biodiversity?
Integrate biodiversity lessons in appropriate subjects.
Conduct school activities that will promote biodiversity
conservation
Students to take the lead in their homes and communities:

Conserve water and electricity


Recycle / re-use clothes, paper, cans, glass and plastic
bottles
Adopt simple lifestyles - consume less; produce less
garbage
Dispose wastes properly
Eat together
What can schools do to conserve biodiversity?

Educate yourselves on which species of seafood are under


threat and avoid buying them
Buy products with less packaging; avoid use of plastic bags (or
re-use them)
Grow our own fruits and vegetables; eat less meat as meat
production requires more inputs and energy
When buying, choose appliances with high-energy efficiency
ratings / use fluorescent lamps
What can schools do to conserve biodiversity?

Use social networking tools such as FB, etc. to promote


biodiversity conservation
Walk, bike, carpool
Write about biodiversity conservation in school paper
Report environmental crimes to DENR/city government
Conduct / join environmental contests
Volunteer - Bantay Kalikasan
Write to government officials
Plant trees
A single mature tree can release enough
oxygen back into the atmosphere to
support 2 human beings.

A single mature tree can absorb 4.5 kg (10


lbs) of air pollutants, including 1.8 kg (4
lbs) of ozone and 1.4 kg (3 lbs) of
particulates.

Trees store carbon and help slow human-


caused climate change.

Tree canopies and leaf litter protect the


soil surface from the erosive power or rain.

Why plant trees?


Trees purify our air and water.

Trees provide food, timber and medicine.

Forests provide outdoor recreation,


education and eco-tourism.

Over a 50-year lifetime, a tree generates


$31,250 worth of oxygen, provides
$62,000 worth of air pollution control,
recycles $37,500 worth of water, and
controls $31,250 worth of soil erosion.

Why plant trees?


Join the
GREEN
WAVE!
www.greenwave.cbd.int
The Green Wave is a global
biodiversity campaign to
educate children and youth
about biodiversity.

Each year, the Green Wave


will contribute to worldwide
celebrations of
the International Day for
Biological Diversity - 22 May.
www.greenwave.cbd.int

On 22 May, students around the world count down to 10:00 AM


local time, when they will water their tree in their respective
schoolyards, thereby creating a figurative green wave starting in
the far east and traveling west around the world.
www.greenwave.cbd.int
Students plant locally important
tree species in or near their
schoolyard. Ideally, the tree
species should be indigenous.

Where possible, the trees


should be planted on 22 May -
the INTERNATIONAL DAY FOR
BIODIVERSITY.

You may plant in another month


but still hold a special ceremony
on 22 May.
www.greenwave.cbd.int

Throughout the day,


students can upload
photos and text
summaries on the
Green Wave website to
share their tree-
planting story with
other children and
youth from around the
world.
www.greenwave.cbd.int