You are on page 1of 64


and Initiatives
We all depend on biodiversity
to survive!

But what is biodiversity?

Biodiversity - what is it?

Variety of life in our natural

environment - from the smallest
micro-organism to the largest
mammals, including the
ecosystems where they live -
forests and mountains, rivers
and seas.

Variety within and between


-The genes are

responsible for the
uniqueness of every
living organism

-usually measured in terms of

the total number of species
found in a particular area Waling Waling
epenthes argentii
Cebu Flowerpecker

-self sustaining collection

of organisms and habitat
Biodiversity - The Web of Life

Birds pick up seeds and drop them

on a rich soil enriched by ants,
microorganisms, etc.
The seeds grows into a variety of
trees, becoming a forest.
Forests and mountains provide
aquifer (source of fresh water)
and oxygen.
Man eats fruits from trees and
drops seeds.
Birds and other pollinators pick up
seeds again and the cycle
What benefits do we
get from biodiversity?
Inthe olden days, humans had over 10,000 species for food.
Today - About 30 crops provide our bodys energy requirements; 40
species of mammals and birds domesticated for food; 14 species
account for 90% of livestock production.
Biodiversity provides
air and water

Forests generate oxygen

that we breathe.

Forests and mountains

provide aquifers - sources
of water we drink.
Biodiversity provides
materials for clothing and shelter





Biodiversity heals

About 80 % of the world's

biodiversity resources with
medicinal values are in
forests. (The world loses
around 13 million hectares
of forest cover every year.)

Cone snail, living in corals, is

source of medicine for cancer
pain. (Around 88% of
ASEANs corals are at risk.)
Biodiversity brings income to millions

Livelihood (selling fish, fruits and vegetables; furniture

making and wood carving; pearl farming; livestock raising and
Forestry, Agriculture and Fisheries
Biotechnology, Pharmaceuticals

Biodiversity brings
income to millions

Around 80 % of

ASEANs rural
poors income is
derived from
Biodiversity soothes

Nature tripping
Mountain climbing
Bird watching
Enjoying the beach or verdant
Comfort in nature by simply
looking at the green grass
Hearing the joyful chirping of
Watching a puppy at play
Inspiration to artists for their
What services do we get
from our ecosystems?

Provisioning (production of food, air

water, including purification of air and
water, etc.)
Regulating (stabilization of climate,
control of diseases, detoxification and
decomposition of wastes, creation of
drainage systems, etc.)
Supporting (nutrient cycling, crop
pollination, soil fertilization,
prevention of soil erosion, etc.)
Cultural (social, spiritual and
recreational benefits)
Wetlands and Mangroves

Provides timber and other Maintains plant, animal,

vegetation for human use and microbial biodiversity
Provides outdoor recreation,
education, and ecotourism

Sequesters Carbon Provides wildlife habitat

Provides fish and breeding

grounds and nurseries
Stores surface water and
Filters and recycles N and P released Recharges
reduces flood damage
by human activity into water underground aquifers
Forest canopy and leaf litter Forest trees and plants store Forest canopy purifies air by
protect the soil surface from the carbon and help slow human- filtering particulates and
erosive power of rain caused global climate change providing chemical reaction sites
where pollutants are detoxified
Forests help maintain the water
cycle and stabilize local climate Forests provide critical Provides outdoor recreation,
habitat for plants, education, and ecotourism
Forests provide goods animals, and microbes
such as food, timber, and Forest tree roots bind soils
medicines Deep forest soils store and help prevent erosion
large volumes of water

Forest soils purify

water, acting as a
massive filters

Forest Ecosystems
Marine Ecosystems

Provides fish and other

Sequesters Carbon marine fauna habitat

Maintains marine plant, animal, Provides fish and breeding

and microbial biodiversity grounds and nurseries

Provides outdoor recreation,

education, and ecotourism Filters and recycles N and P released by
human activity into water
Ecosystem Services in Southeast Asia valued
at over US$2.2 billion (ASEAN TEEB 2012)
Biodiversity is Life. Biodiversity is our Life.
We get our food and water
Biodiversity soothes from biodiversity

Biodiversity cures us

Biodiversity clothes us Biodiversity gives us shelter

Biodiversity provides us livelihood

How rich is our biodiversity?
Natures Superpower!

Facts and Figures

Facts and Figures

Mt. Makiling contains more tree species than the whole

continental United States, which land area is 32 times bigger than the
Facts and Figures

The Philippines is SECOND in the world in terms of butterfly species

endemicity. Of its 895 species, 352 are endemic.
Facts and Figures

Of its 183
FIFTH in the world in mammalian endemicity.
species, 120 or 66% are endemic.
Facts and Figures

EIGHTH in the world in reptilian species endemicity. Of

its 258
species, 170 or 66% are endemic.
Facts and Figures

There are 171 species

of amphibians in the
Philippines, 78% of
these are

Polillo forest frog

Facts and Figures

Philippine Eagle,
the worlds largest eagle.
Facts and Figures

There 54 species of mangroves in the world and 40 species of

these are found in the Philippines.
Facts and Figures

500 of the 800+ known coral species in the world is

found in our country.
Philippine Biodiversity
The Philippines is one of the 18 megadiverse countries.

Has more than 52, 177 described species, half of which

are endemic found nowhere else in the world.
We are in
great danger!
Hottest of the Hotspots
The Philippines is one of the 35 hotspots in the world.

Ona per unit area basis, the Philippines is the top

megadiversity country and the hottest of the hotspots.
Depletion of the Philippine biodiversity

Mangrove forests
149,000 hectares remain from the original 450,000 hectares in 1918.
Depletion of the Philippine biodiversity

- more than half of the countrys wetlands of international importance
covering 14,000 sq. km. are threatened.
- In 1935, there were 17 million hectares of forests. Today, there are
only six million hectares .
Overview of
loss in the

Climate Change

Climate change is likely to become the dominant direct driver

of biodiversity loss by the end of the century.
(MA, 2005)
Climate Change

In Asia, the IPCC report predicts that up to 50 percent of biodiversity is

at risk.
As much as 88 percent of coral reefs may be lost in the next 30 years as
a result of climate change.
Climate Change

Globally, about 20 to 30 percent of species will be at increasingly high

risk of extinction possibly by year 2100 as global mean temperatures
exceed 2 to 3C above pre-industrial levels (Fischlin et al., 2007).
Climate Change

The ASEAN region is especially vulnerable to climate change

since a huge proportion of its population lives along
coastlines (ADB, 2009).
3 million hectares of peatland burned over
the past decade in Southeast Asia.

$9 billion in economic loss caused by forest

fires in Indonesia, including health damage
from smoke.

NASA: Forest fires released as many

greenhouse gases as all the cars and power
plants in Europe in an entire year." (Earth
Policy Institute, 2009)

Net annual forest area loss in Southeast

Asia at 2.4 M ha in the 1990s; 0.4M ha in
2000-2006; and 1.0 M ha in 2005-2010,
respectively (FAO, 2010).

Shifting cultivation and agricultural

expansion (Forest cover declining at about
1% per year due to expansion of agriculture
and human settlements to provide for the
growing population)

1 percent: deforestation rate in Southeast

Asia from 2000-2010 , which is lower than
the 1.5-1.7 percent estimates provided for
1900s (FAO, 2006). (National University of

If this continues, the region will lose up to

3/4 of its forests, and up to 42% of its
biodiversity by 2100.
Consequence of
Loss of habitat for many
birds, mammals and
other animals

Reduced pollinator

Overall reductions in
Invasive Alien Species

IAS - one of the major drivers of environmental change, thus, placing

considerable constraints on environmental conservation, economic growth,
and sustainable development.
When IAS enter new habitats, they compete with native species over food
supply and allow them to dominate the local ecosystem.
Cost of damage caused by invasive alien species (IAS) globally is around US$
1.4 trillion p.a. (Global Invasive Species Programme, 2008)
Illegal Wildlife Trade

Over 100 million animals are hunted for bush meat

Illegal wildlife trade valued at USD $ 10 to 20 billion (ASEAN-WEN)
Targets - Indonesia, Malaysia, and Myanmar. Smugglers frequently caught
utilizing transport links through Thailand and Viet Nam. (ASEAN WEN)
13,000 metric tons of turtles shipped into China every year
People have impacts on nature

Nature provides services for people

Humans: Both Problem and Solution
to Biodiversity Loss

As a problem, irresponsible human practices

contribute to biodiversity loss

As a solution, humans have the knowledge, expertise and

financial resources to conserve biodiversity
What can youths
and schools do
to conserve
What can schools do to conserve biodiversity?
Integrate biodiversity lessons in appropriate subjects.
Conduct school activities that will promote biodiversity
Students to take the lead in their homes and communities:

Conserve water and electricity

Recycle / re-use clothes, paper, cans, glass and plastic
Adopt simple lifestyles - consume less; produce less
Dispose wastes properly
Eat together
What can schools do to conserve biodiversity?

Educate yourselves on which species of seafood are under

threat and avoid buying them
Buy products with less packaging; avoid use of plastic bags (or
re-use them)
Grow our own fruits and vegetables; eat less meat as meat
production requires more inputs and energy
When buying, choose appliances with high-energy efficiency
ratings / use fluorescent lamps
What can schools do to conserve biodiversity?

Use social networking tools such as FB, etc. to promote

biodiversity conservation
Walk, bike, carpool
Write about biodiversity conservation in school paper
Report environmental crimes to DENR/city government
Conduct / join environmental contests
Volunteer - Bantay Kalikasan
Write to government officials
Plant trees
A single mature tree can release enough
oxygen back into the atmosphere to
support 2 human beings.

A single mature tree can absorb 4.5 kg (10

lbs) of air pollutants, including 1.8 kg (4
lbs) of ozone and 1.4 kg (3 lbs) of

Trees store carbon and help slow human-

caused climate change.

Tree canopies and leaf litter protect the

soil surface from the erosive power or rain.

Why plant trees?

Trees purify our air and water.

Trees provide food, timber and medicine.

Forests provide outdoor recreation,

education and eco-tourism.

Over a 50-year lifetime, a tree generates

$31,250 worth of oxygen, provides
$62,000 worth of air pollution control,
recycles $37,500 worth of water, and
controls $31,250 worth of soil erosion.

Why plant trees?

Join the
The Green Wave is a global
biodiversity campaign to
educate children and youth
about biodiversity.

Each year, the Green Wave

will contribute to worldwide
celebrations of
the International Day for
Biological Diversity - 22 May.

On 22 May, students around the world count down to 10:00 AM

local time, when they will water their tree in their respective
schoolyards, thereby creating a figurative green wave starting in
the far east and traveling west around the world.
Students plant locally important
tree species in or near their
schoolyard. Ideally, the tree
species should be indigenous.

Where possible, the trees

should be planted on 22 May -

You may plant in another month

but still hold a special ceremony
on 22 May.

Throughout the day,

students can upload
photos and text
summaries on the
Green Wave website to
share their tree-
planting story with
other children and
youth from around the