You are on page 1of 27

Building a Research-Based

Teacher Education model


Angelos Konstantinidis Antoni Badia (supervisor)
Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, Barcelona Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, Barcelona
Email: angelntini@uoc.edu
Twitter: @angelntini
Fundamental Elements of RBTE
1. Engage teachers with research
2. Integrate theory and practice
3. Development of critical reflection skills
4. Support and mentoring
5. Context
6. Dissemination of teacher research
7. Supportive atmosphere and constructive feedback
8. Collaborative Inquiry
2
Fundamental Elements of RBTE
1. Engage teachers with research Both a goal and way to achieve this goal
2. Integrate theory and practice
Four main ways (Healey & Jenkins, 2009)
3. Development of critical reflection skills
4. Support and mentoring
5. Context
6. Dissemination of teacher research
7. Supportive atmosphere and constructive feedback
8. Collaborative Inquiry

3
Fundamental Elements of RBTE
1. Engage teachers with research Major concern in all RBTE programmes
2. Integrate theory and practice
Integration of theory and practice should
3. Development of critical reflection skills be understood as a multi-layered
4. Support and mentoring phenomenon that the student encounters
5. Context
along their study path (Maaranen &
Krokfors, 2008)
6. Dissemination of teacher research
The overall programme should emphasise
7. Supportive atmosphere and constructive feedback
inquiry as a continuous part of the teaching
8. Collaborative Inquiry practice (Dobber et al., 2012)
Assignments that student-teachers have to
do in their classroom, Portfolio writing, Peer
discussions about school reality

4
Fundamental Elements of RBTE
1. Engage teachers with research key element of teacher development in
2. Integrate theory and practice research-based teacher education
3. Development of critical reflection skills
(Maaranen & Krokfors, 2007)
Four distinct categories: experience, description
4. Support and mentoring of the experience, analysis of the experience, and
5. Context reflection on the analysis

6. Dissemination of teacher research Reflective diaries, reflective essays, portfolios,


7. Supportive atmosphere and constructive feedback
assignments on classroom and reflection on
practices, argumentative discussions
8. Collaborative Inquiry

5
Fundamental Elements of RBTE
1. Engage teachers with research Role of the supervisor and the evaluator
2. Integrate theory and practice might better be undertaken by different
3. Development of critical reflection skills
academics (Dobber et al., 2012)
4. Support and mentoring Two mentors: an experienced local
5. Context
colleague (a venue to discuss and reflect on
the everyday practices more informally) and
6. Dissemination of teacher research a university lecturer (responsible for the
7. Supportive atmosphere and constructive feedback curricular framework and for enhancing
8. Collaborative Inquiry rational reflection) (Kynslahti et al., 2006)
Collaborative inquiry: careful selection of
the group members and monitoring the
group progress (Dobber et al., 2012)
6
Fundamental Elements of RBTE
1. Engage teachers with research The inquiry context significantly affects the
2. Integrate theory and practice way peer teachers interact, form theories
3. Development of critical reflection skills
and use of their students work
4. Support and mentoring For creating a supportive context for
5. Context
teacher research three different
stakeholders should be involved (Leat et al.,
6. Dissemination of teacher research 2015):
7. Supportive atmosphere and constructive feedback key individuals within the school
8. Collaborative Inquiry scholars from higher education institutions
policy makers

7
Fundamental Elements of RBTE
1. Engage teachers with research helping teachers understand the societal
2. Integrate theory and practice effect of research increases their motivation
3. Development of critical reflection skills
(Kynslahti et al., 2006; Maaranen, 2009;
Maaranen & Krokfors, 2008)
4. Support and mentoring
5. Context
6. Dissemination of teacher research
7. Supportive atmosphere and constructive feedback
8. Collaborative Inquiry

8
Fundamental Elements of RBTE
1. Engage teachers with research Trust and collaboration is one of the key
2. Integrate theory and practice factors for harnessing the benefits of
3. Development of critical reflection skills
research in practice (Leat et al., 2015)
4. Support and mentoring Argumentative discussions among
5. Context
teachers helped student-teachers to
learned from each others experiences and
6. Dissemination of teacher research pedagogical thinking (Kynslahti et al.,
7. Supportive atmosphere and constructive feedback 2006; Maaranen & Krokfors, 2007)
8. Collaborative Inquiry Collaboration in planning and delivering
teaching (Wge & Haugalkken, 2013)
Collaboration within a CoP (Willemse et
al., 2015)
9
Fundamental Elements of RBTE
1. Engage teachers with research More demanding both from the part of
2. Integrate theory and practice the mentor and the student-teachers
3. Development of critical reflection skills A fundamental precondition is to ground
4. Support and mentoring research in the participants own work and
5. Context
questions (Dobber et al., 2012)
6. Dissemination of teacher research Reflective practice is often perceived as a
solitary process yet opportunities for
7. Supportive atmosphere and constructive feedback
collective reflection should be also provided
8. Collaborative Inquiry (Maaranen & Krokfors, 2008)
Participants requested to conduct the
research tasks in pairs since it helped them
to keep on track (Willemse et al., 2015)
10
Underlying rationale of our model
Our model aims to describe the processes in RBTE programmes
We integrated elements and ideas from the conducting educational design
research (CEDR) and the inquiry in educational institutions (IEI) fields
Teacher-students who participate in RBTE programmes have to develop their
knowledge and skills in designing and conducting an inquiry in their own
institutional settings
CEDR: research design from an academic perspective; IEI: grounded to the
realities and complexities of real-world school life.

11
Models: Conducting Educational Design
Research & Inquiry in Educational Institutions

12
Model for the learning processes in RBTE
programmes
The interventionist
characteristic of being
engaged in inquiry is
apparent from the start,
while it increases over time
The process is iterative and
flexible
RBTE principles feed into
each phase
The inquiry process takes
place in an institutional and
social context

13
Core phases of the model
1. Scanning & Focusing on the Educational Context
2. Developing Understanding & Idea Generation
3. Design & Implementation of the Educational Project
4. Evaluation of the Educational Project & Reflection on its Outcomes

14
Core phases of the model
1. Scanning & Focusing on the Educational Context Aim: Acquire a good understanding of what
2. Understanding & Idea Generation is going on for learners (Timperley et al.,
2014) with an attitude of curiosity and open-
3. Design & Implementation mindedness to what is happening rather than
4. Evaluation & Reflection trying to extract evidence only to reinforce
the current status quo
Instead of top-down, learners input should
be required (surveys, interviews,
observation, student records, etc.)
Seven principles of learning by OECD
(Dumont et al., 2010) facilitate the process

15
Core phases of the model
1. Scanning & Focusing on the Educational Context Aim: determine which area and
2. Understanding & Idea Generation subsequently problem they will
3. Design & Implementation
concentrate their energy
4. Evaluation & Reflection A wrong decision or problem definition
at this phase may have catastrophic
results for the next phases
Role of the tutors is of crucial
importance

16
Core phases of the model
1. Scanning & Focusing on the Educational Context Scan for problems in their own
2. Understanding & Idea Generation educational institution (1st, 2nd)
3. Design & Implementation During focusing student-teachers can be
4. Evaluation & Reflection engaged in more in-depth discussions
about research issues with their peers
RBTE Principles (1st, 7th)
1. Engage teachers with research
2. Integrate theory and practice Student-teachers reflect on the
3. Development of critical reflection skills obtained data and examine whether the
4. Support and mentoring seven principles of learning are achieved
5. Context
6. Dissemination of teacher research and to what extent (3rd Principle)
7. Supportive atmosphere & constructive feedback
8. Collaborative Inquiry

17
Core phases of the model
1. Scanning & Focusing Once the problem is adequately
2. Developing Understanding & Idea Generation specified, the next step is to start
3. Design & Implementation
developing a wider as well as a deeper
understanding of the area of the
4. Evaluation & Reflection problem.
Mainly two ways: through reviewing the
literature on the research area of the
problem and through networking with
professionals who addressed similar
problems.

18
Core phases of the model
1. Scanning & Focusing A better understanding of the problem
2. Developing Understanding & Idea Generation can lead to generation of ideas
3. Design & Implementation Three techniques for nurturing the
4. Evaluation & Reflection development of creative ideas:
questioning assumptions, encouraging
idea generation, and cross-fertilizing
ideas (Sternberg & Williams, 1996)

19
Core phases of the model
1. Scanning & Focusing Student-teachers review the literature
2. Developing Understanding & Idea Generation about issues related to a problem
3. Design & Implementation
emerging from their own institutional
context (1st, 2nd)
4. Evaluation & Reflection
Share and discuss resources with their
RBTE Principles peers (1st, 7th)
1. Engage teachers with research
2. Integrate theory and practice Exchange ideas about potential
3. Development of critical reflection skills collaborations (8th)
4. Support and mentoring
5. Context Receive guidance from their tutors
6. Dissemination of teacher research and/or external mentors (4th)
7. Supportive atmosphere & constructive feedback
8. Collaborative Inquiry

20
Core phases of the model
1. Scanning & Focusing Two sub-processes: Design of the project
2. Understanding & Idea Generation and design of the data collection tools
3. Design & Implementation of the Project The design process includes the
specification of the learning objectives,
4. Evaluation & Reflection
selection of learning materials and resources,
lesson planning, curriculum organization,
task and assessment tools design.
Principle of constructive alignment (Biggs,
2003)
data collection tools as part of learning or
assessment tasks.

21
Core phases of the model
1. Scanning & Focusing A process which has an impact not only on
students and their learning, but also on
2. Understanding & Idea Generation student-teachers and the educational project
as a whole.
3. Design & Implementation of the Project
Meticulous design of the project may
4. Evaluation & Reflection reduce the risk of unexpected events, yet
surprises are inevitable in a learning context
Learning is a dynamic process - the project
might not develop as originally designed
A good balance of enthusiasm and realism
helps to sustain student-teachers motivation
and efforts throughout the implementation
of the project

22
Core phases of the model
1. Scanning & Focusing Student conduct research in their own
2. Developing Understanding & Idea Generation educational institution (1st, 2nd)
3. Design & Implementation of the Project Share and discuss experience with their
4. Evaluation & Reflection peers (1st, 7th)

RBTE Principles Possible collaborations (8th)


1. Engage teachers with research
Receive guidance from their tutors
2. Integrate theory and practice
3. Development of critical reflection skills and/or external mentors (4th)
4. Support and mentoring
5. Context
Reflect on the outcomes (3rd)
6. Dissemination of teacher research
7. Supportive atmosphere & constructive feedback
8. Collaborative Inquiry

23
Core phases of the model
1. Scanning & Focusing Analysis of collected data
2. Understanding & Idea Generation
Evaluation whether Learning Outcomes
3. Design & Implementation are fulfilled
4. Project Evaluation & Reflection on Outcomes
Reporting of other significant
issues/challenges related to the project

24
Core phases of the model
1. Scanning & Focusing Reflection on the design of the project,
2. Understanding & Idea Generation its impact on
3. Design & Implementation
learners/institution/community,
achievement of outcomes, personal
4. Project Evaluation & Reflection on Outcomes learning.
Dissemination

25
Core phases of the model
1. Scanning & Focusing Student conduct research in their own
2. Developing Understanding & Idea Generation educational institution (1st, 2nd)
3. Design & Implementation Share and discuss experience with their
4. Project Evaluation & Reflection on Outcomes peers (1st, 7th)

RBTE Principles Receive guidance from their tutors


1. Engage teachers with research and/or external mentors (4th)
2. Integrate theory and practice
3. Development of critical reflection skills Reflect on the outcomes (3rd)
4. Support and mentoring
5. Context
6. Dissemination of teacher research
7. Supportive atmosphere & constructive feedback
8. Collaborative Inquiry

26
References
Dobber, M., Akkerman, S. F., Verloop, N., & Vermunt, J. D. (2012). Student teachers collaborative research: Small-scale research projects during
teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28(4), 609-617.
Healey, M., & Jenkins, A. (2009). Developing undergraduate research and inquiry. York: The Higher Education Academy.
Kynslahti, H., Kansanen, P., Jyrhm, R., Krokfors, L., Maaranen, K., & Toom, A. (2006). The multimode programme as a variation of research-based
teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education,22(2), 246-256.
Leat, D., Reid, A., & Lofthouse, R. (2015). Teachers experiences of engagement with and in educational research: what can be learned from
teachers views? Oxford Review of Education, 41(2), 270-286.
Maaranen, K., & Krokfors, L. (2007). Time to think? Primary school teacher students reflecting on their MA thesis research processes. Reflective
Practice, 8(3), 359-373.
Maaranen, K., & Krokfors, L. (2008). Researching pupils, schools and oneself. Teachers as integrators of theory and practice in initial teacher
education. Journal of Education for Teaching, 34(3), 207-222.
Sternberg, R. J., & Williams, W. M. (1996). How to develop student creativity. Alexandria, VA: Association of Supervision and Curriculum
Development.
Wge, K., & Haugalkken, O. K. (2013). Research-based and hands-on practical teacher education: an attempt to combine the two. Journal of
Education for Teaching, 39(2), 235-249.
Willemse, T. M., Boei, F., & Pillen, M. (2015). Fostering Teacher Educators Professional Development on Practice-Based Research Through
Communities of Inquiry. Vocations and Learning, 9(1), 85-110.

27