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Biodiesel Myth Busting

101 Workshop
November 16th, 2017
Materials and data furnished by the
National Biodiesel Board (NBB)
Biodiesel Defined

 Biodiesel, n. -- a fuel comprised of mono-alkyl esters of
long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or
animal fats, meeting ASTM D 6751, designated B100.

 Biodiesel Blend, n. -- a blend of biodiesel fuel with
petroleum-based diesel fuel designated BXX, where XX is
the volume percent of biodiesel.

 This tightly specified definition was instrumental in
achieving OEM support

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What’s NOT Biodiesel?

 Raw vegetable oil/SVO
 Recycled cooking oil
 Ethanol
 Ethanol, methanol, or water
blended with diesel and an
emulsifier
 Other “Renewable Fuels”
Domestic Feedstocks

Cottonseed Oil Corn Oil By-Product
Camelina Oil
from Ethanol Plants
Yellow Grease

P
o
u
l
t
r
Canola Oil Soybean Oil y
F
a 4
t
2016 Feedstock Usage

* The Jacobson | Biodiesel Report
Transesterification process

Reacting: In the presence of a catalyst Yields:
100 Lbs.
100 Lbs.
Vegetable Oil
or Biodiesel
Animal Fat
+
+

10 Lbs. 10 Lbs.
Alcohol Glycerine
Produces mono-alkyl esters – chemically similar to diesel fuel
ASTM Standards for Biodiesel

ASTM D6751 is the approved standard for B100 for blending up to B20, in effect
since 2001
 Performance-based standard: Feedstock and Process Neutral
 48 states have now legislatively adopted the ASTM D6751 specifications
for biodiesel
D975 – Covers petrodiesel and blends up to 5% biodiesel maximum for on/off
road engines since 2008
D7467 – Covers blends containing 6% to 20% biodiesel for on/off road engines
since 2008
D396 - Covers heating oil and blends up to 5% biodiesel for boilers and home
heating oil units since 2008
 New B6-B20 grade in D396: Passed Dec 2014
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What is BQ-9000?

 Biodiesel Industry’s equivalent to an ISO 9000
program for biodiesel production & distribution
companies as well as testing labs
 NBB implemented BQ-9000 as a means to help instill
confidence in biodiesel with users and equipment
companies
 There are three key BQ-9000 designations:
– Producer (make it to spec)
– Marketer (buy spec, keep it in spec, blend it
right)
– Certified Laboratories (test the fuel, run the
tests right)
Biodiesel Environmental Benefits

 The EPA has determined that biodiesel
reduces lifecycle greenhouse gas
emissions by 57 percent to 86 percent
compared to petroleum diesel.
 Additionally, the EPA consistently cites
tailpipe emissions from traditional
diesel – primarily from older trucking
fleets – as a major national health
hazard.
 Substituting biodiesel for traditional
diesel fuel is a cost-effective way to
immediately reduce harmful
emissions.
Biodiesel’s Low Carbon Footprint

Biodiesel Reduces Global Warming

80% Overall Reduction in Carbon Emissions
• Meets EPA RFS ‘Advanced Fuel’ Definition
• Better than Natural Gas, Propane, Gas or Diesel

Energy Balance 5.4 to 1
• Over 5 times as much energy out
as it took to make the biodiesel
Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Emissions in Older Engines

Other tailpipe emissions are also reduced by running on biodiesel in older
diesel engines that do not have exhaust after-treatment

Emission Type B20 B2
Total Unburned -20% -2.2%
Hydrocarbons
Carbon Monoxide -12% -1.3%

Particulate Matter -12% -1.3%

Oxides of Nitrogen (NOX) +/-2% +/-.2%

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Biodiesel Initial Cleaning Effect

B5 and Under
 Same as petrodiesel, no special precautions needed
B20
 Mild cleaning effect can happen upon first usage
 Monitor filters, less than 2% need to be changed
• Then go back to normal fuel filter interval changes
 Housekeeping protocols for generic diesel equally important prior to blending
Enhanced Lubricity Performance

 Equipment benefits
Ultra-low Sulfur Diesel
– Superior lubricity
– B2 has up to 66% more lubricity
than #2 Diesel
800

HFRR WSD (micron)

700 EPA required sulfur reduction in
600 diesel requires the use of
500 lubricity additives to avoid
400
300
excess fuel pump wear
200  If at least 2% biodiesel is used,
100 no lubricity additive is needed
0
– THIS SAVES MONEY!
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
Biodiesel Blend (%)
 There are no overdosing
concerns with biodiesel—it’s a
fuel and brings power
– Overdosing other lubricity
additives can cause problems
Biodiesel Improves Diesel
Properties

Blends with petrodiesel in any percentage
Higher Cetane
Over 50 vs. average petrodiesel around 44
Smoother, more complete burn
Higher Lubricity
2% biodiesel ‘fixes’ even bad diesel
Virtually Zero Sulfur
Meets ULSD limits of 15 ppm or less
Zero Aromatics Reduces Toxicity and Burns Cleaner
11% Oxygen Provides Superior Lubricity and Reduces Black Smoke (Particulates)
High Flash Point Makes it Safer
Non hazardous shipping (over 200 F)
Cold-Weather Performance –
B20 has been used successfully in
climates below -20ºF

The last two years have been the highest volume of
biodiesel being used on record:
 Tax incentives and RFS2 RIN values made B20 up to
20 cents cheaper
 Cold flow problems with B20 and lower blends
were at the same level—if not lower—than
petrodiesel
 New specs, emphasis on meeting the specs, is
paying off!

Similar precautions employed for petrodiesel are
needed for B20 and lower blends:
 Blending with #1 diesel / #1 biodiesel
 Using fuel heaters and parking indoors
 Using a cold-flow additive

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OEM Support for Biodiesel

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Biodiesel Ranks First Among Fleets
for Alt Fuel Use

• According to the 2016 Fleet Purchasing
Outlook study conducted by the NTEA – The
Association for the Work Truck Industry –
biodiesel is now the most commonly used
alternative fuel option on the market.
• Survey data shows 18 percent of fleets use
biodiesel now – up from 15 percent in
2015.
• In terms of future alternative fuel interest,
biodiesel also takes top honors, with more
fleets planning to acquire or continue using
biodiesel than any other alternative fuel
option.
• Biodiesel represents an easy and cost-
effective way for fleets to improve their
performance and environmental profile
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OEM Biodiesel Support

 In the GVW Class 5-8 vehicles that account for 92% of on-road diesel fuel
use, nearly 90 percent of the medium- and heavy-duty truck OEMs
support B20

 For a complete listing of OEM position statements on biodiesel, as well
as the current U.S. Diesel Vehicles List, visit: www.biodiesel.org/using-
biodiesel/oem-information

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New for 2017:

• Chevrolet Express full-size vans (Cargo,
Passenger, Cutaway)
• Chevrolet Low Cab Forward commercial truck
• Chevrolet Colorado mid-size pickup
General Motors has • Chevrolet Silverado (2500HD, 3500HD, Chassis
announced it will •
Cab) full-size pickups
Chevrolet Equinox CUV
have 20 different • Chevrolet Cruze (Sedan, Hatchback)
diesel vehicle model • GMC Savana (Cargo, Passenger, Cutaway) full-
size vans
options available in • GMC Sierra (2500HD, 3500HD, Chassis Cab) full-
the U.S. market in •
size pickups
GMC Canyon mid-size pickup
2017-2018 – all of • GMC Terrain CUV

which are approved • Class 4/5 conventional cab truck being
developed jointly with Navistar.
for use with B20
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New for 2017:

• Mazda Motor
Corporation announced
that it will offer the
SKYACTIV-D 2.2 clean
diesel engine in the all-
new Mazda CX-5 for
North America from the
second half of 2017.
• It will be Mazda’s first
diesel engine model in
the North American
market.
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New in 2016:

 Full B20 approval in new and
legacy model PACCAR MX-11
and MX-13 engines for Heavy Duty
trucks, as well as in PX-7 and PX-9
Engines for Medium Duty trucks.

 Now the entire diesel fleet of
Peterbilt and Kenworth Medium
and Heavy Duty trucks are
approved for use with B20 Biodiesel
Blends
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Ford: B20 Approved

Ford approves
B20 in all its 2011
MY and beyond
Class 2 - 5
Super Duty
&
Class 6,7
Medium Duty
Trucks
And in the Ford
Transit Van
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Fiat Chrysler: B20 Approved

 Fiat Chrysler supports
the use of B20 in the
6.7L Ram 2500/3500
pickup and in its new
2016 Ram 1500 light
duty diesel pickup
 2016 Ram ProMaster
with 3.0L EcoDiesel 14
Engine Approved for
B20
 New 2016 diesel
Jeep Grand Cherokee
Approved for B20
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OEMs Supporting B20

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OEMs Supporting B20

*

*

*Models equipped with Cummins engines are B20 approved. See NBB website for details.
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OEM Warranty Status: B20

• Arctic Cat (2006) • Hino Trucks (2011)
• Buhler (2007) • Navistar- International/MaxxForce (2007)
• Caterpillar (All model years) • IC Bus (2007)
• Chrysler–Ram (2007) & Jeep (2013) • Isuzu Commercial Trucks (2011)
• Cummins (2002) • John Deere (2004)
• Detroit Diesel (2012) • Kubota (2006)
• Freightliner Custom Chassis (2012) • Mack (EPA2007 & EPA 2010 models)
• Thomas Built Buses (2012) • Monaco RV (2007)
• Western Star (2012)* • Perkins (2008)
• Freightliner (2012)* • Tomcar (2008)
• Ferris (2011) • Toro (2008; SEO kits for <2008)
• Ford (2011) • Volvo Trucks (EPA 2010 models)
• GMC & Chevrolet (2011 all; SEO available since • Workhorse (2007)
2007) • Yanmar (2011)
• HDT USA Motorcycles (2008)
• PACCAR (All model years)
• Kenworth (All model years)
• Peterbilt (All model years) *with Cummins Engines

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Cutting Carbon With Biodiesel:
The Road Ahead

Jennifer Weaver
NBB, OEM Market
Development Manager
OEM & Fleet support for biodiesel
continues to grow due to:

• Growing volumes & availability
• Favorable policies – RFS, EPACT, Tax
Credits, etc.
• GHG emissions benefits
• Vehicle performance benefits
• ASTM specifications
• BQ-9000 biodiesel quality
• Consumers and fleets want the option
• “Green” competitive advantage - easy
way to green your fleet!
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Why Biodiesel Matters to Fleets

1. Least cost option to green your fleet
– Utilizes existing equipment and infrastructure
2. High quality fuel that has been working for fleets nationwide for 20+
years
3. OEM Support = Confidence
Biodiesel Does Good Things

• Provides high quality fuel from domestic, sustainable
resources
• Reduces imports and power of oil cartels
• Supports 62,000 U.S. Jobs
• Generates $2.6 Billion in Wages
• Generates $17 Billion total Economic Activity
• Reduces PM, carbon, ozone, and smog
• Reduces Green House Gas emissions

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Contact Information

Michael Devine
New England Sales & Marketing Representative

AMERIgreen Energy
1600 Manheim Pike, Suite 201
Lancaster PA 17601

Office: 203-221-3044 | Cell: 203-858-6791
Fax: 203-221-3104
mdevine@amerigreen.com