You are on page 1of 40

Health Promotion and Education

Oka Negara
Frontline Person for
Decision maker
Care giver
Community leader
Five Level Prevention
(Leavel & Clark)

1.Health Promotion
2.Specific Protection
3.Early Diagnosis and Prompt Treatment
4.Disability Limitation
The 1st International Conference
on Health Promotion

Ottawa, 21 November 1986

Reunited government health representatives
from nearly all the world's countries.
The conference led to the development of the
'Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion'.
The Ottawa Charter
Outlined the five key elements included in
health promotion:
Healthy Public Policy.
Personal Skills Development.
Community Participation.
Healthy and Supportive Environments.
Re-organization of Health Services.
Strategi Promkes:

1.Kebijakan Berwawasan Kesehatan

2. Keterampilan Individu
3. Gerakan Masyarakat
4. Lingkungan yang Mendukung
5. Reorientasi Pelayanan Kesehatan

Health promotion is the process of enabling

people to increase control over, and to
improve, their health. To reach a state of
complete physical, mental and social well-
being, an individual or group must be able to
identify and to realize aspirations, to satisfy
needs, and to change or cope with the
Proses untuk meningkatkan kemampuan orang
dalam mengendalikan dan meningkatkan
kesehatannya. Untuk mencapai keadaan sehat,
seseorang atau kelompok harus mampu
mengidentifikasi dan menyadari aspirasi, mampu
memenuhi kebutuhan dan merubah atau
mengendalikan lingkungan (Piagam Ottawa, 1986)

Promosi Kesehatan merupakan program yang

dirancang untuk memberikan perubahan terhadap
manusia, organisasi, masyarakat dan lingkungan.
Promosi Kesehatan
Adalah segala bentuk kombinasi
pendidikan kesehatan dan intervensi yang
terkait dengan ekonomi, politik, dan
organisasi, yang dirancang untuk
memudahkan perubahan perilaku dan
lingkungan yang kondusif bagi kesehatan.
(Lawrence Green, 1984)
Promosi Kesehatan adalah Proses
membuat orang mampu meningkatkan
kontrol terhadap, dan memperbaiki
kesehatan mereka (WHO, 1984)
Health is, therefore, seen as a resource for
everyday life, not the objective of living.
Health is a positive concept emphasizing social
and personal resources, as well as physical
Therefore, health promotion is not just the
responsibility of the health sector, but goes
beyond healthy life-styles to well-being.
Empat Kata Kunci Visi Promosi Kesehatan :

1. Willingnes ( Mau )
2. Ability ( Mampu )
3. Maintenance (Memelihara Kesehatan)
4. Improvement (Meningkatkan Kesehatan)
Sasaran Promosi Kesehatan

Sasaran Primer
Sesuai misi pemberdayaan. Misal : kepala
keluarga, ibu hamil/menyusui, anak sekolah
Sasaran Sekunder
Sesuai misi dukungan sosial. Misal: Tokoh
masyarakat, tokoh adat, tokoh agama
Sasaran Tersier
Sesuai misi advokasi. Misal : Pembuat kebijakan
mulai dari pusat sampai ke daerah
Dimensi Aspek Sasaran Pelayanan

1. Promotif
2. Preventif
3. Kuratif
4. Rehabilitatif
1. Promotif

Sasaran : Kelompok orang sehat

Tujuan : Mampu meningkatkan
Dalam suatu populasi 80% - 85% orang yg
benar-benar sehat (Survei di negara
berkembang) memelihara kesehatannya
shg jlhnya dpt dipertahankan
2. Preventif

Sasaran : Kelompok orang sehat &

kelompok high risk (bumil, bayi,
obesitas, PSK dll)
Tujuan : Mencegah kelompok tsb agar
tdk jatuh sakit
Primary Prevention
3. Kuratif

Sasaran : Para penderita penyakit,

utamanya penyakit kronis (DM, TBC,
Tujuan : Mencegah penyakit tsb tdk
menjadi lebih parah
Secondary Prevention
4. Rehabilitatif

Sasaran : Para penderita penyakit yg

baru sembuh (recovery) dr suatu
Tujuan : Segera pulih kembali
kesehatannya & / mengurangi
kecatatan seminimal mungkin
Tertiary Prevention


1 Good nutrition
2. Enough sleep 6 8 hr/day
3. Hygiene and sanitation
4. Avoid hazards:
4.1. smoke, alcohol, drugs
4.2. helm, safety belt, safe sex
5. Regular exercise
6. Manage the stress
Health Education
Any combination of learning experiences
designed to facilitate voluntary adaptations
of behavior conducive to health.
(Green, Kreuter, Deeds, and Partridges study as cited in McKenzie & Smeltzer, 1997)
Learning theory and principles of
health behaviour.
If the health behaviour is rewarding then the
behaviour is likely to continue. For example, a
child might be given a penny for brushing her
Learning theory and principles of
health behaviour.
The taking away of a reward might cause the
health behaviour to cease. For example, if the
child is no longer given a penny for brushing her
teeth, then she might stop; however smiling
should prove to be an effective substitute for the
Learning theory and principles of
health behaviour.
If good health behaviour is producing unpleasant
side-effects then the behaviour is likely to cease.
Observing others - Bandura (1965).
Points about health behaviour:

Behaviours can change over time

Health behaviours are not governed by a
single set of attitudes; you may not smoke
because it irritates you, and you might diet
because you wish to be attractive.
Health Promotion
Specific Protection
Early detection
Prompt treatment
Disability limitation
Some Definitions
Primary Prevention
Preventive measures that prevent the onset of illness
or injury during the prepathogenesis period.
(McKenzie & Smeltzer, 1997, p. 5)

Secondary Prevention
Preventive measures that lead to early diagnosis and
prompt treatment of a disease, illness, or injury to limit
disability, impairment, or dependency and prevent
more severe pathogenesis.
(McKenzie & Smeltzer, 1997, p. 5)
Some Definitions
Tertiary Prevention
Preventive measures aimed at rehabilitation
following significant pathogenesis.
(McKenzie & Smeltzer, 1997, p. 5)

Target Population
The specific individual or group expected to
benefit from the health education or health
promotion effort, ie. Elderly, diabetics, parents,
teenagers, or individual patient.
......example: Primary Prevention
Genetic counselling. Future parents are able
to get important information about the
possibility of their future child being born with
a genetic disorder. Factors such as the age of
the parents and the results of biological tests
may be taken into account. Tests can be made
on the unborn foetus, but such techniques are
hazardous to the foetus.
Primary Prevention
Immunisation of children would also be a way
of preventing illnesses.
The analysis of questionnaires about health
behaviour could also be useful in helping
people to adopt a healthy lifestyle.
Secondary prevention
Secondary prevention concerns identifying an illness
fairly early, before there has been much damage. It
used to be thought that an annual check-up would
identify imminent illnesses. The American cancer
society (1992) recommended that women should
have mammograms (breast x-ray), but recently, in
Britain, this practice has been called into question.
Tertiary Prevention

slowing down the damage

Health is not everything
but everything else without
health is nothing

Prepare / Play / Practice
Audio Visual