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Exercise to Increase
The Components of Physical Fitness
Dr. Leonardo Lubis, dr., M.Kes, AIFO
Yunia Indah Khumaira R., dr.

Tim OKK - Olahraga, Kesenian dan Kreatifitas

Universitas Padjadjaran
Physical Activity on a Continuum
Physical activity:
any body movement carried out by the skeletal muscles and requiring

planned, structured, repetitive movement of the body designed to
improve or maintain physical fitness

Physical fitness:
a set of physical attributes that allows the body to respond or adapt
to the demands and stress of physical effort, relates to the ability to
perform physical activity
Exercise to Develop Physical Fitness

Lifestyle physical activity improves health but may not

improve fitness

A structured, formal exercise program improves physical

fitness and provides even greater health improvements
How Much Physical Activity Is

Low-intensity exercise improves health but may not be very

beneficial for improving physical fitness
Amount of Exercise for Fitness
The Principles of Fitness Training
Overload Adapting to Amount of Training
- Stress should be applied beyond the body is accustomed to, causes adaptations that
improve fitness
- FITT principle

- The overload must continue after the body adapts to the previous stress

SpecificityAdapting to Type of Training

- The body adapts to the particular type and amount of stress placed on it
- To obtain a particular goal you must train those muscles with a specific method

ReversibilityAdapting to a Reduction in Training

- Fitness improvements are lost when demands on the body are lowered
- If you stop exercising, up to 50% of fitness improvements are lost within 2 months

Individual Differences Limits on Adaptability

- Everyone is NOT created equal from a physical standpoint
- There are large individual differences in ability to improve fitness, body composition,
and sports skills
How often

FITT Intensity
TypeMode principle How hard
Degree of effort
of activity
for put forth by the

overload: during exercise

Physical capacities that
contribute to health

Useful for performing motor tasks related to
sports and athletics
Health-Related Components of Physical Fitness

Cardiorespiratory endurance
The ability of the body to perform prolonged, large-muscle,
dynamic exercise at moderate-to-high levels of intensity
Muscular strength (resistance training)
The amount of force a muscle can produce with a single
maximum effort
Muscular endurance
The ability of a muscle or group of muscles to remain
contracted or to contract repeatedly
The range of motion in a joint or group of joints

Body composition
The proportion of fat and fat-free mass (muscle, bone, and
water) in the body
1.Cardiorespiratory Endurance
The ability of the body to perform prolonged, large-muscle,
dynamic exercise at moderate-to-high levels of intensity

Related to bodys ability to deliver oxygen effectively to the

working muscles to perform physical activity.

Most important component of health fitness.

Helps prevent hypokinetic disease.

Concerned with the aerobic efficiency of the body.

1.Cardiorespiratory Endurance
Increases heart rate, breathing rate, blood flow, and perspiration

Efficient functioning of the heart, lungs and blood vessels

increases their capacity to deliver oxygen and nutrients to all
the cells of the body and remove waste (lactic acid).

A physically fit heart beats slower and pumps more blood per
beat at rest, than an unfit heart.

A physically fit persons heart adjusts to physical demands and

returns to normal more quickly than the heart of an unfit person.
O2 from the air
is taken into The heart pumps
the lungs and O2 to all
transported to the heart organs in the body

Cardiorespiratory Endurance

O2 is used to
Convert carbohydrates
& fat into energy which is
Used to perform physical
1.Cardiorespiratory Endurance

Frequency: 3 to 5 times per week

Intensity: 65% to 85% HRMAX

Time: 20 - 60 minutes
(At least 20-30 min, include warm-up and cool-down periods)

Type: Aerobic activities

Jogging - Biking
Running - Swimming
Walking - Hiking
Dancing - Stair-climbing
Target Zone

HRMAX=220 bpm - age

Target zone = 65% to 85% HRMAX

Lower threshold target HR= HRMAX x 65%

Upper threshold target HR= HRMAX x 85%

Calculations for a 20-year-old

HRMAX =220-20=200 bpm
Lower threshold = 200 bpm x 65%=130 bpm
Upper threshold = 200 bpm x 85%=170 bpm
Benefits of CV Training
Reduced blood pressure Reduced body fat

Lower resting heart rate Lower risk of cardiovascular

Increased stroke volume of heart
when pumping Lower risk of pre-diabetes or
type II diabetes
Reduced blood cholesterol levels
Reduced risk of colon cancer
Reduced fasting glucose
2.Muscular Strength
The ability to apply force against resistance (resistance training)

An exercise in which a muscle/muscle group exerts themselves

against an external force

What are these external forces?

- Gravity
- Your own body weight (calisthenics)
- Resistance tubing/bands
- Free weights (dumbbells, barbells, etc.)

How much weight can be lifted one time

Low repetitions on a high intensity.

2.Muscular Strength

Frequency: 2 to 3 times per week

Intensity: 8-12 reps

Time: 3 sets (30 seconds of rest between sets)

Type: Push-up, sit-up, weight-exercise

3.Muscular Endurance

The ability to work a muscle repeatedly over a period of


How long you can lift the weight over time

The ability to apply strength and maintain it

High repetitions on a low intensity.

Muscular strength and muscular endurance is needed in

many sporting activities and many day to day activities.

E.g.: Lifting and carrying your school bag around.

3.Muscular Endurance

Frequency: 2 to 3 times per week

Intensity: 15-25 reps

Time: 3 sets (30 seconds of rest between sets)

Type: Push-up, sit-up, weight-exercise

Muscular Endurance Test

Bench Jump

Modified dip (men)

Modified push up (women)

Abdominal crunch

Abdominal curl-up
Muscular Endurance Scoring Table

A percentile rank is given for each exercise according to the number of

repetitions performed
Benefits of Strength & Endurance Training

Increased strength

Increased lean muscle mass

Increased basal metabolic rate

Stimulates new bone growth

The ability to move a muscle and/or joint freely through
its maximum ROM

Exercises that elongate, to the point of slight tension, the

muscles and connective tissue surrounding a joint

Flexibility is specific to each joint and muscle better ROM

in some joints than in others

Limited by tightness of muscles and connective tissue

surrounding the joint

Decreased flexibility leads to increased risk of injury

Stretching exercises are done at the beginning and at the end
of an exercise session

Purpose of stretching before excessive:

- Release tension in the muscles
- Prepare the body for the more strenuous part of the training

Frequency: 3 to 5 times per week

Intensity: 20-30 sec

Time: 3 sets

Type: Passive stretching

Benefits of Flexibility Training

Increased ROM

Reduced muscle tension

Reduced risk of injury

Improve low-back pain

Increased feeling of relaxation

5.Body Composition
Percentage of body weight composed of fat as compared with fat-
free or lean tissue.
-> Determined by height and weight tables or BMI

Obesity is associated with numerous health problems and earlier

-> In 1999, and estimated 61% of adults were either overweight
or obese, and 13% of children were overweight.
5.Body Composition

Classifications for BMI

Classification BMI
Male Female
Underweight <18.5 kg/m2

Average 18% 23% Normal weight 18.5 - 24.9 kg/m2

Overweight 25 - 29.9 kg/m2

Desirable 12% or less 18% or less Obesity (Class 1) 30 - 34.9 kg/m2

Obesity (Class 2) 35 - 39.9 kg/m2

Lower limit 3% 12%
Extreme Obesity (Class 3) 40 kg/m2
5.Body Composition
Body composition is primarily influenced by nutrition and physical

Energy balance is important to achieving a favorable body


Energy expenditure through:

basal metabolism (maintenance of essential life functions)
work (including exercise)
excretion of body wastes
Energy Balance
Number of calories taken into the body as food
-Number of calories expended

Caloric expenditure
Neutral balance
-> Caloric intake equals expenditure.
Positive balance
-> More calories consumed than expended.
Negative balance
-> More calories are expended than consumed.
Body Composition Improvement

Decreasing percentage of fat

- Decrease caloric intake through diet.
- Increase caloric expenditure through physical activity and
- Moderate decrease in caloric intake and moderate increase
in caloric expenditure.

Follow sound practices

- Obsession with weight loss, in conjunction with many other
factors, may contribute to the development of an eating
Measurement of Body
Hydrostatic weighing

Skinfold measurements
Skinfold caliper from selected sites
Use of formulas to calculate percentage
of body fat

Body mass index (BMI)

height-to-weight ratio
Takaran Latihan Agar
Berat Badan Seimbang

Berdasarkan FITT

F= Frequency : 3-5x /minggu

I= Intencity : 65-75% DNM
T = Time : >60 menit
T= Type : Aerobik
Contoh latihan:
- Jalan, jogging, berenang, naik sepeda, dll
- Hindari makanan yg tinggi kalori, misalnya
roti, makanan olahan, pisang, mie instan, dll
Types of Assessments

Body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, resting heart rate

Skin fold or bioelectric impedance (body composition)

Step, bike or treadmill test (cardiovascular fitness)

Sit and reach test (flexibility)

1-minute crunch test (muscular endurance)

Push-up test (muscular strength/endurance)

Physical Activity Pyramid
Benefits of Different Types of Programs
Guidelines for Training
Train the way you want your body to change

Train regularly

Start slowly, and get in shape gradually; do not overtrain

Warm up before exercise: Helps prevent injury and prepares body

for exercise

Cool down after exercise: Returns the body to its normal state

Exercise safely: Information collected from medical screening,

based on ones medical status, and informing individual of
environmental conditions
Example of Progression of an Exercise
Program: Get in Shape Gradually
Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical
Fitness and Wellness, Ch.1. 2007. McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Pangrazi, Robert. Physical Fitness, Ch.13. 2010. Pearson

Education, Inc.

ACSMs Guidelines For Exercise Testing And Prescription, 8th

edition, Franklin, Barry A., PhD. (Senior Editor) 2009. Available

Exercise Physiology and Fitness. Available from:

Physical Fitness and You. Available from: