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Chapter 9

Please read chapter 9.

 Please review, know and understand the terms
related to fire protection page 284.
 Know the Classifications of Fires 9.1.1
 Know Classification of Hazards 9.1.2
 Know the Use or Occupancy 9.1.4
 Void sections 9.7.7 through 9.7.9.
 Study the remainder of the chapter
 See additional reading CSI specifications
 Article - The Evolution of Modern Automatic Fire
Commercial Buildings
CSI Division
 Includes:
 Electrical
 Piping
 Equipment
 Controls
 Detection of fire and smoke
 Suppression
CSI Division Numbers
Division 21 Fire Suppression (new)
21 10 00 Water – Based Fire- Suppression
21 13 00 Fire-Suppression Sprinkler Systems
21 13 13 Wet-Pipe Sprinkler Systems
21 13 16 Dry-Pipe Sprinkler Systems
21 13 19 Preaction Sprinkler Systems
21 13 23 Combined Dry-Pipe and Preaction Sprinkler
21 13 26 Deluge Fire-Suppression Sprinkler Systems
21 13 29 Water Spray Fixed Systems
21 13 36 Antifreeze Sprinkler Systems
21 13 39 Foam-Water Systems
Old CSI Fire Protection System (See
separate readings – Web Site)
 Division 10520 Fire Extinguishers & Cabinets
Old CSI Fire Protection System (See
separate required readings – Web Site)
 Division 15000 Mechanical General Provisions
 Division 15300 Fire Protection
 Division 16722 Fire Alarm System
 Making sure the various Contract Documents
 Shop Drawing
 Specifications Review
 Coordination

Each specification section within their respective Division shall be

coordinated with all other sections in that division for related work.

The project documents contemplate the complete installation of the

systems described herein, or shown on the drawings, so that at the
conclusion of the construction, the systems will be turned over to the
Owner complete and ready for safe, efficient operation.

The Contractor shall be obliged to furnish and install all such items
normally included on systems of this type, which while not
mentioned directly herein are obviously essential to the installation
and operation of the systems, and which are normally furnished on
installations of this type.
Refer to the Division 1 sections for general coordination requirements
applicable to the entire work. The Contractor shall recognize that the
Contract Documents are diagrammatic in showing certain physical
relationships that must be established within the mechanical and electrical
work, and in its interface with other work including utilities and that such
establishment is the exclusive responsibility of the Contractor. This
Contractor shall be responsible for work fitting in place without conflict with
other trades, where proper planning could avoid interference. This
Contractor shall examine the locations and verify all measurements,
distances, elevations and existing conditions before starting work. Because
the drawings are diagrammatic and on a small scale, all rises, drops, offsets,
etc., have not been shown. The Contractor shall agree to provide and install
the necessary piping, fittings, valves, duets, duct fittings and offsets, and
other specialties to suit such conditions without additional cost to the
Owner. Mechanical drawings shall not be used for general construction
dimensions or for type of material used for general construction. For exact
building layout, dimensions and building materials used Contractor shall
refer to Architectural Drawings.
 False Ceilings
 Tight spaces
 High Rise Buildings
 Determined by length of fire ladder
 Around 75 feet
 Buildings constructed as high rise 50 to over 100
floors and there designs are coordinated by the local
fire departments and fire marshals.
 Consideration for interior materials is paramount
 Codes and structural components need to meet
National Fire Codes.
 Types of Sprinkler Systems
􀂄 Wet Sprinkler System
􀂄 Dry Sprinkler System
􀂄 Deluge Sprinkler System
􀂄 Pre-Action Sprinkler System
Wet pipe systems
 Wet pipe sprinkler systems
 Most installed
 Most reliable
 Simple
 Only operating components being the automatic
 An automatic water supply provides water under
pressure to the system piping.
Wet Systems
􀂄 Water is in branch lines and at the sprinkler
heads at all times
􀂄 Wet Systems cannot be in areas that may
􀂄 Water pressure must be maintained at all
􀂄 Water Pumps are put in place to keep water
pressure at a certain PSI
􀂄 There is no delay in time that water is put on
the fire
􀂄 Require the least amount of maintenance
Dry pipe systems
 Dry pipe systems installed where temperature
will freeze water in a wet pipe system.
 Dry pipe systems are most often used in
unheated buildings, in parking garages, in
outside canopies attached to heated buildings
Dry Sprinkler System
􀂄 Require Air Pressure instead of water in the
Branch Lines
􀂄 The Air Pressure holds down a Clapper
Valve, so that water can not be introduced
into the system, unless the air pressure is lost
􀂄 Used in areas that may freeze
􀂄 An air compressor keeps a constant pressure in
the system
􀂄 When a Fire releases a sprinkler head, the air is
released from the piping, and stops holding
down the valve that was holding the water
back, and water is released
Dry Sprinkler Systems
􀂄 Standpipes are used in stairwells to have
a water way established for hand lines.
􀂄 These systems have a high maintenance
cost, due to corrosion in the pipe with
only air, and a little bit of water.
􀂄 Might take up to 60 seconds to get water
on the fire, depending on how big the
system is.
Dry Sprinkler Systems
Fusible Link Sprinklers vs. Glass Bulb Sprinklers
 All wet-pipe sprinklers are held closed by
either a fusible link or a glass bulb that contains
a heat-sensitive liquid.
 A fusible link sprinkler head has a two-part
metal element that is fused by a heat-sensitive
 Water is only released by sprinkler heads
where the ambient temperature reaches a
specified level
 Glass bulb sprinkler heads have a small glass
reservoir that holds a heat-sensitive liquid.
 This glass bulb holds the pip cap in place.
 When the ambient temperature of the liquid
reaches a certain level, the liquid expands
causing the glass bulb to break, which allows
the pip cap to fall away releasing water.
􀂄 Deluge Valves are used in special areas
􀂄 Sprinkler heads are open at all times
􀂄 Used in High Hazard areas
􀂄 Deluge Valve opens during a smoke or
heat detection
􀂄 Deluge systems are needed where high
velocity suppression is necessary
Designer type of sprinkler
 Over 50,000 types of sprinkler heads available
for designers Based On:
 System Type
 Activation Temperature
 Orifice Size
 Thread Size
 Coverage
 Finish
 Fusible Type
 Types of Sprinkler Heads
 Pendants
 Uprights
 Sidewalls
 Concealed
 Special Coverage

Special Coverage
Foam Water Fire Sprinkler System
 Special application system

 Discharging a mixture of water and low

expansion foam concentrate
 Used with special hazards occupancies
 associated with high challenge fires
 flammable liquids
 airport hangars.
 PBDE’s

 Furniture
 Clothing
 Electronics