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By N. Ramesh Babu Associate Professor
on existing roads. which may affect plant choice. will the local authority allow use if the contractor pays for reinstatement at the end of the contract? .ACCESS (OFF SITE) Width or weight restrictions. Are any bridges nearly subject to height or weight restrictions? Will additional access over private land be needed as well as that specified? If road construction is inadequate for the traffic envisaged.
Ground Level: Surface level drainage pipes. on or near surface distribution mains in industrial plants and areas of natural features to be protected. In addition old basements and foundations.. cables and water and gas mains. Buildings and Trees: Water Courses: Extent and impact on new works. Underground: Drainage.ACCESS (ON SITE) Overhead: Power Lines. sewers. Trees etc. Telephone Cables. .
BOUNDARY CONDITIONS What adjacent buildings and trees are there? Estimates of heights needed for comparison with heights needed by tower crane. outside the site? . What risk may arise from deep excavations or other activities within the site to mains etc. Any adjacent airfields may affect plant location and selection. Right of access for others. Safety of the public. if required to swing outside the site boundary. Relationship of new works to boundary. How much room will there be between new construction and the site boundary? This information is essential in determining room for plant movement and scaffolding. Adjacent water courses. playgrounds or parks adjoining the site? Will they be within the range of possible falling objects. Will pavement gantries be required to allow safe pedestrian access under any external scaffolding. Adjacent public areas. Adjacent mains and sewers.. Are adjacent rivers or streams likely to have an impact on excavation on site? Airfields. Are there schools.
Maximum permitted noise levels are laid down by the local authority . Any restrictions on night work should also be checked. .NOISE Noise is today is a pollutant and is covered by legislation.
What seems a dry site may become a wet boggy one in the winter. a false impression can arise. .VISUAL SURFACE GROUND CONDITIONS AND LOCAL GEOLOGICAL FEATURES A visual inspection of the site can often provide useful information to the construction planner. If the site inspection is done in dry weather. Local geological features can also be helpful.
LOCAL WORKING WEEK AND LOCAL HOLIDAYS Such knowledge is essential to the construction method planner. in the assessment of performance and time. .
.LOCAL WEATHER CONDITIONS Adequate knowledge of local weather conditions is important to the construction method planner in making allowance in performance for delays due to the weather.
TYPES OF SITES Open Field Long and Thin Restricted .
Eg. Type Description 1 Open Field What has to be build occupies only a portion of the site. 3 . 2 Long and Thin Very restricted in width ² considerable length. Access restricted. Ample access is available and plenty of space for materials storage and accommodation. Eg. projects.TYPES OF SITE Sl. Access at few locations. No. motorways and gas and fuel pipelines. Railway work. Eg. industrial improvement or additions and some railway or motorway work. Restricted New construction occupies the whole or a very high percentage of the site. Central redevelopment. Housing estates. factory developments and many civil engg.
anchors for cranes and hoists to building. stores. Mobiles or Working Platforms Scaffolding and Edge Protection . scaffolding. protection HT cables Support of excavations. drainage. support to adjoining property. Access Needs Foundations. bridges. welfare facilities. pile caps Formwork. access for vehicle Temporary roads. foundations for plant.TEMPORARY WORKS Site Establishment Excavation-oversite and regrading Temporary offices. formwork to bases. Superstructure External Cladding Internal Services Roof Cladding Scaffolding. temporary services Temporary drainage . cradles Scaffold. hoardings.
PREPARATORY FACILITIES FOR PROJECT Starting the job Access to job Construction camp Service Plant .
.STARTING THE JOB The job should neither be started too early nor too late. For example don·t let happen that labour has come but material is not there or material arrives but starting facilities are lacking. It should be started when enough operations are lined up and definite commitments are made for arrival of material and equipment.
ACCESS TO JOB The most economical and practical system for access to the job must be worked out. . This may involve finding the economics of railways or highways.
CONSTRUCTION CAMP The size and type of construction camp depends upon the following factors: 1) The type of work. 2) Amount of work involved and 3) The duration of construction .
Store should be made close to access road and place of delivery of material. Generally some houses are required for operators or supervisors after completion of the job. for a suitable layout such as: 1) There should be minimum disturbance where night workers sleep in day time. Hospitals should be located at a quiet place having good air circulation and quick access from the work for emergencies.PLANNING OF THE CAMP Planning of the camp should be done keeping certain basic principles of planning in view. Schools and community buildings should be centrally located convenient to all the inhabitants. 2) 3) 4) 5) .
Sanitary facilities . repair shop.FACILITIES FOR A CAMP Permanent houses Temporary houses Dormitories for gents Dormitories for ladies Staff houses Dining hall and kitchen Guest house Community hall Schools Temple Office Hospital Stores Shops Garages. petrol station etc. telephones etc.. electric supply. Facilities like water supply..
A straight line sequence of operations should be achieved.SERVICE PLANT The shop and plant layout deserve a great deal of study in determining the most effective layout. equipment and labour from outside to the plant and construction site. It requires co-ordinating the flow of material. .
FACILITIES FOR A SERVICE PLANT Main office Time office Field engineer·s office Employment office First aid building Testing laboratories Warehouses Machine repair shop Air compressor house Garages Various shops: Carpenters shop. Oil gasoline storage Pump house Other utilities: Power supply. Electricians shop. Cable shop for placing cables. Job lighting and water supply. Reinforcing steel yard Storage yard Docks for receiving terminals of all shipments Power plant Power magazines for storing explosives. Drill sharpening shops. .
SITE PRELIMINARIES .
CLEARING THE SITE THE METHODS AVAILABLE ARE Pushing out by means of a bulldozer. lorry or winch. Digging out by means of a mechanical excavator. Pulling out by means of a chain or wire wrapped around the tree and attached to a dozer. Cutting down of trees or hedges partially or fully. Burning down of hedges and shrubs. tractor. .
Vandalism Injury to children .SITE SECURITY THERE ARE THREE MAIN ASPECTS TO BE CONSIDERED Loss of goods and materials.
One wash basin for every 25 employees. . .One water closet for every 25 employees.One urinal for every 35 employees. Washing Facilities .WELFARE ACCOMMODATION Shelter Sanitary Conveniences .
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