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Packings

By

Andrew Maycock

Introduction to Fluidization

Fluid flowed through bottom of a fixed bed

Fluidization is the balance of gravity, drag

and buoyant forces

Suspended particles have larger effective

surface area than a packed fixed bed

The smallest velocity at which fluidization

occurs is the minimum fluidization velocity

Fluidization Apparatus

Overview

Theoretical Approach

Experimental Approach

Results

Method Summaries

Conclusions

Q&A

Theoretical Approach

Bernoulli’s Equation

P V 2

gz

2

Correlations for friction loss terms through

porous media

Vs 1 x

2

La min ar 150

D p

2 3

Vs2 x 1

Turbulent 1.75 3

Dp

Ergun Equation

P Vs 1 V 1

2 2

150 1.75 3

s Dp

s

x s Dp

2 3

Composed of known or obtainable

parameters

Minimum Fluidizing Velocity

Ergun Equation solved simultaneously with force

balance.

P x1 p g

May assume that flow is laminar (NRe < 20)

(Equation reduces to laminar friction term)

D p g

2 3 2

MFV

p

s

150 1

Experimental Approach

Determining MFV

Change occurs in slope of pressure drop plot

Particle Properties

Graduated cylinder for bed density

Displaced volume for particle density

bed

1

particle

Microscopic photos for sphericity

Experimental Procedure

Glass Beads and Pulverized Coal

Increase mass flowrate

Measure pressure drop across bed

Change temperature and repeat

Determine fluid properties using

correlations and equations of state

Experimental Problems

Poor Distribution

Faulty or imprecise pressure gauges

Difficulty in determining when fluidization

has been reached

Results

Pulverized Coal Results

Pulverized Coal Results (cont.)

4000

3500

3000

2500

ΔP (Pa)

Data

2000

Ergun Equation

1500

1000

500

0

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3

Vs (m/s)

Figure 4: Pressure drop data and Ergun Equation for pulverized coal at 26.2 °C

Pulverized Coal Results (cont.)

4000

3500

3000

2500

ΔP (Pa)

Data

2000

Ergun Equation

1500

1000

500

0

-0.05 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2

Vs (m/s)

Figure 5: Pressure drop data and Ergun Equation for pulverized coal at 32.8 °C

Pulverized Coal Results (cont.)

6000

5000

4000

ΔP (Pa)

Data

3000

Ergun Equation

2000

1000

0

-0.05 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2

Vs (m/s)

Figure 6: Pressure drop data and Ergun Equation for pulverized coal at 39.9 °C

Pulverized Coal Results (cont.)

Glass Bead Results

Glass Bead Results (cont.)

20000

18000

16000

14000

12000

ΔP (Pa)

Data

10000

Ergun Equation

8000

6000

4000

2000

0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

Vs (m/s)

Figure 8: Pressure drop data and Ergun Equation for glass beads at 30.0 °C

Glass Bead Results (cont.)

20000

15000

10000

ΔP (Pa)

Data

Ergun Equation

5000

-5000

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

Vs (m/s)

Figure 9: Pressure drop data and Ergun Equation for glass beads at 37.8 °C

Glass Bead Results (cont.)

16000

14000

12000

10000

ΔP (Pa)

8000

Data

Ergun Equation

6000

4000

2000

-2000

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

Vs (m/s)

Figure 10: Pressure drop data and Ergun Equation for glass beads at 42.1 °C

Glass Bead Results (cont.)

The Laminar Assumption

The Laminar Assumption (cont.)

Reported to be accurate for Particle

Reynolds Numbers under 20

More accurate as Reynolds Numbers get

smaller

Typical values within 15-30% of Ergun

Equation

Has no consistent relation to experimental

value

Experimental Summary

Experimental determination is accurate

and necessary

Difficult to determining exact value for

minimum fluidizing velocity

Error in minimum fluidizing velocity

measurement based on test interval

Correlation Summary

Provide a good estimate for actual fluidizing

velocity.

Require difficult estimation of bed height and

void fraction for operation above minimum

fluidizing velocity.

Ergun Equation can show unrealistic results, as

in this case.

Decent estimation requires accurate particle

property values (void fraction and particle

density are difficult to determine due to

adsorption).

Conclusions

Correlations are useful, but not substitute

for actual experimentation

Experimentation necessary because of

inaccurate and imprecise instrumentation

Correlations are useful for industrial

processes which are usually operated at

two to three times the minimum fluidizing

velocity

References

de Nevers, Noel, Air Pollution Control

Engineering, 2nd ed. Mc-Graw Hill, New York

(2005).

de Nevers, Noel, Fluid Mechanics for Chemical

Engineers, 3rd ed. Mc-Graw Hill, New York

(2005).

Seader, J.D. and Henley, Ernest J., Separation

Process Principles, 2nd ed.Wiley, Danver,

Massachusetts (2006).

Wikipedia, Sphericity,

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sphericity

Questions

5 Minute Question Period

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