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Motor Designs A, B, C, D

ECE 441 1
Cross-Sections of NEMA Motors

ECE 441 2
Induction Motor Applications

• Design B
– Broadest field of applications
– Centrifugal pumps, fans, blowers, machine
tools
• Design A
– Same characteristics as Design B, but with
higher breakdown torque
– Higher starting current limits applications

ECE 441 3
Induction Motor Applications continued

• Design C
– Higher locked-rotor torque but lower
breakdown torque than Design B
– Use to drive plunger pumps, vibrating
screens, and compressors
• Design D
– Very high locked-rotor torque and high slip
– Used for high-inertia loads such as elevators
and hoists
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Induction Motor Applications continued

• Design E
– High-efficiency
– Drive loads similar to Design B, but with lower
locked-rotor, breakdown, and pull-up torque

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NEMA Tables

• Tables 5.1 – 5.7 give values of locked-


rotor torque, breakdown torque, and pull-
up torque for specific horsepower,
frequency, and synchronous speed
ratings.

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Example 5.1

• Determine the values of locked-rotor


torque, breakdown torque, and pull-up
torque that can be expected from a 3-
phase, 10-hp, 460-V, six-pole, NEMA
design C motor whose rated speed is 1150
r/m.

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Solution

120 f (120)(60)
ns    1200r / min
P 6
Tn
hp 
5252
T (1150)
10 
5252
Trated  45.67lb  ft

ECE 441 8
Locked-Rotor Torque

• From Table 5.1, page 171 of the text, the


minimum locked-rotor torque of a 10-hp design
C motor with a synchronous speed of 1200 r/min
should be 225% of full-load torque.

Tlocked rotor  (2.25)(45.67)  102.8lb  ft

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Breakdown Torque

• From Table 5-3

Tbreakdown  (1.90)(45.67)  86.8lb  ft

ECE 441 10
Pull-up Torque

• From Table 5.6,

Tpullup  (1.65)( 45.67)  75.4lb  ft

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Motor Performance as a function of Machine
Parameters, Slip, and Stator Voltage
• Use the “complete” equivalent circuit model,
including both the rotor and stator.

ECE 441 12
Equivalent Circuit for an Induction Motor
with the rotor and stator as separate circuits

ECE 441 13
Equivalent Circuit for an Induction Motor
with all parameters referenced to the stator

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R2  a 2 Rr
X 2  a 2 X BR
Ir
I2 
a
E2  Es  aEBR
Ns
a
Nr
R fe  coreloss / phase
X M  magnetizing / phase
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I 0  exciting  current  per  phase
Rr  actual  rotor  resis tan ce  per  phase
I fe  core  loss  component  of  exciting  current
I M  magetizing  component  of  exciting  current
X BR  actual  blocked  rotor  reac tan ce  per  phase
I r  actual  rotor  current  per  phase
V  actual  voltage  per  phase  applied  to  the  stator
I1  actual  stator  current  per  phase

ECE 441 16
Power, Torque, Speed, Losses, and
Efficiency

R2
Z2   jX 2
s
R fe jX M
Z0 
R fe  jX M
Z2 Z0
V ZP 
I1  Z2  Z0
Z in
Z in  Z1  Z P
E  I1 Z P
E
I2 
Z2 ECE 441 17
Prcl  3 I 22 R2
Pscl  3 I12 R1 1 s
Prcl  3 I 2
2 R2
Pmech  Prcl
s

Pgap  Prcl
1 1 s
Pmech  Prcl
s s
Pmech  Pf , w  Pstray
Pshaft  hp
746

ECE 441 18
3E22
Pcore 
2 R fe
21.12 I Rr
TD  r
sns 3E22
Pcore 
21.12 I 22 R2 R fe
TD 
sns

ECE 441 19
Approximate Equivalent Circuit for an
Induction Motor
Move the
magnetizing branch
to the left of resistor
R1.

ECE 441 20
Shaping the Torque-speed curve
21.12I R 2

T 
D
lb  ft r r

sn s

V
I 
2
R
R  jX   jX
1 1
2
2
s
V
I 
(R  R )  (X  X ) 
2

2 2 2

 1
s  1 2

R
21.12V 2 2

T  s
(R  R )  (X  X )  n
D
2 2 2

 s
1
 1 2 s

ECE 441
T V
D
2 21
Slip at Which Maximum Torque Occurs

Take the derivative of the


expression for the
developed torque
Solve for the value of slip
that makes the derivative
equal to zero.

R
s  2

R  (X  X )
T D max 2 2

1 1 2

Slip is directly proportional to the rotor resistance.


ECE 441 22
Slip at Which Maximum Torque Occurs

• Applications which require a very high


starting torque are designed with enough
resistance so that the maximum torque
occurs at blocked rotor (s = 1).
R
s  2
1
R  (X  X )
T D max 2 2

1 1 2

ECE 441 23
Slip at Which Maximum Torque Occurs

R
s  2
1
R  (X  X )
T D max 2 2

1 1 2

R 2,s 1
 R  (X  X )
2

1 1 2
2

ECE 441 24
Maximum Torque
R
21.12V 2 2

T  s
(R  R )  (X  X )  n
D
2 2 2

 s
1
 1 2 s

R2
 R  (X  X )
2

1 1 2
2
at maximum torque
s
21.12V 2

T 
2n  R  (X  X )  R 
D ,max
2 2

s 1 1 2 1

Independent ofECERotor
441
Resistance! 25