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Prepared

under QIP-CD
Cell Project

Internal Combustion
Engines

Ujjwal K Saha,
Ph.D. Department of Mechanical
Engineering Indian Institute of
1
Technology Guwahati
Carburetion
 The process of mixture preparation in
an SI engine is called carburetion. This
air-fuel mixture is prepared outside the
cylinder in a device called
CARBURETOR.

 The carburetor atomizes the fuel and


mixes with air in different proportions for
various LOAD conditions.
Starting
Idling
Load
Cruising
s
Acceleratin
2
g
Petrol & Diesel Engines
3
Functions

 It must atomize, vaporize and


mix the fuel homogeneously with
air.

 It must supply correct amount


of air- fuel mixture in correct
proportion under all load
conditions and speed of the
engine.

 It mustrun the engine smoothly


by supplying a correct mixture
strength. 4
Factors affecting Carburetion

 the time available for mixture


preparation

 the temperature of the incoming air

 the quality of the fuel supplied

 the engine speed

 the design of the carburetor

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Remark
For high speed engines (3000 rpm),
the time available for mixture
preparation is very small (0.02 sec).

The temperature affects the


vaporization of fuel. High temperature
leads to high rate of vaporization. This
is achieved by heating the induction
manifold in some cases. However, this
causes a reduction in the power
output because of decrease in mass flow
rate.

The design of carburetor, as such, is


very complicated because the 6
optimum air-fuel ratio varies over its
Air-Fuel
Mixtures
Load
Var
/
y
spee
 Chemically Correct
d
(15:1)
 Rich Mixture (10:1)
 Lean Mixture (17:1)

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Variation of power output and sfc with A-F ratio in
SI engine
(Full throttle and constant speed)

 Maximum Output = 12:1 (Best power mixture)


 Minimum Fuel Consumption = 16:1 (Best economy
mixture) 8
Various
Loads
 Idling/Starting: run witho load
Produces power onlys to ut
Engine overcome
.
friction between the parts. Rich mixture‡
is required to sustain combustion.

 Normal Power/Cruising/Medium Load:


Engine runs for most of the period.
Therefore, fuel economy is maintained.
Low fuel consumption for maximum
economy. Requires a lean mixture.

 Maximum power/Acceleration:
Overtaking a vehicle (short period) or
climbing up a hill (extra load). Requires a9
Starting a Cold Engine

 When an engine is cold, a very small


% fuel will vaporize in the intake and
compression process. The fuel is also
cold, and much more viscous, creating a
lower flow rate. The engine metal parts
are cold and inhibit vaporization.
Further, during the compression
stroke, cold cylinder walls will absorb
heat and reduce vaporization.
Engine lubrication is cold and more
viscous, making the engine turn more
slowly in the starting process.

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Carburetor Performance

11
Simple
Inlet Carburetor
Valve

Throttle

Vent Fuel
Fuel from
discharge supply
nozzle
Float
Float
Fuel Chamber
metering jet Fuel

lip, h

Choke

Air
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Inlet
Valve
Components of a Simple
Throttle
Carburetor
Vent
A float chamber with a
Fuel
Fuel discharge
nozzle
from
supply

Fuel metering
Float
float to store fuel and to
Float
Chamber
jet lip, h Fuel
adjust its level
 A round cylinder with a
Choke
venturi for atomization of
fuel.
Air

 A fuel nozzle to atomize


and produce a spray of fuel

 A throttle valve to supply varying


quantity of the mixture at different
load conditions

 A choke valve to control the air


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supply in order to provide a rich or a
Venturi-type
Carburetor Air/Fuel Mixture To Engine
Bernoulli Effect:
P+1/2 V2 = Constant Throttle Plate

Atomized Fuel

Fuel Inlet Valve Stem

Float Venturi

Bowl Choke Plate

Fuel Inlet Air


Nozzle

Metering Orifice

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Operation

The fuel supply to the float


chamber is controlled by the action of
the float and the attached fuel supply
valve. During the intake or the suction
stroke of the engine, the piston
moves from TDC to BDC, and creates a
vacuum in the space above it and in
the suction manifold. Due to this
fall in pressure, the atmospheric air
rushes into the carburetor. Near the
venturi, velocity increases,
pressure decreases and the fuel comes
out in the form of a jet. The fuel gets
mixed with air and goes into the cylinder.
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Operatio
n
Choke
Venturi
Throttle

Higher Pressure
Outside Engine

Fuel

 Becaus of narro passag at the


throat,
e thethe
air velocity
w increases
e but its
venturi
Thiscauses a partialvacuum
pressure falls. carburet
depression)
(called at the venturi or
depression
throat. causes fuel to come out
This as jet
carburet
in the form of a spray. This fuel spray
vaporizes and mixes with the incoming or air,
and the mixture goes into the cylinder
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through the throttle valve.
Drawback of Simple Carburetor

A carburetor describe
suffers
simplefromasthe fact thatdit
required
provides air-fuel
the only at
ratio throttle one
position.
positions,
mixture
 At all is either the
other leaner or
richer depending on whether
throttle
the throttle is opened less or
more.

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Drawback of Simple Carburetor

Throttle opening changes the


velocity of air. The opening
changes the pressure
chambe and throat,
differential between the float
r venturi the and
regulat fuel flow through
es
 Increased throttle the
opening
nozzle.
gives a rich mixture. Opening of
throttle usually increases engine
speed. However, as load is also
a factor (e.g., climbing an
uphill), opening the throttle
may not increase the speed.
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Calculation of Air-Fuel Ratio

i.e., we need
to calculate

A m a
F m

f
Let the tip
of the fuel
nozzle be at a
height z leve
from
in
fuel l
chamber floa
the
. t

19
Applying SFEE between A-A
(point 1) and B-B (point 2) and
considering unit mass of airflow
1
q  w  h  h  (c 2  c
2 1 2 2 1
2)
For adiabatic flow,
q  0, w  0,
and c1  0

We have,

c2 
20
Since mass flow is
constant
m a  1 A1C1  2
AC A
A2C2 C1 1  2
2v1 v2
Also
, p1v1 k  p2v2k m a

v1k  p2
p
v k
2
1
1
⎛ k
We 1
have v2  v1 ⎜p ⎞
⎜⎝ 2p

⎟⎠ 1
R ⎛ k
v2  T 1 p⎜ ⎞
p1 ⎜ ⎝ p2 21
1
⎟ ⎠
A
ma  C2 2 gives
v2
⎡ k ⎤
A2 ⎢ ⎛ 2p 1 k
ma
 2C p T
1 ⎜⎞
RT ⎛ ⎞
k 1 ⎢ ⎝ ⎟1 ⎥⎥
1⎜ ⎢ 1⎜ ⎠ p ⎥⎦
pp1 ⎝⎜ p2 ⎣ ⎟
1
Finally, we ⎟ ⎠
have ⎡ 2 k ⎤
⎟A p k
2 1 ⎢ ⎛2 ⎛ 2p 1 k
(m a )theoretical 2C p 
R ⎢p⎜ ⎟p1⎠ ⎞⎝⎜ p ⎥
⎜ ⎟ 1 ⎥
 ⎣⎝ ⎠⎟ ⎦⎥
T1 ⎢ ⎜ ⎞⎟
(m a ) actual  Cd (m a )theoretical
t

where Cd  coefficient of disch arg e of venturi 22


t
To find mass flow rate of fuel
Assuming fuel to be incompressible,
we have from Bernoulli’s theorem
p p C 2z
1   2 2
2g

p p Cf 2
 1 2   gz
f  f 2

⎛ 1p ⎞
2
Cf  2⎜
⎝  p gz⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎠ f
f being the density of fuel, Cf is the fuel
velocity at the nozzle exit and z is the 23
nozzle lip.
Thus, we have velocity of fuel at the
nozzle exit
⎛ 1p 2 ⎞
 Cf 
2⎜ p
⎝  gz⎟

⎜ ⎟
f
∵ (m f )theoretical   f A f C f

 (m f )theoretical  A f 2  f ( p1  p2   f
gz)
 (m f ) actual  Cd (m f )
f
theoretical
 coefficient of disch arg e of fuel
where Cd
f nozzle
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Complete Carburetor

A simple carburetor is capable to


supply a correct air-fuel mixture to the
engine only at a particular load and
speed. In order to meet the engine
demand at various operating conditions,
the following additional systems are
added to the simple carburetor.

 idling system
 auxiliary port system
 power enrichment by economizer
system
 accelerating pump system
 choke 25
Idling system
During starti
or ng Adjustin
runs withoengin
idling, loa Throttl g screw
and ut the e d e Air bleed
remains
valv throttle
close
e in positio
d n. Idling
Mai jet
Engin produce n jet
overcome
e s only
friction
powe to
Float
between
r the chamber
parts, and a
rich mixture is Ai
r
to be fed to
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the engine to
Idling system – The idling system
contd. as shown consists of
an idling fuel passage
Adjustin port.
and anWhen the throttle
idling
Throttl g screw
e
partially is
Air bleed
depression
closed, past the a
throttle
allows the fuel to int
Idling the
go intake o
Mai
n jet
jet tube.
throughThe the idleals
drawsair
depression through o
Float
air
the bleed
idle and mixes
chamber with fuel. The fuel flow
Ai depends on the
r location of the idle
nozzle and the
adjustment of the idle 27
screw.
 Durin norm power
cruising
g operation,
al or
engine runsfor most of
where the Auxiliary port
period,
the the fuel economy system
has to be maintained. Throttl
e
Thus, it is necessary to
have lower fuel
consumpti for Butterfl
y valve Ai
on One
maximum r
economy. such used +
arrangeme
auxilia port carburetor
is the Fu
nt
ry wher as el Main
jet
shown, e valvopening allow
additional air
butter e to ofbe s Ai
and
admitted,the same
fly r
depressi
at time at the
throat
on getsventuri
reduced, thereby
decreasing the fuel flow 28
Power enrichment
system
 In order obtai
maximu
to power,n
carburetor
m the must
supply a rich
mixture. This
additional fuel
required is supplied
by a power
enrichment system
that contains a
meter rod
economizer
that provides a
larger orifice
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opening to the main
Accelerating pump
During sudde
system
accelerati of
n
engine
on (e.g., an Plunge
a vehicle),
overtaking extr r
amount
an of fuel
a Ope
n
momentarily
is Pump
supply
requireda rich to
This is obtained by
mixture. Float
chambe
accelerating
an r
system.
pump It
spring-
consists of plunge a
and
loaded r,
linkage
the necessa Accelerating pump
mechanism. ry system
 The rapid of the throttle
plunger
openinginto the cylinder,
movesandthe addition
amount
an of fuel is forced into the al
venturi. 30
Remark

During cold starting period, at low


cranking speed and before the engine
gets warmed up, a rich mixture has
to be supplied, simply because a large
fraction of the fuel remains in liquid
state in the cylinder, and only the
vapor fraction forms the combustible
mixture with air. The most common
method of obtaining this rich mixture is
to use a choke valve between the entry
to the carburetor and the venturi throat.

31
Types of Carburetor
based on direction of
flow

 Up-draught (updraft) carburetor


 Down-draught (downdraft)
carburetor
 Cross-draught or horizontal
32
carburetor
Multi-barrel Carburetor

Asingle barrel carburetor has one


outlet connected to the intake
manifold of engine.

outlets to two
 A multi-barrel barrel intake is one
carburetor
connected
with two manifolds of is
carburetors.
engine. basically one with
Such unit two
As such,a multi-barrel barrel
carburetor has two numbers of idling,
systems, two
power and accelerating throttl but
alternate
chokes, twocylinders in the es firingwith
order.
As for example, in a six cylinder
engine, one barrel supplies mixture to
cylinders 1, 3 and 2; while
the other barrel supplies to 5, 6 and 4. 33
Aircraft Carburetors

Automobile carburetors are


calibrated at sea-level conditions

 Lower altitudes (than sea-level): Lean


mixture
 Higher altitudes (than sea-level): Rich
mixture
(emits
hydrocarbon, CO)

At higher altitudes, density


34
decreases and hence, the mass flow
Enrichment
(due to variation of air
density)

E1
0

p 0 RT
E1
 RT0 p
p 0T
E1
 pT0
If /0 =
0.84, 1
E1 
1.091 0.84
E  0.091  9.1 %
 Enrichment of mixture over the
35
calibrated ratio
Altitude Compensation Device

 As density decreases, the mass flow


rate also decreases and hence the Power
gets reduced.

 Admit more air and less fuel into


the induction manifold.

METHODS

 Reduction of pressure in float


chamber
 Auxiliary air valve/air port
 Supercharger 36
Basic Carburetor
Summa
ry
1. The carburetor
is a device which
mixes air and
reciprocati
fuel in aintern
ng al
combustion are engin
Carburetor
found in still
small
e.
s
engines and in
older or
such
specializedracin cars
Howeve
as
automobiles g .
built
r, sincemos cars
1980s use tfuel earl
the
injection insteadyof
carburetion.
37
Summa
ry
2. carburet (a oppose to
injecte
Most engines
ed s a d carburet
fuel
though
d) some,
have primarily
single or, higher
performance engines, can have
multiple carburetors. Most automotive
carburetors are either downdraft (flow
of air is downwards) or side-draft (flow
of air is sideways).
carburetors In theubiquito
almo United States,
partl
downdraft
because
were a st unit
us,is ideal y
for
engines.
downdraft In Europe,
V side-draft
much
carburetors commo
are in
applications.
more nSmall propeller-driven
performance
flat airplane engines have the
carburetor below the engine (updraft).
38
References
1. Crouse WH, and Anglin DL, (1985), Automotive Engines,
TataEastop TD, and
McGraw Hill. Applied
2. Technologists,
McConkey A, Addison
(1993),Wisley. Thermodynamics for
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Engg.
Combustion Engines, John Wiley & Sons.
4. Ganesan V, (2003), Internal Combustion Engines, Tata
McGraw Hill.
5. Gill PW, Smith JH, and Ziurys EJ, (1959), Fundamentals of I.
C. Engines, Oxford and IBH Pub Ltd.
6. Heisler H, (1999), Vehicle and Engine Technology, Arnold
Publishers.
7. Heywood JB, (1989), Internal Combustion Engine
Fundamentals, McGraw Hill.
8. Heywood JB, and Sher E, (1999), The Two-Stroke Cycle
Engine, Taylor & Francis.
9. Joel R, (1996), Basic Engineering Thermodynamics, Addison-
Wesley.
10. Mathur ML, and Sharma RP, (1994), A Course in
Internal Combustion Engines,
Dhanpat Rai & Sons, New Delhi.
11. Pulkrabek WW, (1997), Engineering Fundamentals of the I. 39
C. Engine, Prentice Hall.
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2. http://me.queensu.ca/courses
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