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Prof. Osama A. El Masry Mechanical Engineering Dept. Alexandria University

Overview

Review Steam Properties Steam Tables & charts Steam Cycles Steam Cycle Parameters

Prof. O. El Masry

**Steam Power Cycles
**

Thermodynamic Cycle ± Work Addition ± Heat Addition ± Work Extraction ± Heat Rejection Basic Cycle = Carnot Cycle ± Most Efficient Cycle Between Temperature of Heat Addition and Heat Rejection

Prof. O. El Masry

**Carnot Cycle within Steam Dome
**

TL TH

L Thermal ! 1

Net Work Area= 1-2-3-4

**Heat Rejection =Area 4-3-b-a
**

Prof. O. El Masry

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. ± consider limitations and redesign the cycle accordingly Idealized Rankine cycle.To design a Vapor Power Plant ± Use idealized Carnot cycle as the model.

Isentropic expansion in a turbine from 3-4. What is the quality of the steam inside the turbine? Will high moisture content affect the operation of the turbine? Isentropic compression process in a pump from 1-2.Practical Problems associated with Carnot Cycle Plant Maximum temperature limitation for cycle (a). Is it practical to handle two-phase flow (liquid + vapor) using such one system? .

El Masry . Prof. how do I get this number from?) and that is not practical.The latter two problems can be resolved by the use of cycle (b) from previous slide. to maintain a constant temperature above the critical temperature is also difficult since the pressure will have to change continuously. O. Also. However. the (b) cycle requires the compression(1-2)of liquid at a very high pressure (exceeding 22 MPa for a steam.

Modified Rankine Cycle To avoid transporting and compressing two-phase fluid. we can try to condense all fluid exiting from the turbine into saturated liquid before compressed it by a pump. . These droplets can produce significant damages to the turbine blades due to corrosion and impact. its temperature and pressure decrease and liquid droplets will form by condensation. When the saturated vapor enters the turbine.

One possible solution: superheating the vapor. El Masry . Also increases the thermal efficiency of the cycle. O. Prof.

El Masry .8 1 1.2 1.2 0.6 1.4 0.6 0. O.8 2 0 Entropy (Btu/lbm/deg R) Prof.4 1.T-S Diagram for Water/Steam 1000 900 Critical Point 800 Constant Temperature During Boiling Higher Pressure -> Higher Temperature Saturated Steam 700 Temperature (deg F) 600 Saturated Water 1000 psia 500 Boiling 300 psia 400 300 200 100 Above Critical Point (~220 bar) -> No Phase Change (No Boiling) 0 0.

Prof. and isentropic compression in a pump. O.Rankine Cycle The model cycle for vapor power cycles is the Rankine cycle which is composed of four internally reversible processes: constant-pressure heat addition in a boiler. constant-pressure heat rejection in a condenser. isentropic expansion in a turbine. Steam leaves the condenser as a saturated liquid at the condenser pressure. El Masry .

O. El Masry .Rankine Cycle Steam/Water Properties Constant Pressure Heat Addition 1¶ Concept of Average Temperature of Heat Addition Prof.

.The Simple Ideal Rankine Cycle © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. O.1998 Prof. El Masry .

O. El Masry . GAS STEAM WATER Prof.Simple Rankine Cycle Diagram LEGEND AIR.

h2 3-4: Turbine (q=0) wout = h3 . no generation. neglect KE and PE changes for all four devices.h4 4-1:Condenser(w=0) qout = h4 .h1 = v(P2-P1) 2-3: Boiler (w=0) qin = h3 .win/ qin = (h3-h4) . 0 = (net heat transfer in) .(net work out) + (net energy flow in) 0 = (qin .(wout .(h2-h1) .Ideal Rankine Cycle Energy analysis: steady flow process.hout) 1-2: Pump (q=0) wpump = h2 .win) + (hin .(h4-h1)/(h3-h2) wnet = wout .h1 Thermal efficiency = wnet = 1 .qout/q in = 1 .qout) .

(d) the mass flow rate of the cooling water from the condenser.01 MPa. in kg/s. Steam enters the turbine as 100% saturated vapor at 6 MPa and saturated liquid enters the pump at a pressure of 0. (c) the rate of heat transfer into the boiler. Determine (a) the thermal efficiency. if the cooling water enters at 20°C and exits at 40°C . (b) the mass flow rate of the system. If the net power output of the cycle is 50 MW.Example Consider the Rankine power cycle as shown.

4 (kJ/kg) Or from h-s chart. P4=P1=0. P3=6MPa. hfg4=2392. isentropic expansion: s3=s4=5.6491.8.699 .699 h4 = hf4+x4* hfg4 = 191. 100% saturated vapor x3=1. sfg4=7.8 x4 = (s4-sf4)/sfg4 = (5.8+0. T4=T1=45. h3=hg=2784.5019. x4=0.6491)/7. hf4=191. h4=1865 (kJ/kg).Solution At the inlet of turbine.8°C sf4=0.3(kJ/kg).89 (kJ/kg K) From tables.01MPa.699(2392. s3=sg=5. from saturated steam tables.5019 = 0.89(kJ/kg K) From 3-4.8) = 1864.89-0.

05 h2 = h1 + v1 (P2-P1) =191.Solution (cont.6(kJ/kg) At the outlet of the pump: compressed liquid v2=v1=vf1=0.8 qout = h4-h1=1672.001 (6000-10) = 6. qin=h3-h2=2784.85=2586.00101(m3/kg) work input to pump Win = h2-h1 = v1 (P2-P1) = 0.) At the inlet of the pump: saturated liquid h1=hf1=191.85 (kJ/kg) In the boiler.8 + 6.5(kJ/kg) .05 = 197.3197.

8 197. liq.85 Prof.4 191.3 .3 P-t r x MPa Dry &sat 4 1 2 h(kJ/kg) 2784. 1864. O. 1 MPa 0. El Masry .01 MPa MPa Sat. X=0.

5)=141.5=0.85191.) (a)The thermal efficiency =1-qout/qin =1-1672.Solution (cont.4 )-(197.7(kg/s) (c) heat transfer into the h2)=54.% (b) Net power output =50MW=(ms)(Wout-Win)=(ms)((h3-h4)(h2-h1)) mass flow rate (ms)=50000/((2784.353=35.5(MW) boiler qin = (ms)(h3- .6/2586.7(2586.8))=54.1864.3.

Tin) = q cooling water C p (water) = 4.2 (kg/s) Very large amount of cooling water is needed .6) = 91.) (d) Inside the condenser. the cooling water is being heated from the heat transferred from the condensing steam.49 (MW) (mcw)Cp (Tout .Solution (cont.177*(40-20)) = 1095.7(1672.18(kJ/kg K) (mcw) = 91490/(4. q cooling water = qout = (ms)(h4-h1) = 54.

9-4) Prof.Rankine Cycle: Actual Vapor Power Deviation and Pump and Turbine Irreversibilities (a) Deviation of actual vapor power cycle from the ideal Rankine cycle. El Masry . (b) The effect of pump and turbine irreversibilities on the ideal Rankine cycle. O. (Fig.

The average temperature during heat rejection can be decreased by lowering the turbine exit pressure. the condenser pressure of most vapor power plants is well below the atmospheric pressure. O. El Masry .Rankine Cycle Efficiency The thermal efficiency of the Rankine cycle can be increased by increasing the average temperature at which heat is added to the working fluid and/or by decreasing the average temperature at which heat is rejected to the cooling medium. Consequently. Prof.

El Masry . 9-6) Prof. O.9-3 Effect of Lowering Condenser Pressure on the Ideal Rankine cycle (Fig.

since the fluid temperature is not allowed to exceed a metallurgically safe value. O. El Masry . Prof.Rankine Cycle Efficiency (cont. There is a limit to the degree of superheating.) The average temperature during heat addition can be increased by raising the boiler pressure or by superheating the fluid to high temperatures. however.

Effect of Increasing Boiler Pressure on the Ideal Rankine cycle (Fig. 9-8) Prof. O. El Masry .

Prof. El Masry . For improved efficiencies at higher boiler pressures and lower condenser pressures. O.Rankine Cycle Enhancements Superheating decreases the moisture content of the steam at the turbine exit. however. steam is usually reheated after expanding partially in the high-pressure turbine. Lowering the exhaust pressure or raising the boiler pressure. increases the moisture content.

Rankine Cycle Enhancements Steam is extracted after partial expansion in the high-pressure turbine. it is returned to the low-pressure turbine for complete expansion to the condenser pressure. Prof. it is sent back to the boiler where it is reheated at constant pressure. El Masry . O.

As the number of stages is increased.Rankine Cycle Enhancements The average temperature during the reheat process. Prof. can be increased by increasing the number of expansion and reheat stages. and thus the thermal efficiency of the cycle. El Masry . Reheating also decreases the moisture content at the turbine exit. the expansion and reheat processes approach an isothermal process at maximum temperature. O.

El Masry . O. 9-11) Prof.The Ideal Reheat Rankine Cycle (Fig.

El Masry . liquid water (feedwater) leaving the pump is heated by some steam bled off the turbine at some intermediate pressure in devices called feedwater heaters. Prof.Rankine Cycle Enhancements Another way of increasing the thermal efficiency of the Rankine cycle is by regeneration. O. During a regeneration process.

Prof.Rankine Cycle Enhancements Notes a) The two streams are mixed in open feedwater heaters. El Masry . heat is transferred from the steam to the feedwater without mixing. b) In closed feedwater heaters. and the mixture leaves as a saturated liquid at the heater pressure. O.

O.Feedwater Heaters The purpose for feedwater heaters is to increase the temperature of the boiler feedwater to a saturated liquid state prior to entering the boiler Irreversibilities associated with the heat transfer from the flue gas to the steam can be reduced by transferring energy at the highest possible temperature (minimizing the (T) Prof. El Masry .

Prof.Feedwater Heaters This temperature would be the saturation temperature for the boiler pressure Minimizing the irreversibilities in the reheaters can be accomplished by increasing the feedwater temperatures in small increments. El Masry . O.

El Masry . O.Feedwater Heaters Introducing several feedwater heaters can reduce the temperature differences and the irreversibilities Counterflow heaters can also reduce temperature differences and irreversibilities Feedwater heaters can have three stages for the extracted steam: a de-superheater (for superheated extraction) a condenser A drain cooler Prof.

O.Feedwater Heaters de-superheater condenser drain cooler Prof. El Masry .

) One feedwater pump is required for each open feedwater heater.Open Feedwater Heaters Steam extracted from the turbine is mixed directly with the boiler feedwater. (If the feedwater pressure is allowed to exceed the extraction pressure feedwater could flow into the turbine. The boiler feedwater must be pumped to a pressure slightly less than the pressure of the extracted steam by a feedwater pump. O. Prof. El Masry .

As a result.Open Feedwater Heaters Open feedwater heaters are also used as deaerators because the open feedwater liberates noncondensing gasses that are vented to the atmosphere Each additional feedwater pumps require additional capital expense and are a source of operational problems. O. service problems and noise problems. El Masry . most feedwater heaters are closed feedwater heaters Prof.

9-15) Prof. O. El Masry .Ideal Regenerative Rankine Cycle with Open Feedwater Heater (Fig.

O.Steam Turbines Turbines perform the energy conversion in two steps: Step 1: Thermal energy of the steam to kinetic energy of the steam Step 2: Kinetic energy of the steam to mechanical energy of the rotor Prof. El Masry .

9/1/2010 .

O.THE CONCEPT OF PRODUCING ELECTERCITY 9/1/2010 Prof. El Masry .

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9/1/2010 .

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