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Sampling:

Design and Procedures

Chapter Outline

1) Overview

2) Sample or Census

3) The Sampling Design Process

i. Define the Target Population

ii. Determine the Sampling Frame

iii. Select a Sampling Technique

iv. Determine the Sample Size

v. Execute the Sampling Process

Chapter Outline

i. Nonprobability Sampling Techniques

a. Convenience Sampling

b. Judgmental Sampling

c. Quota Sampling

d. Snowball Sampling

ii. Probability Sampling Techniques

a. Simple Random Sampling

b. Systematic Sampling

c. Stratified Sampling

d. Cluster Sampling

e. Other Probability Sampling Techniques

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 11-3

Chapter Outline

Sampling

6) Uses of Nonprobability Versus Probability

Sampling

7) Internet Sampling

8) International Marketing Research

9) Ethics in Marketing Research

10)Summary

Sample Vs. Census

Table 11.1

Conditions Favoring the Use of

Type of Study Sample Census

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 11-5

The Sampling Design Process

Fig. 11.1

Define the Target Population

objects that possess the information sought by the

researcher and about which inferences are to be

made. The target population should be defined in

terms of elements, sampling units, extent, and time.

which the information is desired, e.g., the

respondent.

• A sampling unit is an element, or a unit

containing the element, that is available for

selection at some stage of the sampling process.

• Extent refers to the geographical boundaries.

• Time is the time period under consideration.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 11-7

Define the Target Population

determining the sample size are:

• the nature of the research

• the number of variables

• the nature of the analysis

• sample sizes used in similar studies

• incidence rates

• completion rates

• resource constraints

Sample Sizes Used in Marketing

Research Studies

Table 11.2

(e.g. market potential)

Problem-solving research (e.g. 200 300-500

pricing)

commercial or ad tested)

Test-market audits 10 stores 10-20 stores

Classification of Sampling Techniques

Fig. 11.2

Sampling Techniques

Nonprobability Probability

Sampling Techniques Sampling Techniques

Sampling Sampling Sampling Sampling

Sampling Sampling Sampling Sampling Techniques

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 11-10

Convenience Sampling

sample of convenient elements. Often,

respondents are selected because they happen

to be in the right place at the right time.

organizations

• Mall intercept interviews without qualifying

the respondents

• Department stores using charge account

lists

• “People on the street” interviews

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 11-11

A Graphical Illustration of Convenience

Sampling

Fig. 11.3

11.3

A B C D E

1 6 11 21

Group D happens to

16

assemble at a

convenient time and

2 7 12 17 22 place. So all the

elements in this

Group are selected.

3 8 13 18 23

The resulting sample

consists of elements

16, 17, 18, 19 and 20.

4 9 14 19 24

Note, no elements are

selected from group

5 10 15 20 25 A, B, C and E.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 11-12

Judgmental Sampling

convenience sampling in which the

population elements are selected based on

the judgment of the researcher.

• Test markets

• Purchase engineers selected in industrial

marketing research

• Bellwether precincts selected in voting

behavior research

• Expert witnesses used in court

Graphical Illustration of Judgmental

Sampling

Fig. 11.3

A B C D E

1 6 16 21

The researcher considers

11

groups B, C and E to be

typical and convenient.

2 7 12 17 22 Within each of these

groups one or two

elements are selected

3 8 13 18 23 based on typicality and

convenience. The

resulting sample

4 9 14 19 24 consists of elements 8,

10, 11, 13, and 24. Note,

no elements are selected

5 10 15 20 25 from groups A and D.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 11-14

Quota Sampling

judgmental sampling.

or quotas, of population elements.

• In the second stage, sample elements are selected based

on convenience or judgment.

Variable composition composition

Male 48 48 480

Female 52 52 520

____ ____ ____

100 100 1000

A Graphical Illustration of Quota Sampling

Fig. 11.3

A B C D E

A quota of one

1 11 16 21

element from each

6

group, A to E, is

imposed. Within each

2 7 12 17

group, one element is

22

selected based on

judgment or

3 8 13 18 23 convenience. The

resulting sample

consists of elements

4 9 14 19 24 3, 6, 13, 20 and 22.

Note, one element is

selected from each

5 10 15 20 25 column or group.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 11-16

Snowball Sampling

respondents is selected, usually at random.

are asked to identify others who belong to

the target population of interest.

on the referrals.

A Graphical Illustration of Snowball Sampling

Random Fig. 11.3

Selection Referrals

A B C D E

selected randomly from

1 6 11 16 21

groups A and B.

Element 2 refers

2 7 12 17 22 elements 12 and 13.

Element 9 refers

3 8 23

element 18. The

13 18

resulting sample

consists of elements 2,

4 9 14 19 24

9, 12, 13, and 18. Note,

there are no elements

5 10 15 20 25

from group E.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 11-18

Simple Random Sampling

known and equal probability of selection.

has a known and equal probability of being

the sample actually selected.

independently of every other element.

A Graphical Illustration of

Simple Random Sampling

Fig. 11.4

A B C D E

1 6 11 16 21 Select five

random numbers

from 1 to 25. The

2 7 12 17 22

resulting sample

consists of

3 8 13 18 23 population

elements 3, 7, 9,

16, and 24. Note,

4 9 14 19 24

there is no

element from

5 10 15 20 25 Group C.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 11-20

Systematic Sampling

starting point and then picking every ith element

in succession from the sampling frame.

the population size N by the sample size n and

rounding to the nearest integer.

the characteristic of interest, systematic sampling

increases the representativeness of the sample.

Systematic Sampling

cyclical pattern, systematic sampling may

decrease the representativeness of the sample.

population and a sample of 1,000 is desired. In

this case the sampling interval, i, is 100. A

random number between 1 and 100 is selected.

If, for example, this number is 23, the sample

consists of elements 23, 123, 223, 323, 423,

523, and so on.

A Graphical Illustration of

Systematic Sampling

Fig. 11.4

A B C D E

Select a random

1 6 11 16 21 number between 1

and 5, say 2.

The resulting sample

2 7 12 17 22

consists of

population 2,

3 8 13 18 23 (2+5=) 7, (2+5x2=) 12,

(2+5x3=)17, and

(2+5x4=) 22. Note, all

4 9 14 19 24

the elements are

selected from a

5 10 15 20 25 single row.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 11-23

Stratified Sampling

partitioned into subpopulations, or strata.

collectively exhaustive in that every population

element should be assigned to one and only one

stratum and no population elements should be

omitted.

by a random procedure, usually SRS.

increase precision without increasing cost.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 11-24

Stratified Sampling

homogeneous as possible, but the elements

in different strata should be as

heterogeneous as possible.

closely related to the characteristic of

interest.

cost of the stratification process by being

easy to measure and apply.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 11-25

Stratified Sampling

size of the sample drawn from each stratum is

proportionate to the relative size of that

stratum in the total population.

the size of the sample from each stratum is

proportionate to the relative size of that

stratum and to the standard deviation of the

distribution of the characteristic of interest

among all the elements in that stratum.

A Graphical Illustration of

Stratified Sampling

Fig. 11.4

A B C D E

Randomly select a

1 6 11 16 21

number from 1 to 5

for each stratum, A to

2 7 12 17 22 E. The resulting

sample consists of

3 8 18 23

population elements

13

4, 7, 13, 19 and 21.

Note, one element

4 9 14 19 24

is selected from each

column.

5 10 15 20 25

Cluster Sampling

mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive

subpopulations, or clusters.

based on a probability sampling technique

such as SRS.

elements are included in the sample (one-

stage) or a sample of elements is drawn

probabilistically (two-stage).

Cluster Sampling

heterogeneous as possible, but clusters

themselves should be as homogeneous as

possible. Ideally, each cluster should be a

small-scale representation of the population.

sampling, the clusters are sampled with

probability proportional to size. In the

second stage, the probability of selecting a

sampling unit in a selected cluster varies

inversely with the size of the cluster.

A Graphical Illustration of

Cluster Sampling (2-Stage)

Fig. 11.4

A B C D E

Randomly select 3

1 6 11 16 21 clusters, B, D and E.

Within each cluster,

randomly select one

2 7 12 17 22

or two elements. The

resulting sample

3 8 13 18 23 consists of

population elements

7, 18, 20, 21, and 23.

4 9 14 19 24

Note, no elements

are selected from

5 10 15 20 25 clusters A and C.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 11-30

Types of Cluster Sampling

Fig 11.5

Cluster Sampling

Sampling Sampling Sampling

Sampling Proportionate

to Size Sampling

Strengths and Weaknesses of

Basic Sampling Techniques

Table 11.4

Technique Strengths Weaknesses

Nonprobability Sampling Least expensive, least Selection bias, sample not

Convenience sampling time-consuming, most representative, not recommended for

convenient descriptive or causal research

Judgmental sampling Low cost, convenient, Does not allow generalization,

not time-consuming subjective

Quota sampling Sample can be controlled Selection bias, no assurance of

for certain characteristics representativeness

Snowball sampling Can estimate rare Time-consuming

characteristics

Simple random sampling results projectable frame, expensive, lower precision,

(SRS) no assurance of representativeness

Systematic sampling Can increase Can decrease representativeness

representativeness,

easier to implement than

SRS, sampling frame not

necessary

Stratified sampling Include all important Difficult to select relevant

subpopulations, stratification variables, not feasible to

precision stratify on many variables, expensive

Cluster sampling Easy to implement, cost Imprecise, difficult to compute and

effective interpret results

A Classification of Internet Sampling

Fig. 11.6

Internet Sampling

Sampling Sampling

Panels Panels Rentals

Procedures for Drawing

Probability Samples

Simple Random

Exhibit 11.1 Sampling

Simple Random

Sampling

2. Each element is assigned a number from 1 to N

(pop. size).

3. Generate n (sample size) different random numbers

between 1 and N.

4. The numbers generated denote the elements that

should be included in the sample.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 11-34

Procedures for Drawing

Probability Samples

Systematic

Sampling

Exhibit 11.1, cont.

2. Each element is assigned a number from 1 to N (pop. size).

3. Determine the sampling interval i:i=N/n. If i is a fraction,

round to the nearest integer.

4. Select a random number, r, between 1 and i, as explained in

simple random sampling.

5. The elements with the following numbers will comprise the

systematic random sample: r, r+i,r+2i,r+3i,r+4i,...,r+(n-1)i.

Procedures for Drawing

Probability Samples

Stratified

Exhibit 11.1, cont. Sampling

2. Select the stratification variable(s) and the number of strata, H.

3. Divide the entire population into H strata. Based on the

classification variable, each element of the population is assigned

to one of the H strata.

4. In each stratum, number the elements from 1 to Nh (the pop.

size of stratum h).

5. Determine the sample size of each stratum, nh, based on

proportionate or disproportionate stratified sampling, where

H

nh = n

h=1

6. In each stratum, select a simple random sample of size nh

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 11-36

Procedures for Drawing

Probability Samples Cluster

Sampling

Exhibit 11.1, cont.

1. Assign a number from 1 to N to each element in the population.

2. Divide the population into C clusters of which c will be included in

the sample.

3. Calculate the sampling interval i, i=N/c (round to nearest integer).

4. Select a random number r between 1 and i, as explained in simple

random sampling.

5. Identify elements with the following numbers:

r,r+i,r+2i,... r+(c-1)i.

6. Select the clusters that contain the identified elements.

7. Select sampling units within each selected cluster based on SRS

or systematic sampling.

8. Remove clusters exceeding sampling interval i. Calculate new

population size N*, number of clusters to be selected c*= c-1,

and new sampling interval i*.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 11-37

Procedures for Drawing Probability Samples

Sampling

clusters has a population less than the sampling

interval. If b clusters have been selected with

certainty, select the remaining c-b clusters

according to steps 1 through 7. The fraction of units

to be sampled with certainty is the overall sampling

fraction = n/N. Thus, for clusters selected with

certainty, we would select ns=(n/N)(N1+N2+...+Nb)

units. The units selected from clusters selected

under two-stage sampling will therefore be n*=n-ns.

Choosing Nonprobability Vs. Probability Sampling

Table 11.4

Conditions Favoring the Use of

Factors Nonprobability Probability

sampling sampling

and nonsampling errors errors are errors are

larger larger

(low) (high)

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 11-39

Tennis' Systematic Sampling

Returns a Smash

gain a better understanding of its market. Systematic

sampling was employed to select a sample of 1,472

subscribers from the publication's domestic circulation list. If

we assume that the subscriber list had 1,472,000 names, the

sampling interval would be 1,000 (1,472,000/1,472). A

number from 1 to 1,000 was drawn at random. Beginning

with that number, every 1,000th subscriber was selected.

an incentive to respondents. An alert postcard was mailed

one week before the survey. A second, follow-up,

questionnaire was sent to the whole sample ten days after the

initial questionnaire. There were 76 post office returns, so the

net effective mailing was 1,396. Six weeks after the first

mailing, 778 completed questionnaires were returned, yielding

a response rate of 56%.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 11-41

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be

reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in

any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,

photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior

written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United

States of America.

publishing as Prentice Hall

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 11-42

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