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Chapter Eleven

Sampling:
Design and Procedures

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Chapter Outline

1) Overview
2) Sample or Census
3) The Sampling Design Process
i. Define the Target Population
ii. Determine the Sampling Frame
iii. Select a Sampling Technique
iv. Determine the Sample Size
v. Execute the Sampling Process

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Chapter Outline

4) A Classification of Sampling Techniques


i. Nonprobability Sampling Techniques
a. Convenience Sampling
b. Judgmental Sampling
c. Quota Sampling
d. Snowball Sampling
ii. Probability Sampling Techniques
a. Simple Random Sampling
b. Systematic Sampling
c. Stratified Sampling
d. Cluster Sampling
e. Other Probability Sampling Techniques
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Chapter Outline

5) Choosing Nonprobability Versus Probability


Sampling
6) Uses of Nonprobability Versus Probability
Sampling
7) Internet Sampling
8) International Marketing Research
9) Ethics in Marketing Research
10)Summary

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Sample Vs. Census

Table 11.1
Conditions Favoring the Use of
Type of Study Sample Census

1. Budget Small Large

2. Time available Short Long

3. Population size Large Small

4. Variance in the characteristic Small Large

5. Cost of sampling errors Low High

6. Cost of nonsampling errors High Low

7. Nature of measurement Destructive Nondestructive

8. Attention to individual cases Yes No


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The Sampling Design Process

Fig. 11.1

Define the Population

Determine the Sampling Frame

Select Sampling Technique(s)

Determine the Sample Size

Execute the Sampling Process

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Define the Target Population

The target population is the collection of elements or


objects that possess the information sought by the
researcher and about which inferences are to be
made. The target population should be defined in
terms of elements, sampling units, extent, and time.

• An element is the object about which or from


which the information is desired, e.g., the
respondent.
• A sampling unit is an element, or a unit
containing the element, that is available for
selection at some stage of the sampling process.
• Extent refers to the geographical boundaries.
• Time is the time period under consideration.
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Define the Target Population

Important qualitative factors in


determining the sample size are:

• the importance of the decision


• the nature of the research
• the number of variables
• the nature of the analysis
• sample sizes used in similar studies
• incidence rates
• completion rates
• resource constraints

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Sample Sizes Used in Marketing
Research Studies
Table 11.2

Type of Study Minimum Size Typical Range

Problem identification research 500 1,000-2,500


(e.g. market potential)
Problem-solving research (e.g. 200 300-500
pricing)

Product tests 200 300-500

Test marketing studies 200 300-500

TV, radio, or print advertising (per 150 200-300


commercial or ad tested)
Test-market audits 10 stores 10-20 stores

Focus groups 2 groups 6-15 groups

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Classification of Sampling Techniques

Fig. 11.2
Sampling Techniques

Nonprobability Probability
Sampling Techniques Sampling Techniques

Convenience Judgmental Quota Snowball


Sampling Sampling Sampling Sampling

Simple Random Systematic Stratified Cluster Other Sampling


Sampling Sampling Sampling Sampling Techniques
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Convenience Sampling

Convenience sampling attempts to obtain a


sample of convenient elements. Often,
respondents are selected because they happen
to be in the right place at the right time.

• Use of students, and members of social


organizations
• Mall intercept interviews without qualifying
the respondents
• Department stores using charge account
lists
• “People on the street” interviews
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A Graphical Illustration of Convenience
Sampling

Fig. 11.3
11.3
A B C D E

1 6 11 21
Group D happens to
16
assemble at a
convenient time and
2 7 12 17 22 place. So all the
elements in this
Group are selected.
3 8 13 18 23
The resulting sample
consists of elements
16, 17, 18, 19 and 20.
4 9 14 19 24
Note, no elements are
selected from group
5 10 15 20 25 A, B, C and E.
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Judgmental Sampling

Judgmental sampling is a form of


convenience sampling in which the
population elements are selected based on
the judgment of the researcher.

• Test markets
• Purchase engineers selected in industrial
marketing research
• Bellwether precincts selected in voting
behavior research
• Expert witnesses used in court

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Graphical Illustration of Judgmental
Sampling
Fig. 11.3
A B C D E

1 6 16 21
The researcher considers
11
groups B, C and E to be
typical and convenient.
2 7 12 17 22 Within each of these
groups one or two
elements are selected
3 8 13 18 23 based on typicality and
convenience. The
resulting sample
4 9 14 19 24 consists of elements 8,
10, 11, 13, and 24. Note,
no elements are selected
5 10 15 20 25 from groups A and D.
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Quota Sampling

Quota sampling may be viewed as two-stage restricted


judgmental sampling.

• The first stage consists of developing control categories,


or quotas, of population elements.
• In the second stage, sample elements are selected based
on convenience or judgment.

Control Population Sample


Variable composition composition

Sex Percentage Percentage Number

Male 48 48 480
Female 52 52 520
____ ____ ____
100 100 1000

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A Graphical Illustration of Quota Sampling

Fig. 11.3
A B C D E

A quota of one
1 11 16 21
element from each
6
group, A to E, is
imposed. Within each
2 7 12 17
group, one element is
22
selected based on
judgment or
3 8 13 18 23 convenience. The
resulting sample
consists of elements
4 9 14 19 24 3, 6, 13, 20 and 22.
Note, one element is
selected from each
5 10 15 20 25 column or group.
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Snowball Sampling

In snowball sampling, an initial group of


respondents is selected, usually at random.

• After being interviewed, these respondents


are asked to identify others who belong to
the target population of interest.

• Subsequent respondents are selected based


on the referrals.

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A Graphical Illustration of Snowball Sampling
Random Fig. 11.3
Selection Referrals
A B C D E

Elements 2 and 9 are


selected randomly from
1 6 11 16 21
groups A and B.
Element 2 refers
2 7 12 17 22 elements 12 and 13.
Element 9 refers
3 8 23
element 18. The
13 18
resulting sample
consists of elements 2,
4 9 14 19 24
9, 12, 13, and 18. Note,
there are no elements
5 10 15 20 25
from group E.
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Simple Random Sampling

• Each element in the population has a


known and equal probability of selection.

• Each possible sample of a given size (n)


has a known and equal probability of being
the sample actually selected.

• This implies that every element is selected


independently of every other element.

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A Graphical Illustration of
Simple Random Sampling
Fig. 11.4
A B C D E

1 6 11 16 21 Select five
random numbers
from 1 to 25. The
2 7 12 17 22
resulting sample
consists of
3 8 13 18 23 population
elements 3, 7, 9,
16, and 24. Note,
4 9 14 19 24
there is no
element from
5 10 15 20 25 Group C.
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Systematic Sampling

• The sample is chosen by selecting a random


starting point and then picking every ith element
in succession from the sampling frame.

• The sampling interval, i, is determined by dividing


the population size N by the sample size n and
rounding to the nearest integer.

• When the ordering of the elements is related to


the characteristic of interest, systematic sampling
increases the representativeness of the sample.

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Systematic Sampling

• If the ordering of the elements produces a


cyclical pattern, systematic sampling may
decrease the representativeness of the sample.

For example, there are 100,000 elements in the


population and a sample of 1,000 is desired. In
this case the sampling interval, i, is 100. A
random number between 1 and 100 is selected.
If, for example, this number is 23, the sample
consists of elements 23, 123, 223, 323, 423,
523, and so on.

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A Graphical Illustration of
Systematic Sampling
Fig. 11.4
A B C D E

Select a random
1 6 11 16 21 number between 1
and 5, say 2.
The resulting sample
2 7 12 17 22
consists of
population 2,
3 8 13 18 23 (2+5=) 7, (2+5x2=) 12,
(2+5x3=)17, and
(2+5x4=) 22. Note, all
4 9 14 19 24
the elements are
selected from a
5 10 15 20 25 single row.
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Stratified Sampling

• A two-step process in which the population is


partitioned into subpopulations, or strata.

• The strata should be mutually exclusive and


collectively exhaustive in that every population
element should be assigned to one and only one
stratum and no population elements should be
omitted.

• Next, elements are selected from each stratum


by a random procedure, usually SRS.

• A major objective of stratified sampling is to


increase precision without increasing cost.
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Stratified Sampling

• The elements within a stratum should be as


homogeneous as possible, but the elements
in different strata should be as
heterogeneous as possible.

• The stratification variables should also be


closely related to the characteristic of
interest.

• Finally, the variables should decrease the


cost of the stratification process by being
easy to measure and apply.
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Stratified Sampling

• In proportionate stratified sampling, the


size of the sample drawn from each stratum is
proportionate to the relative size of that
stratum in the total population.

• In disproportionate stratified sampling,


the size of the sample from each stratum is
proportionate to the relative size of that
stratum and to the standard deviation of the
distribution of the characteristic of interest
among all the elements in that stratum.

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A Graphical Illustration of
Stratified Sampling
Fig. 11.4
A B C D E

Randomly select a
1 6 11 16 21
number from 1 to 5
for each stratum, A to
2 7 12 17 22 E. The resulting
sample consists of
3 8 18 23
population elements
13
4, 7, 13, 19 and 21.
Note, one element
4 9 14 19 24
is selected from each
column.
5 10 15 20 25

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Cluster Sampling

• The target population is first divided into


mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive
subpopulations, or clusters.

• Then a random sample of clusters is selected,


based on a probability sampling technique
such as SRS.

• For each selected cluster, either all the


elements are included in the sample (one-
stage) or a sample of elements is drawn
probabilistically (two-stage).

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Cluster Sampling

• Elements within a cluster should be as


heterogeneous as possible, but clusters
themselves should be as homogeneous as
possible. Ideally, each cluster should be a
small-scale representation of the population.

• In probability proportionate to size


sampling, the clusters are sampled with
probability proportional to size. In the
second stage, the probability of selecting a
sampling unit in a selected cluster varies
inversely with the size of the cluster.

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A Graphical Illustration of
Cluster Sampling (2-Stage)
Fig. 11.4
A B C D E

Randomly select 3
1 6 11 16 21 clusters, B, D and E.
Within each cluster,
randomly select one
2 7 12 17 22
or two elements. The
resulting sample
3 8 13 18 23 consists of
population elements
7, 18, 20, 21, and 23.
4 9 14 19 24
Note, no elements
are selected from
5 10 15 20 25 clusters A and C.
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Types of Cluster Sampling

Fig 11.5
Cluster Sampling

One-Stage Two-Stage Multistage


Sampling Sampling Sampling

Simple Cluster Probability


Sampling Proportionate
to Size Sampling

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Strengths and Weaknesses of
Basic Sampling Techniques
Table 11.4
Technique Strengths Weaknesses
Nonprobability Sampling Least expensive, least Selection bias, sample not
Convenience sampling time-consuming, most representative, not recommended for
convenient descriptive or causal research
Judgmental sampling Low cost, convenient, Does not allow generalization,
not time-consuming subjective
Quota sampling Sample can be controlled Selection bias, no assurance of
for certain characteristics representativeness
Snowball sampling Can estimate rare Time-consuming
characteristics

Probability sampling Easily understood, Difficult to construct sampling


Simple random sampling results projectable frame, expensive, lower precision,
(SRS) no assurance of representativeness
Systematic sampling Can increase Can decrease representativeness
representativeness,
easier to implement than
SRS, sampling frame not
necessary
Stratified sampling Include all important Difficult to select relevant
subpopulations, stratification variables, not feasible to
precision stratify on many variables, expensive
Cluster sampling Easy to implement, cost Imprecise, difficult to compute and
effective interpret results

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A Classification of Internet Sampling

Fig. 11.6
Internet Sampling

Online Intercept Recruited Online Other Techniques


Sampling Sampling

Nonrandom Random Panel Nonpanel

Recruited Opt-in Opt-in List


Panels Panels Rentals

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Procedures for Drawing
Probability Samples
Simple Random
Exhibit 11.1 Sampling

Simple Random
Sampling

1. Select a suitable sampling frame.


2. Each element is assigned a number from 1 to N
(pop. size).
3. Generate n (sample size) different random numbers
between 1 and N.
4. The numbers generated denote the elements that
should be included in the sample.
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Procedures for Drawing
Probability Samples
Systematic
Sampling
Exhibit 11.1, cont.

1. Select a suitable sampling frame.


2. Each element is assigned a number from 1 to N (pop. size).
3. Determine the sampling interval i:i=N/n. If i is a fraction,
round to the nearest integer.
4. Select a random number, r, between 1 and i, as explained in
simple random sampling.
5. The elements with the following numbers will comprise the
systematic random sample: r, r+i,r+2i,r+3i,r+4i,...,r+(n-1)i.

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Procedures for Drawing
Probability Samples
Stratified
Exhibit 11.1, cont. Sampling

1. Select a suitable frame.


2. Select the stratification variable(s) and the number of strata, H.
3. Divide the entire population into H strata. Based on the
classification variable, each element of the population is assigned
to one of the H strata.
4. In each stratum, number the elements from 1 to Nh (the pop.
size of stratum h).
5. Determine the sample size of each stratum, nh, based on
proportionate or disproportionate stratified sampling, where
H
nh = n
h=1
6. In each stratum, select a simple random sample of size nh
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Procedures for Drawing
Probability Samples Cluster
Sampling
Exhibit 11.1, cont.
1. Assign a number from 1 to N to each element in the population.
2. Divide the population into C clusters of which c will be included in
the sample.
3. Calculate the sampling interval i, i=N/c (round to nearest integer).
4. Select a random number r between 1 and i, as explained in simple
random sampling.
5. Identify elements with the following numbers:
r,r+i,r+2i,... r+(c-1)i.
6. Select the clusters that contain the identified elements.
7. Select sampling units within each selected cluster based on SRS
or systematic sampling.
8. Remove clusters exceeding sampling interval i. Calculate new
population size N*, number of clusters to be selected c*= c-1,
and new sampling interval i*.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 11-37
Procedures for Drawing Probability Samples

Exhibit 11.1, cont. Cluster


Sampling

Repeat the process until each of the remaining


clusters has a population less than the sampling
interval. If b clusters have been selected with
certainty, select the remaining c-b clusters
according to steps 1 through 7. The fraction of units
to be sampled with certainty is the overall sampling
fraction = n/N. Thus, for clusters selected with
certainty, we would select ns=(n/N)(N1+N2+...+Nb)
units. The units selected from clusters selected
under two-stage sampling will therefore be n*=n-ns.

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Choosing Nonprobability Vs. Probability Sampling

Table 11.4
Conditions Favoring the Use of
Factors Nonprobability Probability
sampling sampling

Nature of research Exploratory Conclusive

Relative magnitude of sampling Nonsampling Sampling


and nonsampling errors errors are errors are
larger larger

Variability in the population Homogeneous Heterogeneous


(low) (high)

Statistical considerations Unfavorable Favorable

Operational considerations Favorable Unfavorable


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Tennis' Systematic Sampling
Returns a Smash

Tennis magazine conducted a mail survey of its subscribers to


gain a better understanding of its market. Systematic
sampling was employed to select a sample of 1,472
subscribers from the publication's domestic circulation list. If
we assume that the subscriber list had 1,472,000 names, the
sampling interval would be 1,000 (1,472,000/1,472). A
number from 1 to 1,000 was drawn at random. Beginning
with that number, every 1,000th subscriber was selected.

A brand-new dollar bill was included with the questionnaire as


an incentive to respondents. An alert postcard was mailed
one week before the survey. A second, follow-up,
questionnaire was sent to the whole sample ten days after the
initial questionnaire. There were 76 post office returns, so the
net effective mailing was 1,396. Six weeks after the first
mailing, 778 completed questionnaires were returned, yielding
a response rate of 56%.

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