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# WHAT IS SOLAR POWER?

## • Solar power is the use of suns light energy

directly as thermal energy or through the use of
photovoltaic cells In solar panels and
transparent photovoltaic glass to generate
electricity.
WHY SOLAR POWER?

## - Solar power saves society billions or

trillions of dollars.
.
- Solar power provides energy reliability.

## Many countries have chosen to support renewable

energy producers.
European Union has committed to reduce the emissions
of
greenhouse gas to at least 20 % below 1990 levels and to
produce no less than 20 % of its energy consumption from
renewable sources by 2020.
HOW TO GET SOLAR POWER?

## • USE OF PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM

WORKING OF PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL
TYPES OF SOLAR PANEL
SOLAR PANEL CHARACTERISTICS

## Each solar panel is designed to produce

certainpower(voltage,current) under specific
conditions.Typically, the solar panel
manufacturers provide the following electrical
characteristics  type of cell;
 number of cells and connections;
 open circuit voltage, Voc;
 short circuit current, Isc;
 maximum power voltage, Vmp;
 maximum power current, Imp;
 maximum power, Pm;
 module efficiency, η.
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SINGLE CRYSTAL SILICON
PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULE WITH 105 W MAXIMUM POWER
ANGLE OF MOUNTING
CHARGE CONTROLLER TOPOLOGIES
Series Charge Controller

## MPPT Charge Controller

1.Series Charge Controller
2.Shunt Charge Controller
3.PWM Charge Controller
4.MPPT Charge Controller
 Voltage-current curve
for a PV array is not linear
 Maximum power point
needs to be tracked
 Used for higher voltages
 Cost and power loss
decreases
Methods to track Maximum power point
1.Constants Voltage Algorithm:
• Operating point is kept near calculated MPP reference value
• Assumes effect of Solar irridiation and temperature on solar
system are insignificant
2.Open Circuit Voltage Algorithm:
• Uses open circuit voltage to determine max point voltage
Vmp=k.Voc
k-->Fill factor
3.Short Circuit Current Algorithm:
• Uses Short circuit current value to calculate max point current
Imp=k.Isc
4.Perturb and Observe Algorithm:
• If power output is increasing,perturbation continues in same
direction
• If power output is decreasing,perturbation is reversed
• Perturbation size should be small
• Not being able to track the maximum power point under fast
5.Incremental Conductance Algorithm:
• Voltage changes in the solar panel are measured to predict
the effect of a voltage change
 For 10-12V input – BOOST operation
 For 12-17V input – BUCK Operation
During ON state
Switch is closed

+
B
- A

Vi DC
T Vo
T
+ E
R
- Y

𝑑𝐼𝐿 𝑉𝑖
𝑉𝐿 = 𝐿 ∆𝐼𝐿 + = ∗ 𝑇𝑂𝑁
𝑑𝑡 𝐿
OFF STATE
- B
- A
T
Vi DC Ic Io T Vo
+ E
R
+ Y

𝑑𝐼𝐿 −𝑉𝑜
𝑉𝐿 = 𝐿 ∆𝐼𝐿 − = ∗ 𝑇𝑂𝐹𝐹
𝑑𝑡 𝐿
CCM
Mode:
 In steady state conditions, the current increase, ∆IL(+), during the ON
time and the current decrease during the OFF time, ∆IL(–), must be equal.
 Otherwise, the inductor current would have a net increase or decrease
from cycle to cycle which would not be a steady state condition.

∆𝐼𝐿(+) = ∆𝐼𝐿(−)

𝑫
𝑽𝒐 = − ∗ 𝑽𝒊
𝟏−𝑫
CALCULATIONS:

−𝑉𝑜 ∗ 𝑇𝑠 ∗ 𝑉𝑖 𝑚𝑎𝑥 2
𝐿𝑚𝑖𝑛 ≥ 2
2 ∗ 𝐼𝑜 𝑐𝑟 ∗ 𝑉𝑜 − 𝑉𝑖 𝑚𝑎𝑥

𝐼𝑜 𝑚𝑎𝑥 ∗ 𝐷𝑚𝑎𝑥
𝐶≥
𝑓𝑠 ∗ ∆𝑉𝑜
𝑓𝑠 = 50𝑘𝐻𝑧
𝑉𝑖 𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 17𝑉
𝐼𝑜 𝑐𝑟 = 0.42𝐴
𝐼𝑜(𝑚𝑎𝑥) = 12.6𝐴
∆𝑉𝑜 = 5% 𝑜𝑓 𝑉𝑜
𝐿𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 3.43𝑚𝐻
= 3.6mH (Standard value)
C=228𝜇𝐻
N-MOSFET

Battery
Input Inductor
Output VRLA
voltage 3.6mH
DC
Capacitor 42Ah,12V
From Pulse
Solar Panel 228uF
Generator
10-17V 50KHz +

Vi