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Non-Destructive Testing

of Concrete

Prepared By:- Mangesh Shivaji Sulke


Subject :- Advanced Concrete
Techonology

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Index

• Introduction to NDT
• Visual Testing
• Dye Penetrant Test
• Magnetic Particle Test
• Ultrasonic Testing
• Eddy Current Tesing
• Radiography Testing
• Rebound Hammer Testing

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Non-Destructive Testing
(NDT)
• NDT is defined as, the non-invasive
technique to determine integrity of
material, component or structure
or quantitatively measure some
characteristics of an object.
• It is the testing of material for
internal flaws or metallurgical
conditions, without interfering in
any way with the integrity of
material or its suitability for
service.
• It simply means inspect or measure
without doing harm.
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What are Uses
of NDT Methods?
• Flaw Detection and Evaluation
• Leak Detection
• Dimensional Measurements
• Structure and Microstructure Characterization
• Estimation of Mechanical and Physical Properties
• Stress (Strain) and Dynamic Response Measurements
• Material Sorting and Chemical Composition Determination

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Six Most Common NDT Methods

• Visual
• Liquid Penetrant
• Magnetic
• Ultrasonic
• Eddy Current
• Radiography

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Visual Testing
• Visual testing is the most basic and common inspection
method involves using of human eyes to look for defects.
• But, now it is done by special equipments to gain access and
more closely inspect the subject area.
• Following are the some tools used for visual tasting
1) Mirrors (mostly small and angled)
2) Magnifying glass
3) Microscopes (optical and electronic)
4) CCTV Systems(closed circuit television)
5) Videoscope

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Tools include fiberscopes,
borescopes, magnifying
glasses and mirrors.

Portable video inspection


unit with zoom allows
inspection of large tanks
and vessels, railroad
tank cars, sewer lines

Robotic crawlers permit


observation in hazardous or tight
areas, such as air ducts,
reactors, pipelines.

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Dye Penetrant Testing

• This method is commonly used for


detecting surface cracks or defects
• DPT is the most widely used NDT method.
• DPT can be used to inspect almost any
material provided that its surface is not
extrmely rough.
Findings
• After dry penetrant testing following two
cracks are ditected

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Advantages of DPT

• This method has high sensitivity to small surface


discontinuities.
• Large areas and volumes of parts/materials can be inspected
rapidly and at low cost.
• Indications are directly produced on the surface of the part
and constitute a visual representation of flaw.

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Disadvantages of DPT

• Only surface breaking defects can be detected.


• Surface finish and roughness can affect inspection sensitivity.
• Chemical handling and proper disposal is required.
• Post cleaning for acceptable parts or materials are required.
• Inspector must have direct access to the surface being
inspected.

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Magnetic Particle Testing
• This method is suitable for
detection of surface and near
surface discontinuities in
magnetic material, mainly
ferrite steel and iron.
• MPT is relatively fast and
relatively easy to apply.
• Material surface preparation is
not required as required in
some other NDT methods.

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Basic principle of MPT
• In first fig. magnetised
material having no cracks
and there are only two poles
North and South at two
ends.
• In second fig. magnetised
material having cracks
another north and south
pole at crack i.e there is
magnetic leakage.

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• Finely milled iron particles coated with dye pigments gets
attracted towards flux leakage which can be visually detected
when applied to the specimen.

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Advantages of MPT

• It does not need high precleaning operations.


• It is the best method to detect the surface and near surface
cracks in ferromagnetic materials.
• Fast and relatively simple NDT method.
• Will work through thin coating.
• Highly portable NDT method.
• It is quicker.
• Generally Expensive.

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Disadvantages of MPT

• Material must be ferromagneic.


• Orientation and strength of magnetic material is critical.
• Detects surface and near to surface cracks only.
• Sometimes large currents are required.

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Ultrasonic Testing
• This method is used for detection of internal surface defects in
sound conducting materials.
• In this method high frequency sound waves are introduced in
material and they are reflected from surface and flaws.
• Reflected sound energy is plotted versus time and inspector can
visualize a cross section of the specimen showing the depth of
feature.

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Advantages of Ultrasonic Testing
• Thickness and length upto 30 ft can be tested.
• Position, size and type of defect can be determined.
• Instant test results are available.
• Easily portable.
• Capable of being fully automated.
• Access to only one side is necessary.

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Disadvantages of Ultrasonic Testing
• The operator can decide whether the test piece is defective or
not while the test is in progress.
• Considerable degree of skill necessare to obtain the fullest
information from the test.
• Very thin section can prove difficult.

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Eddy Current Testing
• Eddy current testing is particularly well suited for detecting
surface cracks but can also be used to make electrical
conductivity and coating thickness measurements.
• This method is applicable to electrically conductive materials
only.
• Applications of ECT
1. Crack detection
2. Corrosion monitoring
3. Material thickness measurement
4. Coating thickness measurement
5. Conductivity measurement

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Crack Detection
• Crack causes disruption in the circular flow pattern of eddy
currents and weaken their strength.
• This change in strength at crack location can be detected.

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Advantages of ECT
• Sensitivity to small cracks and other defects.
• Detect surface and near surface defects.
• Inspection gives immediate results.
• Equipment is very portable.
• Method can be used for much more than flaw detection.

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Disadvantages of ECT
• Only conductive materials can be inspected.
• Surface must be accesible to the probe.
• Skill and training equired is more extensive than other
techniques.
• Surface finish and roughness may interfere.
• Depth of penetration is limited.

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Radiography Testing
• Radiography testing is a method of inspecting material for
hidden flaws by using ability of short wavelength
electromagnetic radiation to penetrate various materials.
• It is similar to X-ray technology in medical radiography.
• To produce radiograph, the film package is placed close to
surface of the subject.
• The source of radiation is placed on the other side of the
object some distance away, so that radiation passes through
the subject and on to the field.

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Radiography Testing Process

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Radiographic Image

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Advantages of Radiography
• Information is presented pictorially
• A permanent record is provided which may be viewed at a
time and place distant from place.
• Useful for thin sections.

Disadvantages of Radiography
• Possible health hazard.
• Need to direct beam accurately for two-dimensional problem.
• Film processing and viewing facilities are necessary.
• Not suitable for automation.
• Not Suitable for surface defects.

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Rebound Hammer Test
• The rebound hammer test is one of the non-destructive tests
used to check the compressive strength of concrete
• Rebound hammer test (Schmidt Hammer) is
used to provide a convenient and rapid indication of the
compressive strength of concrete.
• Rebound hammer test method is based on the principle that
the rebound of an elastic mass depends on the hardness of
the concrete surface against which the mass strikes

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Procedure
• When the plunger of rebound hammer is pressed against
the concrete surface, the spring controlled mass in the
hammer rebounds.
• The amount of rebound of the mass depends on the
hardness of concrete surface.
• Thus, the hardness of concrete and rebound hammer
reading can be correlated with compressive strength of
concrete.
• The rebound value is recorded and is designated as the
rebound number or rebound index.
• The compressive strength can be read directly from
the graph provided on the body of the hammer

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Procedure

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Advantages of Rebound Hammer Test

• Simple to use. No special experience is needed to conduct the


test.
• Establishes uniformity of properties.
• Equipment is inexpensive and is readily available.
• A wide variety of concrete test hammers is available with an
operational range of M10 to M70.
• For rehabilitation of old Monuments

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Disadvantages of Rebound Hammer Test

• Evaluates only the local point and layer of masonry to which it


is applied.
• No direct relationship to strength or deformation properties.
• Unreliable for the detection of flaws.
• Cleaning maintenance of probe and spring mechanism

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Thank you

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