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Introduction and Tissues

Human Anatomy
BIOL 1010

Liston Campus
What is Anatomy?
Anatomy (= morphology): study of body’s structure
Physiology: study of body’s function
Structure reflects Function!!!
Branches of Anatomy
 Gross: Large structures
 Surface: Landmarks
 Histology: Cells and Tissues
 Developmental: Structures change through life
 Embryology: Structures form and develop before birth
Hierarchy of Structural
Organization
Each of these build upon one another
to make up the next level:
Chemical level
Cellular
Tissue
Organ
Organ system
Organism
Hierarchy of Structural
Organization
Chemical level
 Atoms combine to make molecules
 4 macromolecules in the body
 Carbohydrates
 Lipids
 Proteins
 Nucleic acids
Hierarchy of Structural
Organization
Cellular
 Made up of cells and cellular organelles
(molecules)
 Cells can be eukaryotic or prokaryotic
 Organelles are structures within cells that
perform dedicated functions (“small organs”)

http://cmweb.pvschools.net/~bbecke/newell/Cells.html
Hierarchy of Structural
Organization
Tissue
 Collection of cells that work together to
perform a specialized function
 4 basic types of tissue in the human body:
 Epithelium
 Connective tissue
 Muscle tissue
 Nervous tissue

www.emc.maricopa.edu
Hierarchy of Structural
Organization
Organ
 Made up of tissue
 Heart
 Brain
 Liver
 Pancreas, etc……

Pg 181
Hierarchy of Structural
Organization
Organ system (11)
 Made up of a group of related organs that
work together
 Integumentary
 Skeletal
 Muscular
 Nervous
 Endocrine
 Cardiovascular Circulatory
 Lymphatic
 Respiratory
 Digestive
 Urinary
 Reproductive

Pg 341 Urinary System


Hierarchy of Structural
Organization
Organism
 An individual human, animal, plant, etc……
 Made up all of the organ systems
 Work together to sustain life
Anatomical Directions
Anatomical position
Regions
 Axial vs. Appendicular
Anatomical Directions-It’s all Relative!
 Anterior (ventral) vs. Posterior (dorsal)
 Medial vs. Lateral
 Superior (cranial) vs. Inferior (caudal)
 Superficial vs. Deep
 Proximal vs. Distal
Anatomical Planes
 Frontal = Coronal
 Transverse = Horizontal = Cross Section
 Sagittal Pg 5
Reference Point

Anterior – (ventral) Posterior – (dorsal) Frontal Plane


Closer to the front surface of Closer to the rear surface
the body of the body
Medial – Lateral – Sagittal Plane
Lying closer to the midline Lying further away from the
midline
Superior – (cranial) Inferior – (caudal) Horizontal Plane
Closer to the head in relation to Away from the head or
the entire body towards the lower part of
(More General) the body
Superficial – Deep – Surface of body or
Towards the surface Away from the surface organ

Proximal – Distal – Origin of a structure


Closer to the origin of a body Further away from the
part origin of a body part
(More Specific)
4 Types of Tissue

1)Epithelium
2)Connective
3)Muscle
4)Nervous
Tissues: groups of cells closely associated that
have a similar structure and perform a related function

Four types of tissue


 Epithelial = covering/lining
 Connective = support
 Muscle = movement
 Nervous = control
Most organs contain all 4 types
Tissue has non-living extracellular
material between its cells
EPITHELIAL TISSUE: sheets of
cells cover a surface or line a cavity
Functions
 Protection
 Secretion

 Absorption

 Ion Transport
Characteristics of Epithelium
Cellularity
 Composed of cells
Specialized contacts
 Joined by cell junctions
Polarity
 Apical vs. Basal surfaces differ
Supported by connective tissue
Avascular
Innervated
Highly regenerative
Classification of Epithelium-based
on number of layers and cell shape
Layers
 Simple
 Stratified
 Stratified layers characterized by shape of apical layer
 Psuedostratified
Shapes
 Squamous
 Cuboidal
 Columnar
 Transitional
Types of Epithelium
Simple squamous (1 layer)
 Lungs, blood vessels, ventral body cavity
Simple cuboidal
 Kidney tubules, glands
Simple columnar
 Stomach, intestines
Pseudostratified columnar
 Respiratory passages (ciliated version)
Stratified squamous (>1 layer)
 Epidermis, mouth, esophagus, vagina
 Named so according to apical cell shape
 Regenerate from below
 Deep layers cuboidal and columnar

Transitional (not shown)


 Thins when stretches
 Hollow urinary organs
All histology pictures property of BIOL 1010 Lab
Special Epithelium
Endothelium
 Simple squamous epithelium that lines vessels
 e.g. lymphatic & blood vessel

Mesothelium
 Simple squamous epithelium that forms the lining
of body cavities
 e.g. pleura, pericardium, peritoneum
Features of Apical Surface of
Epithelium
Microvilli: (ex) in small intestine
 Finger-like extensions of the plasma membrane
of apical epithelial cell
 Increase surface area for absorption
Cilia: (ex) respiratory tubes

 Whip-like, motile extension of plasma membrane


 Moves mucus, etc. over epithelial surface 1-way
Features of Lateral Surface of
Epithelium
Cells are connected to neighboring cells via:
 Contour of cells-wavy contour fits together
 Cell Junctions (3 common)
 Desmosomes
 Proteins hold cells together to maintain integrity of tissue

 Tight Junctions
 Plasma membrane of adjacent cells fuse, nothing passes
 Gap junction
 Proteins allow small molecules to pass through
Features of the Basal Surface
of Epithelium
Basement membrane
 Sheet between the epithelial and connective tissue
layers
 Attaches epithelium to connective tissue below
 Made up of:
 Basal lamina: thin, non-cellular, supportive sheet made of
proteins
 Superficial layer
 Acts as a selective filter
 Assists epithelial cell regeneration by moving new cells
 Reticular fiber layer
 Deeper layer
 Support
Glands
Epithelial cells that make and secrete a
product
Products are water-based and usually contain
proteins
Classified as:
 Unicellular vs. multicellular
 Exocrine vs. Endocrine

Page 138
Glands: epithelial cells that make and
secrete a water-based substance w/proteins
Exocrine Glands
 Secrete substance onto body surface or into
body cavity
 Activity is local
 Have ducts
 Unicellular or Multicellular
 (ex) goblet cells, salivary, mammary,
pancreas, liver
Glands: epithelial cells that make and
secrete a water-based substance w/proteins
Endocrine Glands
 Secrete product into blood stream
 Either stored in secretory cells or in follicle
surrounded by secretory cells
 Hormones travel to target organ to increase
response (excitatory)
 No ducts
 (ex) pancreas, adrenal, pituitary, thyroid
4 Types of Tissue

1)Epithelium
2)Connective
3)Muscle
4)Nervous
4 Types of Connective Tissue

1) Connective Tissue Proper


2) Cartilage
3) Bone Tissue
4) Blood
Connective Tissue (CT):
most abundant and diverse tissue
Four Classes
Functions include connecting, storing &
carrying nutrients, protection, fight
infection
CT contains large amounts of non-living
extracellular matrix
Contains a variety of cells and fibers
Some types vascularized
All CT originates from mesenchyme
 Embryonic connective tissue
Fibers in Connective Tissue
Fibers For Support
 Reticular:
 form networks for structure & support
 (ex) cover capillaries
 Collagen:
 strongest, most numerous, provide tensile strength
 (ex) dominant fiber in ligaments
 Elastic:
 long + thin, stretch and retain shape
 (ex) dominant fiber in elastic cartilage
Components of Connective Tissue
Fibroblasts:
 cells that produce all fibers in CT
 produce + secrete protein subunits to make them
 produce ground matrix
Interstitial (Tissue) Fluid
 derived from blood in CT proper
 medium for nutrients, waste + oxygen to travel to cells
 found in ground matrix
Ground Matrix (substance):
 part of extra-cellular material that holds and absorbs
interstitial fluid
 Made and secreted by fibroblasts
 jelly-like with sugar & protein molecules
1) Connective Tissue Proper
Two kinds: Loose CT & Dense CT
 Functions
 Support and bind to other tissue
 Hold body fluids
 Defends against infection
 Stores nutrients as fat
 Each function performed by different kind
of fibers and cells in specific tissue
Defense from Infection
Areolar tissue below epithelium is body’s first
defense
Cells travel to CT in blood
 Macrophages-eat foreign particles
 Plasma cells-secrete antibodies, mark molecules for
destruction
 Mast cells-contain chemical mediators for
inflammation response
 White Blood Cells = neutrophils, lymphocytes,
eosinophils-fight infection
Ground substance + cell fibers-slow invading
microorganisms
Loose CT Proper

Areolar CT
 All types of fibers present
 All typical cell types present
 Surrounds blood vessels and nerves
Specialized Loose CT Proper
Adipose tissue
 Loaded with adipocytes, highly vascularized, high
metabolic activity
 Insulates, produces energy, supports
 Found in hypodermis under skin
Reticular CT
 Contains only reticular fibers
 Forms caverns to hold free cells, forms internal
“skeleton” of some organs
 Found in bone marrow, holds blood cells, lymph
nodes, spleen
Dense/Fibrous Connective Tissue
Contains more collagen
Can resist extremely strong pulling forces
Regular vs. Irregular
 Regular-fibers run same direction, parallel to pull
 (eg) fascia, tendons, ligaments
 Irregular-fibers thicker, run in different directions
 (eg) dermis, fibrous capsules at ends of bones

Dense regular Dense irregular


Components of CT Proper Summarized
Cells Matrix

Fibroblasts Gel-like ground


substance
Defense cells Collagen fibers
-macrophages Reticular fibers
-white blood cells
Elastic fibers
Adipocytes
2) Cartilage
Chondroblasts produce cartilage
Chondrocytes mature cartilage cells
 Reside in lacunae
More abundant in embryo than adult
Firm, Flexible
Resists compression
 (eg) trachea, meniscus
Avascular (chondrocytes can function w/ low oxygen)
NOT Innervated
Perichondrium
 dense, irregular connective tissue around cartilage
 growth/repair of cartilage
 resists expansion during compression of cartilage
Cartilage in the Body
Three types:
 Hyaline
 most abundant
 fibers in matrix
 support via flexibility/resilience
 (eg) at limb joints, ribs, nose
 Elastic
 many elastic fibers in matrix too
 great flexibility
 (eg) external ear, epiglottis
 Fibrocartilage
 resists both compression and
tension
 (eg) meniscus, annulus fibrosus
Components of Cartilage Summarized

Cells Matrix

Chondrocytes Gel-like ground


substance
Chondroblasts Lots of water
(in growing cartilage)
Fibroblasts Some have collagen and
elastic fibers
3) Bone Tissue: (a bone is an organ)

Well-vascularized
Function:
 support (eg) pelvic bowl, legs
 protect (eg) skull, vertebrae
 mineral storage (eg) calcium, phosphate
(inorganic component)
 movement (eg) walk, grasp objects
 blood-cell formation (eg) red bone marrow
Bone Tissue
Osteoblasts
 Secrete organic part of bone matrix
Osteocytes
 Mature bone cells
 Sit in lacunae
 Maintain bone matrix
Osteoclasts
 Degrade and reabsorb bone
Periosteum
 External layer of CT that surrounds bone
 Outer: Dense irregular CT
 Inner: Osteoblasts, osteoclasts
Endosteum
 Internal layer of CT that lines cavities and covers trabeculae
 Contains osteoblasts and osteoclasts

academic.kellogg.cc.mi.us/.../skeletal.htm
Compact Bone
External layer
Osteon (Haversian system)
 Parallel to the long axis of the bone
 Groups of concentric tubules (lamella)
 Lamella = layer of bone matrix where all fibers run in the same
direction
 Adjacent lamella fibers run in opposite directions
 Haversian Canal runs through center of osteon
 Contains blood vessels and nerves
 Connected to each other by perforating (Volkman) canals
Interstitial lamellae fills spaces and forms periphery

www.mc.vanderbilt.edu/.../CartilageandBone03.htm
Bone Anatomy: Spongy bone

Spongy bone (cancellous bone): internal layer


 Trabeculae: small, needle-like pieces of bone form
honeycomb
 each made of several layers of lamellae + osteocytes
 no canal for vessels
 space filled with bone marrow
 not as dense, no direct stress at bone’s center
Shapes of Bones
Flat = skull, sternum, clavicle

Irregular = pelvis, vertebrae

Short = carpals, patella

Long = femur, phalanges,


metacarpals, humerus
Anatomy of a Long Bone

Diaphysis
 Medullary Cavity
 Nutrient Artery & Vein
2 Epiphyses
 Epiphyseal Plates
 Epiphyseal Artery & Vein
Periosteum
 Does not cover epiphyses
Endosteum
 Covers trabeculae of spongy bone
 Lines medullary cavity of long bones

training.seer.cancer.gov/.../illu_long_bone.jpg
2 Types of Bone Formation
Intramembranous Ossification
 Membrane bones: most skull bones and clavicle
 Osteoblasts in membrane secrete osteoid that mineralizes
Endochondral Ossification: All other bones
 Begins with a cartilaginous model
 Cartilage calcifies
 Medullary cavity is formed by action of osteoclasts
 Epiphyses grow and eventually calcify
 Epiphyseal plates remain cartilage for up to 20 years
Bone Growth & Remodeling
GROWTH
 Appositional Growth = widening of bone
 Bone tissue added on surface by osteoblasts of periosteum
 Medullary cavity maintained by osteoclasts
 Lengthening of Bone
 Epiphyseal plates enlarge by chondroblasts
 Matrix calcifies (chondrocytes die and disintegrate)
 Bone tissue replaces cartilage on diaphysis side
REMODELING
 Due to mechanical stresses on bones, their tissue needs
to be replaced
 Osteoclasts-take up bone ( = breakdown) release Ca2++ , PO4 to
body fluids from bone
 Osteoblasts-form new bone by secreting osteoid
 Ideally osteoclasts & osteoblasts work at the same rate!
Components of Bone Tissue Summarized
Cells Matrix

Osteblasts Gel-like ground substance


calcified with inorganic
salts

Fibroblasts Collagen fibers

Osteocytes

Osteoclasts
4) Blood: Atypical Connective Tissue
Function:
 Transports waste, gases, nutrients,
hormones through cardiovascular system
 Helps regulate body temperature
 Protects body by fighting infection
Derived from mesenchyme
Hematopoiesis: production of blood cells
 Occurs in red bone marrow
 In adults, axial skeleton, girdles, proximal
epiphyses of humerus and femur
Blood Cells
Erythrocytes: (RBC) small, oxygen-transporting
most abundant in blood
no organelles, filled w/hemoglobin
pick up O2 at lungs, transport to rest of body

Leukocytes: (WBC) complete cells , 5 types


fight against infectious microorganisms
stored in bone marrow for emergencies

*Platelets = Thrombocytes:
fragments of cytoplasm
plug small tears in vessel walls, initiates clotting
Components of Blood Summarized
Cells Matrix

Erythrocytes Plasma
(red blood cells) (liquid matrix)

Leukocytes NO fibers
(white blood cells)

*Platelets
(cell fragments)
4 Types of Tissue

1)Epithelium
2)Connective
3)Muscle
4)Nervous
Muscle Tissue
Muscle cells/fibers
 Elongated
 Contain many myofilaments: Actin & Myosin
FUNCTION
 Movement
 Maintenance of posture
 Joint Stabilization
 Heat Generation
Three types: Skeletal, Cardiac, Smooth
Skeletal Muscle Tissue
(each skeletal muscle is an organ)
Cells
 Long and cylindrical, in bundles
 Multinucleate
 Obvious Striations
Skeletal Muscles-Voluntary
Connective Tissue Components:
 Endomysium-surrounds fibers
 Perimysium-surrounds bundles
 Epimysium-surrounds the muscle
Attached to bones, fascia, skin
Origin & Insertion

academic.kellogg.cc.mi.us/.../muscular.htm
Cardiac Muscle

Cells
 Branching, chains of cells
 Single or Binucleated
 Striations
 Connected by Intercalated discs
Cardiac Muscle-Involuntary
Myocardium-heart muscle
 Pumps blood through vessels
Connective Tissue Component
 Endomysium: surrounding cells www.answers.com
Smooth Muscle Tissue

Cells
Single cells, uninucleate
No striations
Smooth Muscle-Involuntary
2 layers-opposite orientation (peristalsis)
Found in hollow organs, blood vessels
Connective Tissue Component
Endomysium: surrounds cells
4 Types of Tissue

1)Epithelium
2)Connective
3)Muscle
4)Nervous
Nervous Tissue

Neurons: specialized nerve cells conduct impulses


 Cell body, dendrite, axon
Characterized by:
 No mitosis (cell replication)
 Longevity
 High metabolic rate

www.morphonix.com
Nervous Tissue: control

Support cells (= Neuroglial): nourishment,


insulation, protection
 Satellite cells-surround cell bodies within ganglia
 Schwann cells-surround axons (PNS)
 Microglia-phagocytes
 Oligodendrocytes-produce myelin sheaths around axons
 Ependymal cells-line brain/spinal cord, ciliated, help
circulate CSF
Brain, spinal cord, nerves
Integumentary System

Functions
 Protection
 Mechanical, thermal, chemical, UV
 Cushions & insulates deeper organs
 Prevention of water loss
 Thermoregulation
 Excretion
 Salts, urea, water
 Sensory reception
Microanatomy - Layers of the
Skin
Epidermis
 Epithelium
Dermis
 Connective tissue
Hypodermis / subcutis
 Loose connective tissue
 Anchors skin to bone or muscle
Skin Appendages = outgrowths of epidermis
 Hair follicles
 Sweat and Sebaceous glands
 Nails

www.uptodate.com/.../Melanoma_anatomy.jpg
Cell Layers of the Epidermis
Stratum corneum
 Dead keratinocytes
Stratum lucidum
 Only in “thick” skin
 Dead keratinocytes
Stratum granulosum
 Water proofing
Stratum spinosum
 Resists tears and tension
Stratum basale
 Sensory receptors
 Melanocytes
 Keratinocytes (in all layers) 15minbeauty.blogspot.com
Layers of the Dermis
Highly innervated
Highly vascularized
Collagen & Elastic fibers
2 layers:
 Papillary layer (20%)
 Areolar CT
 Collagen & Elastic fibers
 Innervation
 Hair follicles
 Reticular layer (80%)
 Dense irregular CT
 Glands
 sebum
 2.5 million sweat glands!!
www.uptodate.com/.../Melanoma_anatomy.jpg
 Smooth muscle fibers
 Innervation
Hypodermis
Also called superficial fascia
Areolar & Adipose Connective Tissue
Functions
 Store fat
 Anchor skin to muscle, etc.
 Insulation
Structure of Tubular Organs
LUMEN
Tunica Mucosa
 Lamina epithelialis
 Lamina propria
 Lamina muscularis mucosa
Tunica Submucosa
Tunica Muscularis
 Inner circular
 Outer longitudinal
Tunica Adventitia / Serosa
 Adventitia – covers organ directly
 Serosa – suspends organ in the peritoneal cavity