You are on page 1of 64

Introduction and Tissues

Human Anatomy
BIOL 1010

Liston Campus
What is Anatomy?
Anatomy (= morphology): study of body’s structure
Physiology: study of body’s function
Structure reflects Function!!!
Branches of Anatomy
 Gross: Large structures
 Surface: Landmarks
 Histology: Cells and Tissues
 Developmental: Structures change through life
 Embryology: Structures form and develop before birth
Hierarchy of Structural
Each of these build upon one another
to make up the next level:
Chemical level
Organ system
Hierarchy of Structural
Chemical level
 Atoms combine to make molecules
 4 macromolecules in the body
 Carbohydrates
 Lipids
 Proteins
 Nucleic acids
Hierarchy of Structural
 Made up of cells and cellular organelles
 Cells can be eukaryotic or prokaryotic
 Organelles are structures within cells that
perform dedicated functions (“small organs”)
Hierarchy of Structural
 Collection of cells that work together to
perform a specialized function
 4 basic types of tissue in the human body:
 Epithelium
 Connective tissue
 Muscle tissue
 Nervous tissue
Hierarchy of Structural
 Made up of tissue
 Heart
 Brain
 Liver
 Pancreas, etc……

Pg 181
Hierarchy of Structural
Organ system (11)
 Made up of a group of related organs that
work together
 Integumentary
 Skeletal
 Muscular
 Nervous
 Endocrine
 Cardiovascular Circulatory
 Lymphatic
 Respiratory
 Digestive
 Urinary
 Reproductive

Pg 341 Urinary System

Hierarchy of Structural
 An individual human, animal, plant, etc……
 Made up all of the organ systems
 Work together to sustain life
Anatomical Directions
Anatomical position
 Axial vs. Appendicular
Anatomical Directions-It’s all Relative!
 Anterior (ventral) vs. Posterior (dorsal)
 Medial vs. Lateral
 Superior (cranial) vs. Inferior (caudal)
 Superficial vs. Deep
 Proximal vs. Distal
Anatomical Planes
 Frontal = Coronal
 Transverse = Horizontal = Cross Section
 Sagittal Pg 5
Reference Point

Anterior – (ventral) Posterior – (dorsal) Frontal Plane

Closer to the front surface of Closer to the rear surface
the body of the body
Medial – Lateral – Sagittal Plane
Lying closer to the midline Lying further away from the
Superior – (cranial) Inferior – (caudal) Horizontal Plane
Closer to the head in relation to Away from the head or
the entire body towards the lower part of
(More General) the body
Superficial – Deep – Surface of body or
Towards the surface Away from the surface organ

Proximal – Distal – Origin of a structure

Closer to the origin of a body Further away from the
part origin of a body part
(More Specific)
4 Types of Tissue

Tissues: groups of cells closely associated that
have a similar structure and perform a related function

Four types of tissue

 Epithelial = covering/lining
 Connective = support
 Muscle = movement
 Nervous = control
Most organs contain all 4 types
Tissue has non-living extracellular
material between its cells
cells cover a surface or line a cavity
 Protection
 Secretion

 Absorption

 Ion Transport
Characteristics of Epithelium
 Composed of cells
Specialized contacts
 Joined by cell junctions
 Apical vs. Basal surfaces differ
Supported by connective tissue
Highly regenerative
Classification of Epithelium-based
on number of layers and cell shape
 Simple
 Stratified
 Stratified layers characterized by shape of apical layer
 Psuedostratified
 Squamous
 Cuboidal
 Columnar
 Transitional
Types of Epithelium
Simple squamous (1 layer)
 Lungs, blood vessels, ventral body cavity
Simple cuboidal
 Kidney tubules, glands
Simple columnar
 Stomach, intestines
Pseudostratified columnar
 Respiratory passages (ciliated version)
Stratified squamous (>1 layer)
 Epidermis, mouth, esophagus, vagina
 Named so according to apical cell shape
 Regenerate from below
 Deep layers cuboidal and columnar

Transitional (not shown)

 Thins when stretches
 Hollow urinary organs
All histology pictures property of BIOL 1010 Lab
Special Epithelium
 Simple squamous epithelium that lines vessels
 e.g. lymphatic & blood vessel

 Simple squamous epithelium that forms the lining
of body cavities
 e.g. pleura, pericardium, peritoneum
Features of Apical Surface of
Microvilli: (ex) in small intestine
 Finger-like extensions of the plasma membrane
of apical epithelial cell
 Increase surface area for absorption
Cilia: (ex) respiratory tubes

 Whip-like, motile extension of plasma membrane

 Moves mucus, etc. over epithelial surface 1-way
Features of Lateral Surface of
Cells are connected to neighboring cells via:
 Contour of cells-wavy contour fits together
 Cell Junctions (3 common)
 Desmosomes
 Proteins hold cells together to maintain integrity of tissue

 Tight Junctions
 Plasma membrane of adjacent cells fuse, nothing passes
 Gap junction
 Proteins allow small molecules to pass through
Features of the Basal Surface
of Epithelium
Basement membrane
 Sheet between the epithelial and connective tissue
 Attaches epithelium to connective tissue below
 Made up of:
 Basal lamina: thin, non-cellular, supportive sheet made of
 Superficial layer
 Acts as a selective filter
 Assists epithelial cell regeneration by moving new cells
 Reticular fiber layer
 Deeper layer
 Support
Epithelial cells that make and secrete a
Products are water-based and usually contain
Classified as:
 Unicellular vs. multicellular
 Exocrine vs. Endocrine

Page 138
Glands: epithelial cells that make and
secrete a water-based substance w/proteins
Exocrine Glands
 Secrete substance onto body surface or into
body cavity
 Activity is local
 Have ducts
 Unicellular or Multicellular
 (ex) goblet cells, salivary, mammary,
pancreas, liver
Glands: epithelial cells that make and
secrete a water-based substance w/proteins
Endocrine Glands
 Secrete product into blood stream
 Either stored in secretory cells or in follicle
surrounded by secretory cells
 Hormones travel to target organ to increase
response (excitatory)
 No ducts
 (ex) pancreas, adrenal, pituitary, thyroid
4 Types of Tissue

4 Types of Connective Tissue

1) Connective Tissue Proper

2) Cartilage
3) Bone Tissue
4) Blood
Connective Tissue (CT):
most abundant and diverse tissue
Four Classes
Functions include connecting, storing &
carrying nutrients, protection, fight
CT contains large amounts of non-living
extracellular matrix
Contains a variety of cells and fibers
Some types vascularized
All CT originates from mesenchyme
 Embryonic connective tissue
Fibers in Connective Tissue
Fibers For Support
 Reticular:
 form networks for structure & support
 (ex) cover capillaries
 Collagen:
 strongest, most numerous, provide tensile strength
 (ex) dominant fiber in ligaments
 Elastic:
 long + thin, stretch and retain shape
 (ex) dominant fiber in elastic cartilage
Components of Connective Tissue
 cells that produce all fibers in CT
 produce + secrete protein subunits to make them
 produce ground matrix
Interstitial (Tissue) Fluid
 derived from blood in CT proper
 medium for nutrients, waste + oxygen to travel to cells
 found in ground matrix
Ground Matrix (substance):
 part of extra-cellular material that holds and absorbs
interstitial fluid
 Made and secreted by fibroblasts
 jelly-like with sugar & protein molecules
1) Connective Tissue Proper
Two kinds: Loose CT & Dense CT
 Functions
 Support and bind to other tissue
 Hold body fluids
 Defends against infection
 Stores nutrients as fat
 Each function performed by different kind
of fibers and cells in specific tissue
Defense from Infection
Areolar tissue below epithelium is body’s first
Cells travel to CT in blood
 Macrophages-eat foreign particles
 Plasma cells-secrete antibodies, mark molecules for
 Mast cells-contain chemical mediators for
inflammation response
 White Blood Cells = neutrophils, lymphocytes,
eosinophils-fight infection
Ground substance + cell fibers-slow invading
Loose CT Proper

Areolar CT
 All types of fibers present
 All typical cell types present
 Surrounds blood vessels and nerves
Specialized Loose CT Proper
Adipose tissue
 Loaded with adipocytes, highly vascularized, high
metabolic activity
 Insulates, produces energy, supports
 Found in hypodermis under skin
Reticular CT
 Contains only reticular fibers
 Forms caverns to hold free cells, forms internal
“skeleton” of some organs
 Found in bone marrow, holds blood cells, lymph
nodes, spleen
Dense/Fibrous Connective Tissue
Contains more collagen
Can resist extremely strong pulling forces
Regular vs. Irregular
 Regular-fibers run same direction, parallel to pull
 (eg) fascia, tendons, ligaments
 Irregular-fibers thicker, run in different directions
 (eg) dermis, fibrous capsules at ends of bones

Dense regular Dense irregular

Components of CT Proper Summarized
Cells Matrix

Fibroblasts Gel-like ground

Defense cells Collagen fibers
-macrophages Reticular fibers
-white blood cells
Elastic fibers
2) Cartilage
Chondroblasts produce cartilage
Chondrocytes mature cartilage cells
 Reside in lacunae
More abundant in embryo than adult
Firm, Flexible
Resists compression
 (eg) trachea, meniscus
Avascular (chondrocytes can function w/ low oxygen)
NOT Innervated
 dense, irregular connective tissue around cartilage
 growth/repair of cartilage
 resists expansion during compression of cartilage
Cartilage in the Body
Three types:
 Hyaline
 most abundant
 fibers in matrix
 support via flexibility/resilience
 (eg) at limb joints, ribs, nose
 Elastic
 many elastic fibers in matrix too
 great flexibility
 (eg) external ear, epiglottis
 Fibrocartilage
 resists both compression and
 (eg) meniscus, annulus fibrosus
Components of Cartilage Summarized

Cells Matrix

Chondrocytes Gel-like ground

Chondroblasts Lots of water
(in growing cartilage)
Fibroblasts Some have collagen and
elastic fibers
3) Bone Tissue: (a bone is an organ)

 support (eg) pelvic bowl, legs
 protect (eg) skull, vertebrae
 mineral storage (eg) calcium, phosphate
(inorganic component)
 movement (eg) walk, grasp objects
 blood-cell formation (eg) red bone marrow
Bone Tissue
 Secrete organic part of bone matrix
 Mature bone cells
 Sit in lacunae
 Maintain bone matrix
 Degrade and reabsorb bone
 External layer of CT that surrounds bone
 Outer: Dense irregular CT
 Inner: Osteoblasts, osteoclasts
 Internal layer of CT that lines cavities and covers trabeculae
 Contains osteoblasts and osteoclasts
Compact Bone
External layer
Osteon (Haversian system)
 Parallel to the long axis of the bone
 Groups of concentric tubules (lamella)
 Lamella = layer of bone matrix where all fibers run in the same
 Adjacent lamella fibers run in opposite directions
 Haversian Canal runs through center of osteon
 Contains blood vessels and nerves
 Connected to each other by perforating (Volkman) canals
Interstitial lamellae fills spaces and forms periphery
Bone Anatomy: Spongy bone

Spongy bone (cancellous bone): internal layer

 Trabeculae: small, needle-like pieces of bone form
 each made of several layers of lamellae + osteocytes
 no canal for vessels
 space filled with bone marrow
 not as dense, no direct stress at bone’s center
Shapes of Bones
Flat = skull, sternum, clavicle

Irregular = pelvis, vertebrae

Short = carpals, patella

Long = femur, phalanges,

metacarpals, humerus
Anatomy of a Long Bone

 Medullary Cavity
 Nutrient Artery & Vein
2 Epiphyses
 Epiphyseal Plates
 Epiphyseal Artery & Vein
 Does not cover epiphyses
 Covers trabeculae of spongy bone
 Lines medullary cavity of long bones
2 Types of Bone Formation
Intramembranous Ossification
 Membrane bones: most skull bones and clavicle
 Osteoblasts in membrane secrete osteoid that mineralizes
Endochondral Ossification: All other bones
 Begins with a cartilaginous model
 Cartilage calcifies
 Medullary cavity is formed by action of osteoclasts
 Epiphyses grow and eventually calcify
 Epiphyseal plates remain cartilage for up to 20 years
Bone Growth & Remodeling
 Appositional Growth = widening of bone
 Bone tissue added on surface by osteoblasts of periosteum
 Medullary cavity maintained by osteoclasts
 Lengthening of Bone
 Epiphyseal plates enlarge by chondroblasts
 Matrix calcifies (chondrocytes die and disintegrate)
 Bone tissue replaces cartilage on diaphysis side
 Due to mechanical stresses on bones, their tissue needs
to be replaced
 Osteoclasts-take up bone ( = breakdown) release Ca2++ , PO4 to
body fluids from bone
 Osteoblasts-form new bone by secreting osteoid
 Ideally osteoclasts & osteoblasts work at the same rate!
Components of Bone Tissue Summarized
Cells Matrix

Osteblasts Gel-like ground substance

calcified with inorganic

Fibroblasts Collagen fibers


4) Blood: Atypical Connective Tissue
 Transports waste, gases, nutrients,
hormones through cardiovascular system
 Helps regulate body temperature
 Protects body by fighting infection
Derived from mesenchyme
Hematopoiesis: production of blood cells
 Occurs in red bone marrow
 In adults, axial skeleton, girdles, proximal
epiphyses of humerus and femur
Blood Cells
Erythrocytes: (RBC) small, oxygen-transporting
most abundant in blood
no organelles, filled w/hemoglobin
pick up O2 at lungs, transport to rest of body

Leukocytes: (WBC) complete cells , 5 types

fight against infectious microorganisms
stored in bone marrow for emergencies

*Platelets = Thrombocytes:
fragments of cytoplasm
plug small tears in vessel walls, initiates clotting
Components of Blood Summarized
Cells Matrix

Erythrocytes Plasma
(red blood cells) (liquid matrix)

Leukocytes NO fibers
(white blood cells)

(cell fragments)
4 Types of Tissue

Muscle Tissue
Muscle cells/fibers
 Elongated
 Contain many myofilaments: Actin & Myosin
 Movement
 Maintenance of posture
 Joint Stabilization
 Heat Generation
Three types: Skeletal, Cardiac, Smooth
Skeletal Muscle Tissue
(each skeletal muscle is an organ)
 Long and cylindrical, in bundles
 Multinucleate
 Obvious Striations
Skeletal Muscles-Voluntary
Connective Tissue Components:
 Endomysium-surrounds fibers
 Perimysium-surrounds bundles
 Epimysium-surrounds the muscle
Attached to bones, fascia, skin
Origin & Insertion
Cardiac Muscle

 Branching, chains of cells
 Single or Binucleated
 Striations
 Connected by Intercalated discs
Cardiac Muscle-Involuntary
Myocardium-heart muscle
 Pumps blood through vessels
Connective Tissue Component
 Endomysium: surrounding cells
Smooth Muscle Tissue

Single cells, uninucleate
No striations
Smooth Muscle-Involuntary
2 layers-opposite orientation (peristalsis)
Found in hollow organs, blood vessels
Connective Tissue Component
Endomysium: surrounds cells
4 Types of Tissue

Nervous Tissue

Neurons: specialized nerve cells conduct impulses

 Cell body, dendrite, axon
Characterized by:
 No mitosis (cell replication)
 Longevity
 High metabolic rate
Nervous Tissue: control

Support cells (= Neuroglial): nourishment,

insulation, protection
 Satellite cells-surround cell bodies within ganglia
 Schwann cells-surround axons (PNS)
 Microglia-phagocytes
 Oligodendrocytes-produce myelin sheaths around axons
 Ependymal cells-line brain/spinal cord, ciliated, help
circulate CSF
Brain, spinal cord, nerves
Integumentary System

 Protection
 Mechanical, thermal, chemical, UV
 Cushions & insulates deeper organs
 Prevention of water loss
 Thermoregulation
 Excretion
 Salts, urea, water
 Sensory reception
Microanatomy - Layers of the
 Epithelium
 Connective tissue
Hypodermis / subcutis
 Loose connective tissue
 Anchors skin to bone or muscle
Skin Appendages = outgrowths of epidermis
 Hair follicles
 Sweat and Sebaceous glands
 Nails
Cell Layers of the Epidermis
Stratum corneum
 Dead keratinocytes
Stratum lucidum
 Only in “thick” skin
 Dead keratinocytes
Stratum granulosum
 Water proofing
Stratum spinosum
 Resists tears and tension
Stratum basale
 Sensory receptors
 Melanocytes
 Keratinocytes (in all layers)
Layers of the Dermis
Highly innervated
Highly vascularized
Collagen & Elastic fibers
2 layers:
 Papillary layer (20%)
 Areolar CT
 Collagen & Elastic fibers
 Innervation
 Hair follicles
 Reticular layer (80%)
 Dense irregular CT
 Glands
 sebum
 2.5 million sweat glands!!
 Smooth muscle fibers
 Innervation
Also called superficial fascia
Areolar & Adipose Connective Tissue
 Store fat
 Anchor skin to muscle, etc.
 Insulation
Structure of Tubular Organs
Tunica Mucosa
 Lamina epithelialis
 Lamina propria
 Lamina muscularis mucosa
Tunica Submucosa
Tunica Muscularis
 Inner circular
 Outer longitudinal
Tunica Adventitia / Serosa
 Adventitia – covers organ directly
 Serosa – suspends organ in the peritoneal cavity