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Chapter 8 :

 MPP 151
• MPP 151235
What is the analysis?
A systematic examination and evaluation of data or
information, by breaking it into its component parts to
uncover their interrelationships. Opposite of synthesis.
An examination of data and facts to uncover and
understand cause-effect relationships, thus providing
basis for problem solving and decision making.
Usage examples:
He performed an analysis on the job, because he wanted to
know how every party functioned so he could change it
in the future.
What is the learning task?
“Learning Task are opportunities you create for students
to engage with the content you’re teaching. You want to
be sure your plans and commentaries clearly describe
the learning task you create.”

Every learning activity in your unit should be

intentional, meaningful and useful.
Scope of the analysis
Is the analysis related to a course ( generally covering
many skills ), or is it related to a lesson ( generally
focused on a particular skill )

While the process of task analysis is the same for both,

the scope of the analysis and the number of steps in
the analysis can differ significantly.
The designer must first identify the purpose of the course.
At this stage it isn’t necessary to formulate specific five-
component objectives; however, many of the same
guidelines apply:
1. State the purpose of a course in terms of what the student
will be like after the instruction, not what he or she will be
doing during the course.
The statement “To provide the leaner experience in
performing titration with chemical apparatus” describe
what student will be doing in the course, not what he o
she learning.
2. Avoid the tendency to identify purpose that are too far
removed or too far in the future. Purpose should be stated
in expected current outcomes of instruction.
Rather than a purpose such as “Develops new compounds
useful to society, “ it would be more realistic to say,
“Understands how compounds are formed through
chemical reactions.
2. Can play a
1. Understands musical
the process of instrument of
instructional his o her
design. choice.
Examples of

3. Reads and 4. Composes a

enjoys short screenplay.
Types of Task Analysis

Procedural task
analysis but is also
A learning-task
sometimes called an
information processing
1. Procedural Task Analysis
a. Describes the steps for performing a task.
 For example, the steps to change a tire.
 A specific example of a procedural task analysis for
making sentences with indefinite pronouns .
b. Involves breaking task down into steps the learner
must perform to complete the task.
c. Notice that the task shown in figure 8-1 has both
observable steps ( write indefinite pronoun) and mental
steps ( recall action verb and make a decision wether to
use a singular or plural form ).
d. The analysis goes beyond the observed behaviors.
e. The analysis also accounts for the intellectual skills that
are components of the total task, thus the name
“information-processing analysis.”
Uses of Information-processing Analysis

1. Its provides a
clear 2. The
description of Two primary kinds depiction of
the target of information come individual
objective, from information- steps that
including the processing analysis. might not
steps involved otherwise be
in the obvious.
This Given two
description numbers,
conveys more demonstrate
It provides a clear
information the process
description of the
than the of
target objective.
objective subtraction.
statement. Figure 8-3
The depiction of
individual steps
that might not
otherwise be

> This is particularly true for decision steps that are

internally processed rather than overtly demonstrated.
Example figure 8-3 imply that the learner must be able to
distinguish the larger from the smaller of two numbers in
order to carry out the task of subtraction.
Learning-Task Analysis
An analysis to identify prerequisite competencies or
enabling skills can be performed.
Both target objectives and enabling objectives need to
be considered during instructional design.
A task can be both a target objective for a particular
lesson and at the same time an enabling objective for a
subsequent lesson because it is a prerequisite to the
task to be learned later.
Type of Prerequisites
1. Essential prerequisites
 Example: may be found by analyzing the task of
supplying the definite article for a noun in writing a
sentence in the German language.
 A student must learn the prior task.
 Such capabilities may have been learned during formal
intruction or in an incidental fashion, by experience
with the language.
 Essential prerequisites not merely helpful or
supportive. These component skills must be learned if
the total task of supplying the definitearticle is to be
learned and performed correctly.
2. Supportive prerequisites
The prerequisites may aid new learning by making it
easier or faster.
Example : A positive attitude toward learning to
compose proper German sentences may be acquired by
having students interact with German pen-pals over
the internet.
Such an attitude is likely to help the leaner learn the
foreign language.
It is supportive of the learning but not essential.
Essential Prerequisites for Intellectual Skills
Intellectual skills are hierarchical, with problem
solving at the top, requiring rules composed of defined
concept and concrete concept, which required
A target objectives representing an intellectual skill is
typically composed of two or more subordinated and
simple skills.
Example 1;
 4 7 3 The simplest
- 3 4 2 is “subtracting
_____ one-place
number in
Example 2;
 2 1 3 2 “subtracting
-1 7 1 5 when several
_______ borrowings are
Example 3;
“succesive borrowing in
 9 5 3 adjacent column,”
borrowing must be done
-6 7 6 in the first column on de
_____ right so that 6 can be
subtracted from 13, and
again in the next column
so that 7 can be subtract
from 14.
Hierarchies of Prerequisites Skills
1. the learning hierarchy displays a pattern of
progressively simpler intellectual skills.
2. These skills are enabling objectives for a given target
objectives. And they are also composed of other
subordinate skills.
3. in designing instruction for intellectual skills, the
enabling skills that are the most impotant are the
immediate prerequisites.
Conducting a Learning Task Analysis for
Intellectual Skills
The purpose of the analysis in to reveal the simpler
component skills that cinstitute the target objectives.
Once the first set of subordinated skills in identified,
the process can be repeated by addressing the same
question for each subordinate skills.
Supportive Prerequisites for Intellectual
1. Information as Supportive
Verbal information may support intellectual skills
simply by aiding communication.
2. Cognitive Strategies as Supportives
Cognitive strategies speed up the learning of
intellectual skills,make them easier to recall, and aid
their transfer to novel problems.
3. Attitudes as Supportive Prerequisites.
The supportive effect of positive attitudes on the
learning of intellectual skills is widely recognize.
To bear on learning tasks other than
intellectual skills:
 cognitive strategies

 verbal information

 attitudes

 motor skills
Involves remembering and learning
-basic and simple mental abilities
- eg: ability to create visual images
in order to remember a list of items
A learner must have basic language skill
Learning theories propose that information is
stored and retrieved in the form of proposition
Therefore, learner must possess the essential
prerequisite skill of forming sentences
Eg rules of syntax
Attitudes may mutually supportive of each other
One attitude might support the acquisition of
another attitude
Verbal information has a supportive function in
establishing attitudes
Attitude “don’t drive after drinking” is more readily
acquired if the ind understands the social situation
that tempt one to practise it
Often composed of several part skills
Efficient learning takes effect when the part
skills are practised individually
Eventually combined in practice of the total
Therefore, the part skills function as
essential prerequisites for learning the total
 integrated goals are conceived as
incorporating various single types of
instructional outcomes (facts, concept,
rules, strategies)