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TQM TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES

Chapter 9
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
 Explain the concept of acceptance sampling
 Discuss the uses of acceptance sampling

 Define statistical quality control

 Discuss the various types of causes of variations


in a process
 Explain pareto diagram

 Discuss fishbone or Ishikawa diagram

 Prepare check sheet with examples


LEARNING OBJECTIVES
 Discuss the uses of histogram
 Explain control chart

 Explain the meaning of quality function


deployment
 Benchmarking and the steps involved in
benchmarking
 Highlight the stages involved in TPM

 Discuss the meaning and purpose of


brainstorming technique.
TQM TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES
 Statistics helps-
 to observe facts

 To record data

 To manipulate and analyze them

 To test hypothesis and

 To improve our decision making


STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR QUALITY
CONTROL

 Acceptance sampling involves-


 Taking samples from a lot of products

being produced; and


 Deciding whether the lot is acceptable or

not. This is done on the basis of


observation.
ACCEPTANCE SAMPLING
 The major advantages of acceptance sampling-
 It saves time and cost

 It increases accuracy

 It reduces non sampling error


substantially
CLASSIFICATIONS OF ACCEPTANCE
SAMPLING

 Single acceptance sampling plan- when


inspectors make acceptance and rejection
decision on the basis of only one sample.
 Double acceptance sampling plan- when there
are two cutoff points for the first sample ( an
upper limit and a lower limit of nonconforming).
 Inspectors will accept the batch if the number
of nonconforming items is equal to or less than
the lower limit.
 Inspectors will reject the batch if the number
of nonconforming items is equal to or more
than the upper limit.
CLASSIFICATIONS OF ACCEPTANCE
SAMPLING

 The sequential sampling plan- sampling and


decisions are made through several iterations
just as the double sampling plan. That’s why, it is
often called extension of the double sampling
plan.
STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL
 SPC is primarily intended to keep the quality
variations, during the production process, within
the tolerable limits.
 Unlike acceptance sampling, SPC is used to
determine whether a production process is
operated as per requirements.
 The inspectors use SPC techniques to detect the
symptoms of problems during the operation of a
process.
VARIATIONS IN A PROCESS
 The causes of variations are usually classified
into two groups:
 Common causes of variation or random

variation and
 Special causes of variation or assignable

variation
 Structural causes of variation
VARIATIONS IN A PROCESS
 Common causes of variations
 Most manufacturing processes contain such

causes that are unavoidable and can not be


totally eliminated.
 These causes exist as long as the process is

not changed.
 Common causes affect all elements of the

process as they are inherent to a process.


 They can be termed as chance cause.
COMMON CAUSES OF VARIATIONS:
EXAMPLES

 Procedures not suited to requirements


 Poor product design

 Machines out of order

 Machines not suited to requirements

 Barriers that rob the workmen of the right to do


a good job take pride in his work
 Poor instruction or lack of adequate supervision
of workers.
COMMON CAUSES OF VARIATIONS:
EXAMPLES

 Poor lighting
 Incoming materials not suited to requirements

 Vibrations of machines

 Failure to provide hourly workers with statistical


information to improve performance.
 Humidity too low or too high

 Unpleasant working conditions, such as noise,


dirt etc.
“85% of all problems are due to common causes”
SPECIAL CAUSES OF VARIATIONS
 Special cause was originally known as assignable
cause, which terminology was first developed by
Walter Shewhart.
 The detection and rectification of the special
causes are the responsibility of the people
directly involved with the process.
 About 15% of all problems in a process are due to
special causes
SPECIAL CAUSES OF VARIATIONS
 Special causes are not inherent in the process.
They lie outside the system.
 Special causes of variations may arise due to raw
materials, machines, policies, and people.
 Examples include: defective raw materials,
inappropriate tools and equipments, mistakes
committed by workers etc.
STRUCTURAL CAUSES OF VARIATIONS
 It is caused by patterns in the system.
 For example, workforce performance may vary by
shift; an individual worker’s performance may
vary with the maintenance interval or the plant’s
ambient temperature.
CONTROL CHART
 Control chart is statistical tool that helps
managers distinguish the in-control processes
from the out-control processes.
 A control chart has a central line, a lower control
limit and an upper control limit.
 The vertical axis of a control chart represents the
units of measurement used in monitoring
performance.
 The horizontal axis represents the time interval
for taking measurements.
CONTROL CHART
 Control limits are estimated by determining the
mean and standard deviation.
 Generally, the upper control limit is the mean
plus 3 standard deviations and lower control
limit is the mean minus 3 standard deviations.
 Whether a control chart is constructed based on
attributes or variables, in each case a particular
quality characteristics is measured and then
examined.
CONTROL CHART
 Variables are those quality characteristics of a
product for which numerical values can be
obtained such as average length, average
resistance, average service time etc.
 Attributes are such quality characteristics as
the proportion of nonconforming items, the
number of nonconformities in a unit, and the
number of demerits per unit.
BENEFITS OF CONTROL CHART
 Manager can understand when something is
wrong and accordingly they can take corrective
action.
 The chart helps in identifying the causes of
problems.
 When the chart shows that the process is normal
in terms of variability, managers can decide to
leave the process alone with no corrective action.
BENEFITS OF CONTROL CHART
 Managers can estimate the process capability
when the chart shows that the process is in
statistical control.
 Managers can have useful information from the
control chart that they can use for quality
improvement.
PARETO DIAGRAM
 A large percentage of the results is caused by a
small percentage of the causes- is the essence of
pareto analysis.
 Pareto analysis teaches us that since few small
but vital problems cause big results,
concentration on those problems would bring
greater success.
 The 80/20 rule states that “ 80% of the
problems/defects are created by the 20% of the
causes”.
STEPS INVOLVED IN CONSTRUCTING
PARETO DIAGRAM

 Step 1: Deciding on the method of classifying


data. Like problem type, nonconformity type,
causes type and so forth.
 Step 2: Determining the basis for ranking the
characteristics. It may be in terms of monetary
values or frequency of occurrence or both.
 Step 3: Collection of data. Data need to be
collected for an appropriate time interval.
STEPS INVOLVED IN CONSTRUCTING
PARETO DIAGRAM

 Step 4: Ranking the categories of data. The


ranking should preferably be from most
important to least important.
 Step 5: Computing the cumulative frequency of
the data categories in their chosen order.
 Step 6: Constructing the diagram. The last step
involves plotting a bar graph, which shows the
relative importance of each problem area in
descending order.
PARETO DIAGRAM FOR PROBLEM AREAS OF
NONCONFORMANCE IN A TEXTILE MILL
Pro Description % of Annual Cumulativ
ble occurre cost (in e % of
m nce Tk. 1000) occurrenc
type e
A Subpar quality of cotton 40 20 40
B Improper tension setting 20 6 60
C Inadequate operator 14 3 74
training
D Bale storage problem 10 2 84
E Drop in hydraulic pressure 8 2 92
in press
F Cutter not sharp 5 1.5 97
G Dye for use in color not 3 1.8 100
adequate
FISHBONE DIAGRAM/ISHIKAWA DIAGRAM
 Fishbone diagram establishes a relationship
between an effect and its causes.
 It is also popularly known as Cause-and-effect
diagram.
 From the causes identified, management can
determine those causes, which have the greatest
effect.
 Management can also identify the reasons for
going a process out of control.
USEFULNESS OF FISHBONE DIAGRAM
 Fishbone diagrams are useful to:
 Analyze actual conditions for the purpose of

product or service quality improvement.


 Eliminate conditions causing
nonconformities and customer complaints.
 Standardize existing and proposed
operations.
 Educate and train personnel in decision-

making and corrective-action activities.


STEPS IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF
FISHBONE DIAGRAM

 Step 1: An effect is selected which should be


investigated into for identification of the causes.
 Step 2: The causes are identified in relation to
the effect. Major causes are first identified and
then the minor causes are determined.
 Step 3: A piece of paper is used, and the effect is
placed on the right side of the paper. Then the
major causes, along with the minor causes, are
placed on the left side of the diagram.
EXAMPLE OF A CAUSE-AND-EFFECT
DIAGRAM/FISHBONE DIAGRAM

Relevant personnel Working system of the


not present telephone operator

On leave Rush of calls


Absent Absent
Talking over
Delay in
Another phone telephone
response
Unclear message
Wrong department lack of skill
Feels irritated Lack of training
Not telling name Poor listening

Customer Telephone Operator


QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT
 QFD is a method for transforming customer
wants and needs into quantitative terms.
 QFD considers the needs and wants of customers
and satisfy requirements for manufacturability.
 QFD is a paradigm shift from traditional
manufacturing quality control to product design
quality control.
HOW DO COMPANIES BENEFIT OUT OF QFD
 It shortens development cycles of products.
 It leads to lower costs and greater productivity.

 QFD helps in optimizing products and process


design.
 It helps ensure quality products and processes by
detecting and solving problems early.
 Organizations are benefitted from QFD in terms
of customer-focused product attributes.
THE PHASES OF QFD
 Design phase
 Work team translates customer needs into

what's, and then it begins developing QFD


matrix.
 Hose of quality is the most prominent one.

 All departments provide information


regarding product specific requirements,
standards and specifications.
THE PHASES OF QFD
 Details Phase
 Here details and components to produce the

product or service are determined.


 It is associate with product engineering

functions.
 The design parameters are transferred into
‘part’ characteristics at this stage.
THE PHASES OF QFD
 Process Phase
 This stage is devoted to preparing a matrix.

 The processes required to produce the


product are shown in the matrix.
 Process capability levels are developed and

activities are established for continuous


improvement.
THE PHASES OF QFD
 Production
 In this stage, the production requirements

for producing the product are developed.


 These standards are necessary to integrate

production and assembly activities.


 This is the final stage in the linkage between
the voice of the customer in the first phase
through subsequent stages in engineering,
manufacturing and quality.
BENCHMARKING: THE PHASES
 Preparation phase:
 Obtaining management commitment and

approval
 Baselining of company’s own processes for

clear understanding of the processes


 Documenting processes

 Selecting processes for benchmarking

 Creation of benchmarking-team

 Searching out partners.

 Selecting partners
BENCHMARKING: THE PHASES
 Execution Phase
 Entering with agreements with partners
 Gathering data from partner companies
 Analyzing the information and comparing
 Preparing action plan
 Implementing change
BENCHMARKING: THE PHASES
 Post-execution Phase:
 It is involved with monitoring the
performance of the processes and updating.
 This phase is entirely the management’s

responsibility.
TOTAL PRODUCTIVITY MAINTENANCE(TPM)
 TPM refers to the maintenance of all systems and
equipment continuously and promptly all of the
time
 The major purpose of TPM is to ensure regular
maintenance of the systems in the organization
for achieving quality and making productivity
competitive.
 TPM is inevitable for smooth operation of just-in-
time production system where tolerance exist for
machine failure.
TPM INVOLVES FIVE STAGES

 Stage-1: Improvement of a facility, used as a pilot


experiment
 Stage-2: Organization of self-maintenance.

 Stage-3: Organization of programmed prevention


maintenance
 Stage-4: Organizing and conducting technical
training courses
 Stage-5: Preparation of initial maintenance of
new facilities.
BRAINSTORMING

“Brainstorming is an approach for generating


creative ideas on certain issues as many as
possible through freewheeling discussions among
a number of people.”
PROCEDURES OF BRAINSTORMING
 A problem is selected for discussion.
 Each group member makes a list of ideas in a
piece of paper in 10 minutes.
 Each person reads one idea at a time from his/her
list of ideas, sequentially, starting at the top of
the list.
 If a next member’s idea is a duplication, that
member goes on to the subsequent idea on his
list.
PROCEDURE OF BRAINSTORMING
 Members are free to pass on each go-round but
should be encouraged to add something.
 The leader then requests each group member, in
turn, to think of any new ideas he/she hadn’t
thought of before.
 If the group reaches an impasse, the leader can
ask for everyone’s wildest idea. An unrealistic
idea can stimulate a valid one from someone else.