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Learning Outcomes

After this lecture you should be able to…

Explain viscosity and how it changes with

temperature

Write the continuity equation

Define laminar and turbulent flow by using the

Reynolds number

Determine if a flowrate is laminar or turbulent

Write and Explain the Bernoulli equation

Apply the Bernoulli equation

Basics of Fluid Flow

A fluid is a substance that flows

When subjected to a shearing stress layers of the

fluid slide relative to each other

Both gases and liquids are defined as fluids

Fluid mechanics is the study of the flow of gases and

liquids

The degree of resistance to shear stress is

represented by the term ‘viscosity’

High viscosity means high resistance to shear stress

- does not flow easily

Viscosity

Dynamic Viscosity or Viscosity is a measure of

resistance to shearing motion

The unit is Ns/m2…….but it has no name!

The poise or centipoise is the SI cgs unit

1 centipoise = 1 x 10-3 Ns/m2

Typical values for viscosity

Water at 20°C = 1 cP

Air at 20°C = 1.8 x 10-2 cP

Crude Oil = 7.2 cP

Petrol = 0.29 cP

You may hear the term ‘kinematic viscosity’

This is dynamic viscosity divided by fluid density

Its SI cgs unit is the Stoke (= 1 cm2/s)

NB - Viscosity is a function of temperature. For

liquids, viscosity decreases as temperature increases

Basics Equations for Fluid Flow

The continuity equation Q = v.a

where v is the velocity (m/s) and a the area available

for flow (m2 e.g. cross sectional area of a pipe) and

Q is the flowrate (m3/s)

The Reynolds number is used to define laminar and

turbulent flow

Laminar flow is defined by slow moving, uniform,

even, smooth flow (e.g. a canal)

Turbulent flow is uneven and rough (e.g. a white

water river)

Bernoulli equation. Daniel Bernoulli lived in the 18th

century and derived a relationship between velocity,

height and pressure

The Continuity equation

Q=va

Q - flowrate, m3/s

v - fluid velocity, m/s

a - area available for flow, m2

What is the flowrate from your kitchen tap?

(What is the volume of your kettle and how long

does it take to fill it?)

The pipe feeding the tap is 15mm. What is the cross

sectional area?

Use the continuity equation to determine the velocity

Continuity Equation contd.

The flowrate is constant

Where the diameter is large, the velocity is small

Where the diameter is small, the velocity is large

1 2

d1 < d2

v1 > v2

Osborne Reynolds 1842 - 1912

He discovered the nature of flow depends on

Velocity

Fluid physical properties

Geometry of the channel/pipe

Sometimes flow is even and smooth

Sometimes it is uneven and rough

He asked Why?

Reynolds Experiment

He investigated fluid flow using this apparatus

Dye

Reynolds Experiment - Velocity

His first discovery ……

At very low water flowrates, dye did not break up

Implies no mixing between dye and water!

Dye

Reynolds Experiment - Velocity

…..And at high water flowrates, dye did break up

Dye mixed with water

Dye

Reynolds Concluded that

Flow is characterised by streams that don’t mix

At high flowrates we get turbulent flow and a lot of

mixing

Increase Velocity

Further Experiments - Viscosity

When heated the change from laminar to turbulent

occurred sooner (at a lower velocity)

This is explained by viscosity

Viscosity decreases as temperature increases

Decrease Viscosity

Further Experiments - Density

density

The change from laminar to turbulent occurred

sooner for high density liquids

Increase Density

Further Experiments - Tube diameter

Reynolds used tubes of different diameter

He discovered that as the diameter increased the

change to turbulent occurred sooner

Increase Diameter

Reynolds Number

He combined these observations into a

dimensionless number which now carries his name

rvd

Re

m

Re = Reynolds number

r = density (kg/m3)

v = velocity (m/s)

d = pipe diameter (m)

m = viscosity (kg/ms)

Activity - Laminar or Turbulent?

turbulent?

Determine the Reynolds No. and then use the table

below

2000 < Re < 4000 Transition region

Re > 4000 Turbulent flow

Daniel Bernoulli (1700 - 1782)

Bernoulli was a pioneer in

Science. His interests were

medicine and engineering

Bernoulli, with Leonard Euler,

investigated the relationship

between pressure and velocity

They punctured a pipe with a

straw and observed that the

height of liquid in the straw is

related to the pressure in the

pipe

This was used to measure

blood pressure where patients

arms were punctured with

glass capillaries

Conservation of Energy

Bernoulli reasoned that the sum of pressure and

kinetic energy is the same for any two points in a

pipe

1 2

rv PC

2

decreases.

This is true for a horizontal pipe only.

Bernoulli Equation

Include a term for gravity, rgh, to get the Bernoulli

Equation as follows

1

rv2 P rgh C

2

This is often written as follows:

1 2 1 2

P1 rgh 1 rv1 P 2 rgh 2 rv2

2 2

Points 1 and 2 could be at two places in a pipe:

1 2

d1 < d2

v1 > v2

P1 < P2

Activity - Bernoulli Eqn Units

equation

1

rv2 P rgh C

2

Bernoulli Eqn Rearranged

Pressure, rearrange to give units of height

v2 P

h C

2g rg

How a chimney works

Point 1 is at the top of the chimney where the

velocity is the same as the wind speed

Point 2 is in the fireplace where the velocity is almost

zero

Activity - Flow in a pipe

house at ground level (point 1) and V = 2 m/s

rises vertically to the attic tank at

an elevation of 10 m (point 2). No

change in diamter.

What is the DP?

10m

Point 1

Activity - Bernoulli Eqn 2

Point 2

Same as before except the pipe 20mm

changes from 40mm diameter to V = 2 m/s

20mm.

What is the DP?

10m

Point 1

40mm

V = ? m/s

Conversion Table

Litre/s Litre/min m3/hr m3/s Ft3/hr Ft3/min gpm

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