Wapda Engineering Academy Faisalabad


1. Introduction to Irrigation Channels 2. Fundamental Equations and Concepts 3. Design of Lined and Unlined Channels 4. Maximum Permissible Velocity Method 5. Tractive Force Methods 6. Miscellaneous Considerations 7. Design Examples



Drainage Artificial removal of excess water from land to improve soil moisture conditions and for healthy plant growth is called drainage. Channel Channel is a natural or artificial passage in the ground for flow of water.INTRODUCTION TO IRRIGATION CHANNELS Irrigation Artificial application of water to land for raising crops for food and fiber is called irrigation. Various types of artificial channels are: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Open Channel Alluvial Channel Stable Channel Irrigation Channel Power Channel Lined Channel Unlined Channel Drainage Channel Sewerage Channel Flood Carrier Channel 5 .

6 . Flow in open channel is caused by gravity component along bed slope of channel.Open Channel Open Channel is a channel which has open top and free water surface subjected only to atmospheric pressure. channel cross section and bed slope do not change due to erosion or deposition. Stable Channel Stable alluvial channel is a channel in which sediment inflow into channel reach is equal to sediment out flow. Therefore. Various types of open channel are: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Rivers Canals Sewers Tunnels Pipelines Alluvial Channel Alluvial channel is a channel in which flow transports sediment having same characteristics as that of material in channel bottom.

Irrigation Channel Channel conveying water for irrigation is called irrigation channel. Various types of irrigation channel are: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Canal Canal is an artificial earthen channel having mild slope usually trapezoidal in section, constructed on ground to carry water over long distance from source for: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Flume Channel supported above ground and built at wood, metal or concrete is called flume.

Canals Chutes Flumes Tunnels

Irrigation Hydropower Water Supply Drainage Flood Control

Power Channel Channel conveying water for power generation is called power channel. Lined Channel Channel whose prism has been protected with impervious material mainly to stop seepage through it, is called lined channel. Unlined Channel Earthen channel whose prism has not been protected with impervious material is called lined channel. Classification of Channels Channels can be classified as: ‡ ‡ ‡ Non-erodible Channel Erodible Channel Regime Channel

Non-erodible channels are also called rigid boundary channels and erodible channels are also called loose boundary channels.

Canal System Canal or conveyance system is a network of canals constructed to convey water from source to field for irrigation purposes. Canals may be classified into different types such as: Based on Flow Conditions As per flow conditions: ‡ ‡ Gravity Canal Lift Canal

Based on Canal System As per status in canal system: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Main Canal Branch Canal Distributary Canal Minor Canal Water Course

Based on Lining As per status of bed and sides: ‡ ‡ Lined Canal Unlined Canal

Based on Silt As per silt in canal water : ‡ ‡ Silt Carrying Canal Silt Free Canal Based on Purpose As per purpose of canal: ‡ ‡ Link Canal Feeder Canal Based on Flow As per flow of canal: ‡ ‡ Perennial Canal Non-perennial Canal Design Approach Two approaches are used for design of stable alluvial channels: Empirical Approach ‡ Regime Theory 10 Rational Approach ‡ Tractive Force Method .

11 . which can be scoured away with same ease with which it is deposited. unlimited and of same characteristics as sediment charge carried by water. Regime A natural channel which is neither silting nor scouring is said to be in regime. Alluvium is incoherent. Silt grade and charge are constant. Types of regime are: ‡ ‡ ‡ Initial Regime True Regime Final Regime Regime Conditions Regime conditions are: ‡ ‡ ‡ Discharge is constant. Incoherent Alluvium Soil composed of loose granular material. Tractive force approach is rational in nature. is called incoherent alluvium.Regime theory is empirical in nature and was based on observation on number of canals in sub continent. since it utilizes laws governing sediment transport and resistance to flow and was developed in Europe.

Recommended Velocity in Canals Recommended velocity in canals is: ‡ ‡ Lined Canal Unlined Canal = 8 fps = 3 fps However. Consumptive Use Method In this method capacity of outlets is determined from actual water requirement of various crops in a given period of time and area under command of each outlet. Discharge of outlets is added and then considering conveyance losses. flow velocity should not be less than regime velocity for silt carrying channels.Discharge Capacity of Irrigation Channels Methods for fixing discharge capacity of irrigation channels are: Irrigation Department Method In this method capacity of each outlet is determined from its water allowance and area under its command. The rest of procedure remains the same as above. 12 . full supply discharge for canal reaches is calculated.

Recently Constructed Canals Some recently constructed canals are: ‡ ‡ ‡ Chashma Right Bank Canal (CRBC) Pehur High Level Canal Ghazi Brotha Power Channel Under Construction Canals Some under construction canals are: ‡ ‡ ‡ Kachhi Canal Rainee Canal Greater Thal Canal Proposed Canals Some proposed canals are: ‡ ‡ Chashma Right Bank Canal (Lift and Gravity) Thar Coal Power Project Canal 13 .

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then flow is called non-uniform 17 or varied flow. Uniform Flow If flow velocity at given instant of time does not change within given reach of channel.FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS AND EQUATIONS Flow Direction of movement of water in a channel is called flow. then flow is called unsteady flow. Non . then flow is called steady flow. Unsteady Flow If flow velocity at given point changes with respect to time. . Classifications of flow are: Classification .Uniform Flow If flow velocity at given instant of time varies with within given reach of channel.I Steady Flow If flow velocity at given point does not change with respect to time. then flow is called uniform flow.

II Subcritical Flow If flow velocity is less then critical velocity. then flow is called subcritical flow.g. then flow is called critical flow.g. then flow is called supercritical flow for which Fr > 1. for which Fr < 1. Supercritical Flow If flow velocity is greater than critical velocity. hydraulic jump.Gradually Varied Flow If flow depth varies gradually with respect to distance. Rapidly Varied Flow If flow depth varies rapidly in short distances then flow is called rapidly varied flow e. Critical Flow If flow velocity is equal to critical velocity. Classification . Froude Number ( Fr ) Froude number is ratio of inertia and gravity forces: Where Fr V y = = = V/¥gy Velocity of flow Depth of flow 18 . reservoir behind dam. then flow is called gradually varied flow e. for which Fr = 1.

Vc = ¥ g yc where yc = Critical depth Critical Depth ( yc ) Flow depth producing maximum discharge for a given specific energy is called critical depth.Critical Velocity ( Vc ) Flow velocity at critical depth is called critical velocity. E where y V = = = y + V2 / 2g Depth of flow Velocity of flow 19 . yc where q = = ( q2 / g )1/3 Discharge per unit width Maximum Discharge for Given Specific Energy ( qm ) Maximum rate of discharge for given specific energy is given by: qm = ¥ g yc3 Specific Energy ( E ) Total energy of a section with reference to channel bed is called specific energy.

y2 / y1 = 1/2 ( -1 + ¥ 1+ 8 Fr2 ) y1 = Depth before jump y2 Fr = = Depth after jump Froude number 20 + V2 / 2g = Constant .Total Head ( H ) Total head is expressed as: where H H z p/ = z + p / + V2 / 2g = Total head = = Elevation head Pressure head Velocity head V2/2g = Continuity Equation Continuity equation for uniform flow is: Q 1 = Q2 or A1 V1 = A2 V2 Bernoulli Equation Bernoulli equation of uniform flow is: : z+p/ Hydraulic Jump Hydraulic jump is formed whenever supercritical flow changes to subcritical flow.

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DESIGN OF OPEN CHANNELS Design of Open Channels Design of open channels consists in finding depth. side slope and longitudinal slope of channel. so as to produce non-silting and non-scouring velocity for given discharge and sediment load. Type of Channels from Design Consideration Types of channels from design consideration are: ‡ Lined Channels ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Silt Carrying Channels Silt Free Channels Silt Carrying Channels Silt Free Channels Unlined Channels Design of each type of channel is as under: LINED CHANNELS Silt Free Lined Channels Lined channels carrying silt free water can be designed by Chezy or Manning formula. bed width. 25 .

Brazin and Powell developed formulae for determination of Chezy coefficient (C). This formula has been widely used for design of open channels.Chezy Formula French Engineer Antoine Chezy in 1775 developed following formula for velocity of flow in open channels. Many earlier canals were designed according to this formula.49 / n ) R2/3 S1/2 Mean velocity in fps Hydraulic mean depth in ft. Manning Formula Irish Engineer Robert Manning in 1889 presented following formula for velocity of flow in open channels. V Where V R S C = = = = = C¥RS Mean velocity Hydraulic mean depth (A / P) Bed slope of channel Chezy coefficient Kutter. (A / P) Bed slope of channel Manning coefficient Discharge in cfs ( A V ) 26 . V Where V R S n And Q = = = = = = ( 1.

Design Procedure Procedure for design of channel by Manning formula is as follows: Manning equation for discharge is: Q = V A = 1. Silt Carrying Lined Channels Slit carrying lined channels are also designed by Manning formula. This may be done by using design charts or by trial and error method. However.49 S1/2 Left hand side of the above equation is known as section factor. the above equation is solved to determine normal depth of flow. Q and S. this formula was widely used for design of open channels.49 / n ( A R2/3 S1/2 ) From above equation: A R2/3 = n Q / 1. For given values of n. 27 . mean velocity should be more than regime velocity and Froude number ( Fr ) should be less than one to ensure sub critical flow.Due to its simplicity of form and satisfactory results.

8)1/6 He further developed the following equations: V V f = = = 16 R2/3 S1/3 ( 1. He obtained the following regime equations. V = Af2 = V = 1.76 ¥d 28 Na = .8 V5 (Q f2 / 3.346 / Na) R3/4 S1/2 0. Executive Engineer in United Province.UNLINED CHANNELS Silt Carrying Unlined Channels Unlined channels carrying silt laden water can be designed by empirical method or by rational method.0225 f1/4 1. Empirical Method Lacey Regime Theory Gerald Lacey. studied and analyzed data of different canal systems and developed his regime theory in 1929.1547 ¥ f R 3.

90 ( q2 / f )1/3 fRS = fVR = Rs = Rs = Lacey assumed channel side slope of 1 : 1/2 Where V f R Q S Na d P A Rs q = = = = = = = Stable velocity in fps Lacey silt factor Hydraulic mean radius in ft( A/P) Discharge in cfs Bed slope of channel Coefficient of roughness Diameter of silt particles in mm = Wetted parameters in ft = Area of cross section in ft2 = Depth of scour in ft = Discharge per unit width in cfs / ft 29 .75 ( V2 / R ) 0. P A S = = = 2.667¥ Q 1.26 ( Q5/6 / f1/3 ) 1/1844 (f5/3 / Q1/6 ) 192 R1/3 S2/3 0.He also derived the following equations from the above equation.474 ( Q / f )1/3 0.

‡ Further Development in Regime Theory Further development in regime theory are: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Lacey Shock Theory Claude Inglis Modification Blench and King Modification Simons and Albertson Method S S Kirmani Modification However. Bed slope is determined from Lacey equation.26 ( Q5/6 / f1/6 ) Perimeter is determined from P = 2. silt carrying unlined channels are still designed according to Lacey regime theory. The same equations are still used to design regime channels. 30 .67 ¥ Q Computed values are equated to expression for P and A and resulting equations are solved to determine bed width and flow depth.In 1934 Central Board of Irrigation adopted Lacey equations for design of stable alluvial channels and many canals were designed according to Lacey regime theory and many other were successfully remodeled. Design Procedure Procedure for design of channel by Lacey equations is as follows: ‡ ‡ ‡ Area is determined from A = 1.

31 . Canal sections will be stable if velocity. These functions are empirical in nature.Brown Formula However. being based on laboratory experiments and filed data. slope and cross section are such that all sediment entering in canal is swept away from the section.Peter Formula Einstein . Bed load transport formulae are : ‡ ‡ ‡ Duboy Formula Meyer . Sediment load is divided into: ‡ ‡ Bed Load Suspended Load Separate functions have been derived by various authors for both. Suspended load concentration is calculated from suspended load function: Above formula in combination with Manning and other formula are used to design channel by rational method. non of the formula has gained general acceptance.Rational Method Design of unlined channels by rational method method involves problem of sediment transport.

it is essential to follow field experience. Mayer-Peter Formula Mayer-Peter Formula for bed load transport is gs gs o c = = = = = = = = 4700 [ o (N¶/N)3/2 - c ]3/2 Rate of bed load transport in kg/m /hr Unit tacctive force in kg/m2 Critical tractive force kg/m2 Coefficient of rugosity of unrippled bed d1/6 /24. area. shape etc.0225 for smaller discharge 32 N¶ N . comprehensive and well defined procedure for designed based on the above theoretical approach. However. d is diameter of particles in mm Coefficient of rugosity on rippled bed 0.Design of Unlined Channels as per Rational Method These does not exist a generalized. problem can be tackled in many ways and what follows can be considered as one possible method. sediment transport capacity. Due to lack of explicit relationship between various parameters such as slope.02 to for discharge >15 cumecs and 0.

Other Design Methods Other methods for design of unlined channels are: ‡ ‡ ‡ Permissible Velocity Method Tractive Force Method Hydraulic Design Criteria Method Silt Free Unlined Channels Slit free unlined channels flowing through alluvium can also be designed by Lacey equations as water can pick up silt and deposit it at lower reaches. However. starting from head to tail. Longitudinal Section of Canal Calculated bed width. free board. bed level and natural surface level etc. bed slope. roughness coefficient or silt factor. Locations of fall and other structures are also marked on longitudinal section of canal. full supply depth. mean velocity etc and other relevant information like full supply discharge. 33 . are plotted. Silt free unlined channels can also be designed by above methods. full supply level. lower value of silt factor µf¶ should be used due to fine silt in such channels. against reduced distances (RDs) in form of longitudinal section of canal.

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PERMISSIBLE VELOCITY METHOD Permissible Velocity Method In permissible velocity method. Permissible Velocity Permissible velocity is defined as the mean velocity at or below which bottom and sides of channels are not eroded. The values listed in the table are for straight channels having flow depth of about 3. Permissible velocity depends upon: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Type of soil Size of particles Depth of flow Curvature of channel Maximum permissible velocities for different materials are given in the table.50 ft. channel size is selected such that mean flow velocity for design discharge under uniform flow conditions is less than permissible velocity. These values should be reduced for sinuous channels as below: ‡ ‡ ‡ Slightly sinuous channels Moderately sinuous channels Highly sinuous channels = 5% = 13% = 22% 41 .

Area is found from continuity equation A = Q / V and hydraulic radius µR¶ from Manning equation. Wetted perimeter is determined from P = R / A. 42 . Correction factor µk¶ for wide channels is: k where k y = = = y1/6 Correction factor Depth of flow Design Procedure Procedure for design of channel by permissible velocity method is as follows: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Permissible velocity is found from the table. these velocities should be multiplied by correction factor to determine permissible flow velocity. Computed values are equated to expressions for P and A and resulting equations are solved to determine channel bed width and depth of flow.For other flow depths.

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45 . The channel is eroded if resultant of forces tending to move particles is greater than resultant of forces resisting motion. This concept is referred as tractive force approach. Tractive Force The force exerted by flowing water on bottom and sides of channel is called tractive force.TRACTIVE FORCE METHOD Tractive Force Method Scour and erosion process can be viewed in rational way by considering forces acting on particles lying on channel bottom or sides. this force is equal to component of weight acting in direction of flow and is given by: o = = = = = = R So = y So Where o R y So Tractive force Unit weight of water Hydraulic mean radius Depth of flow Bed slope of channel Critical Tractive Force The force at which channel material begins to move from stationery condition is called critical tractive force ( c ). In uniform flow.

These values are for straight channels and should be reduced for sinuous channels as below: Slightly sinuous channels Moderately sinuous channels Highly sinuous channels = = = 10% 25% 40% 46 . Critical shear stress for cohesive and non cohesive materials is given in the figures. For trapezoidal channels.76 y So . tractive force at channel bottom may be assumed equal to y So and at channel sides equal to 0.(Sin2 /Sin2 ) Reduction factor Slope of sides Angle of repose Effect of angle of repose should be considered only for coarse non cohesive materials and can be neglected for fine cohesive materials. s = 0.Distribution of Tractive Force Distribution of tractive force or shear stress over channel perimeter is not uniform.76 y So Reduction Factor for Channel Sides Reduction factor for critical tractive force on channel sides is: = Where = = = ¥ 1.

‡ 47 . Reduction factor for channel sides is determined.Design Procedure Procedure for design of channel by tractive force method is as follows: ‡ ‡ ‡ Permissible shear stress is found from the figure. Bed width is determined from Manning equation.76 y So ) is equated to permissible shear stress and depth of flow is determined. Unit tractive force on the side ( 0.

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suitable radius of curves should be provided. Irrigation channels should not cross drainage system of area. towns. Radius of curve depends on discharge of canal but should be not less than 10 to 15 times bed width of canal. Main and branch canals should be aligned along main ridges. railway lines. canals etc. Obstacles such as roads. Main canal should be split into branch canals Irrigation channels should be straight as far as possible In case of curvature. Direct irrigation should not be done from main and branch canals. should be avoided.MISCELLANEOUS CONSIDERATIONS Miscellaneous Considerations Miscellaneous consideration in design of irrigation channels are: Alignment of Irrigation Channels ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Distributaries should be aligned along secondary ridges. 51 .

for small distributaries and main canals carrying 3000 cfs discharge. If slope of canal is flatter than grade of land.5 ft. Following equation provides estimate for free board. F Where F y C = = = = ¥Cy Free board in ft. For canals carrying 10000 cfs or more discharge. depending on site conditions. Design depth in ft. Free Board Free board is vertical distance between full supply level and top of canal banks. to 4 ft. falls are provided at suitable intervals and if slope of canal is steeper than grade of land the later is adopted. it is 5.5 ft. It depends on full supply depth and discharge of canal and generally ranges from 1 ft.5 for 3000 cfs or more.Longitudinal Slope Longitudinal slope is fixed as per Lacey equation. Side slope ranges from vertical to 1:3 for lined canals to 1:1/2 to 1:3 for unlined canals. 52 . for 20 cfs to 2. Side Slope Side slope of canal should be so selected that they remain stable under all operating conditions. Coefficient which varies from 1.

= = = = = V2 b / g R Super elevation Average sub critical velocity Width of canal Distance from center of curve to center line of canal 53 . Drainage may consists of filter blanket or transverse and longitudinal drains under the lining. drainage of soil behind lining should be provided. Super Elevation Bed of canal is elevated on outer side as compared with inner side on curves to overcome effects of curvature. Berm width is usually kept between 2D to 4D. where D is full supply depth. Super elevation can be calculated from the following equation. which is called super elevation. h Where h V b R Berm Width Berm is distance between edge of canal section and inner toe of canal bank.Drainage behind Lining In case of hydrostatic pressure behind lining. The effect of curvature is negligible if ratio of radius of curvature to distance to center of canal is greater than 3 times bed width of canal.


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Hanif Chaudhry) Open Channel Flow (F.Iqbal Ali) Irrigation and Drainage Engineering (Iqtidar Saddiqui) Open Channel Hydraulics (Ven Te Chow) Open Channel Flow (M. 9. 7. Henderson) Irrigation Canals (Iqtidar Saddiqui) Irrigation Channels (WAPDA) Hydraulic Engineering (J Roberson & Hanif Ch) 10. 6. Design of Channels in Alluvium Soil (PEC) 59 .References 1. 4.M. 8. 3. 5. Design of Small Canal Structures (USBR) Irrigation and Hydraulic Structures (Dr. 2.

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Head and tailrace of hydel power station. semi rigid or flexible. Very high velocity is desired in canal. Canal lining may be rigid. Danger of water logging. Danger of erosion and breach is eliminated Salt absorption is checked 65 . Water logging is controlled Discharge capacity of channel is increased Mainframe cost is reduced. Risk of pilferage of water is reduced.CANAL LINING Canal Lining Lining means protection of canal prism with impervious material. Weed growth is controlled. Less of water through seepage is very high. Need of Lining Canal is lined in case of: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Track of land through which canal is passing is highly pervious. Advantages of Lining Advantages of lining area: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Water losses are reduced.

is called lined canal. Types of Canal Lining Various types of lining are.Lined Canal Canal whose prism has been protected with impervious material mainly to stop seepage through it. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Shotcrete Lining Concrete Lining Asphalt Lining Brick Lining Earth Lining ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Clay Lining Bentonite Lining Asphalt Membrane Plastic Film Membrane Lining Gootextile Lining 66 .

Laminar Flow It liquid particles appear to move in definite smooth paths and flow appears to becis movement of this layers on tap each other. Transition from laminar to turbulent flow in free surface flows accures for re of 67 . which are not fined with respect to either time or space. liquid particial as more in irregular paths. then flow is called laminar flow Turbulent Flow In turbutent flow.

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