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.PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING LANGUAGE  Use of multi-sensory channel  Teaching relevant & useful day-to-day language  Use of real life examples  Must begin early  Should be continuous  Should be made interesting  Should develop automatic language  Should encourage students to apply it whenever possible.

METHODS OF TEACHING LANGUAGE  Structural method  Natural method  Combined method .

DIFFERENCES Structural Natural Combined Language as Language as Language as both teachable learnable Grammar rules Natural exposure Both Drills & exercises Communication Both Sequenced Flexible curriculum Both curriculum Part to whole Whole to part Combination of both .

STRUCTURAL METHOD  The Fitzgerald key  The APPLE TREE programme .

 Developed by Edith Fitzgerald (1929). a deaf teacher at the Wisconsin school for the deaf.THE FITZGERALD KEY Who: Verb What: Where How When Whose: phrases. . Whom: much/ What: (Direct How (Noun or often/ phrases) Indirect How objects) long The dog played games outside a lot in the winters.

 The woman bought a  NP1+V+NP2 car.  NP1+V(be)+NP2  I am a student.  NP1+V+where+when  Mother went to school this morning.  NP1+V(be)+where  The girls are in school.  NP1+V  The boy is running.  NP1+V+where  The children are running to school.THE APPLE TREE : A PATTERNED PROGRAM OF LINGUISTIC EXPANSION THROUGH REINFORCED EXPERIENCES AND EVALUATIONS  NP1+V(be)+adj  The boy is short. .

COMBINED METHOD  The Rhode Island Curriculum  Test of Syntactic Abilities Syntax Program (TSA)  Maternal Reflective Method  Teachers Assessment of Grammatical Structures(TAGS) .

Semantics & Pragmatics are given equal importance.THE RHODE ISLAND CURRICULUM  Designed by Blackwell (1978) – Rhode Island school for the deaf. .  5 basic kernel sentence patterns are taught.  Three levels in curriculum:  First level : pre-school & kindergarten  Second level : Simple sentences  Third level : Complex sentences  Cognition.

 The Teachers’ Guides – games & activities for developing syntactic structures in natural situations.  Workbooks – more exposure to syntax  Diagnostic Guides – assessing student performance .TEST OF SYNTACTIC ABILITIES SYNTAX PROGRAM (TSA)  Quigley & Power (1979) designed it after 10 yrs. of research.

In MRM.  Developed by Van Uden (1977) Weh! Tch Tch Tch!! Weh! Poor baby! Is it paining? Naughty floor! .MATERNAL REFLECTIVE METHOD (MRM)  A mother – seizes what the child wants to say & plays a double role. teacher does that.

TEACHER ASSESSMENT OF GRAMMATICAL STRUCTURES (TAGS)  Also known as Constructive Method of Teaching Language to the Hearing Impaired.  Developed by Moog + Kozak (1983)  4 stages are followed :  Comprehension  Imitated Production  Prompted Production  Spontaneous Production .

ECLECTIC APPROACHES  Rochester Method :  Developed by Westervelt  Speech + Fingerspelling  Cued Speech :  Invented by Dr. Comett  Hand shapes to distinguish between sounds that look similar on lips (/p/./m/) ./b/.

Natural Conversation.g. Role- plays.DIFFERENCE BETWEEN METHODS AND TECHNIQUES OF TEACHING LANGUAGE  Methods are long term  Techniques are short- strategies.  Used for many years. Visits.  E. Poems etc. Method Stories.  Used for specific sessions.g. Method and Combined Directed Activities. term strategies. . News. Structural  E. Method. Picture Description.

TECHNIQUES OF DEVELOPING LANGUAGE  News  Show & Tell  News through Diaries  Papers & Magazines  Story  Conventional stories  Teacher made stories  Adapted stories  Student made stories  Directed Activity  Visits  Poem .