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TEACHING LANGUAGE

PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING LANGUAGE


 Use of multi-sensory channel
 Teaching relevant & useful day-to-day language

 Use of real life examples

 Must begin early

 Should be continuous

 Should be made interesting

 Should develop automatic language

 Should encourage students to apply it whenever


possible.
METHODS OF TEACHING LANGUAGE
 Structural method
 Natural method

 Combined method
DIFFERENCES
Structural Natural Combined
Language as Language as Language as both
teachable learnable
Grammar rules Natural exposure Both
Drills & exercises Communication Both
Sequenced Flexible curriculum Both
curriculum
Part to whole Whole to part Combination of both
STRUCTURAL METHOD
 The Fitzgerald key
 The APPLE TREE programme
THE FITZGERALD KEY
Who: Verb What: Where How When
Whose: phrases, Whom: much/
What: (Direct How
(Noun or often/
phrases) Indirect How
objects) long
The dog played games outside a lot in the
winters.

 Developed by Edith Fitzgerald (1929), a


deaf teacher at the Wisconsin school for the
deaf.
THE APPLE TREE :
A PATTERNED PROGRAM OF LINGUISTIC EXPANSION
THROUGH REINFORCED EXPERIENCES AND
EVALUATIONS

 NP1+V(be)+adj  The boy is short.


 NP1+V(be)+where  The girls are in school.
 NP1+V(be)+NP2  I am a student.
 NP1+V  The boy is running.
 NP1+V+where  The children are
running to school.
 NP1+V+where+when  Mother went to school
this morning.
 The woman bought a
 NP1+V+NP2
car.
COMBINED METHOD
 The Rhode Island Curriculum
 Test of Syntactic Abilities Syntax Program (TSA)

 Maternal Reflective Method

 Teachers Assessment of Grammatical


Structures(TAGS)
THE RHODE ISLAND CURRICULUM
 Designed by Blackwell (1978) – Rhode Island
school for the deaf.
 5 basic kernel sentence patterns are taught.

 Three levels in curriculum:

 First level : pre-school & kindergarten

 Second level : Simple sentences

 Third level : Complex sentences

 Cognition, Semantics & Pragmatics are given


equal importance.
TEST OF SYNTACTIC ABILITIES SYNTAX
PROGRAM (TSA)
 Quigley & Power (1979) designed it after 10 yrs.
of research.
 The Teachers’ Guides – games & activities for
developing syntactic structures in natural
situations.
 Workbooks – more exposure to syntax

 Diagnostic Guides – assessing student


performance
MATERNAL REFLECTIVE METHOD (MRM)
 A mother – seizes what the child wants to say &
plays a double role. In MRM, teacher does that.
 Developed by Van Uden (1977)

Weh! Tch Tch Tch!!


Weh! Poor baby! Is it
paining?

Naughty floor!
TEACHER ASSESSMENT OF GRAMMATICAL
STRUCTURES (TAGS)
 Also known as Constructive Method of Teaching
Language to the Hearing Impaired.
 Developed by Moog + Kozak (1983)

 4 stages are followed :

 Comprehension

 Imitated Production

 Prompted Production

 Spontaneous Production
ECLECTIC APPROACHES
 Rochester Method :
 Developed by Westervelt

 Speech + Fingerspelling

 Cued Speech :
 Invented by Dr. Comett

 Hand shapes to distinguish between sounds that


look similar on lips (/p/,/b/,/m/)
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN METHODS AND
TECHNIQUES OF TEACHING LANGUAGE
 Methods are long term  Techniques are short-
strategies. term strategies.
 Used for many years.  Used for specific
sessions.
 E.g. Structural  E.g. News,

Method, Natural Conversation,


Method and Combined Directed Activities,
Method Stories, Visits, Role-
plays, Picture
Description, Poems
etc.
TECHNIQUES OF DEVELOPING LANGUAGE
 News
 Show & Tell
 News through Diaries
 Papers & Magazines
 Story
 Conventional stories
 Teacher made stories
 Adapted stories
 Student made stories
 Directed Activity
 Visits
 Poem