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(Algebra, Trigonometry,

Geometry and Calculus)

Manalo, Michelle S.

Villamin, Princess S.

Algebra

Number System Complex

Numbers

Imaginary

Real Numbers

Numbers

Irrational Rational

Numbers Numbers

pi,e,square

root…. Integers Non-integers

Negative

Numbers

Terminating &

infinitely repeating

Zero decimals

Positive

Numbers

Prime Composite

Mathematics

1. Simplify loga((x2+1)4 √x)

2. (2+3i)/(4-5i)

And i^2= -1

Therefore:

Common Factor

▪ The common factor of two or more counting numbers is a

counting number which is a factor of each of the given number.

The set of common factors of the two numbers is the

intersection of these two sets.

Factors of 12, 𝐹12 = 1,2,3,4,6,12

Factors of 20, 𝐹20 = 1,2,4,5,10,20

𝐹12 ∩ 𝐹20 = 1,2,4

Greatest Common Factor

▪ The greatest common factor or GCF of two or more counting

numbers is the largest counting number which is a factor each

of the given number.

108 and 60.

Prime factors of the numbers in canonical form.

108 = 22 𝑥33

60 = 22 𝑥3𝑥5

The GCF is the product of the smallest factor common to both:

GCF= 22 𝑥3 = 12

Multiple of a Number

▪ The multiple of a number is the product that the number gives

when multiplied by a counting or natural number.

Multiples of 2, 𝑀2 = 2,4,6,8,10,12,14,16,18

Multiples of 3, 𝑀3 = 3,6,9,12,15,18

𝑀2 ∩ 𝑀3 = 6,12,18

Least Common Multiple

▪ The least common multiple or LCM of two or more counting

numbers is the smallest counting number which is a multiple of

each of the given numbers.

Find the LCM of 4 and 10.

Prime factors of the numbers in canonical form:

4 = 22

10 = 2𝑥5

The LCM is the product of the prime factors with the highest

power in the factorization.

𝐿𝐶𝑀 = 22 𝑥5 = 20

Binomial Expansion

Pascal’s Triangle

▪ Term involving 𝑦 𝑟 :

𝑦 𝑟 term = n𝐶𝑟 𝑥 𝑛−𝑟 𝑦 𝑟

𝑛!

▪ Where n𝐶𝑟 =

(𝑛−𝑟)!𝑟!

6 2 1 12

Involves problems like: Find the term involving 𝑥 in (𝑥 + )

𝑥

▪ Finding the 𝑟 𝑡ℎ 𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑚:

𝑟 𝑡ℎ term = n𝐶𝑟−1 𝑥 (𝑛−𝑟+1) 𝑦 (𝑟−1)

𝑛!

▪ Where n𝐶𝑟 =

(𝑛−𝑟)!𝑟!

1

3. Find the 6th term of the expansion of ( − 3)16 .

2𝑎

Solution:

Formula: rth term= nCr-1 𝑥 (𝑛−𝑟+1) 𝑦 𝑟−1

where n=16, r=6

6th term= 16C5 16 5

− 5

(−3)

1

16! 2𝑎 1

= ( )(−243)

16−5 !5! 2048𝑎11

66339

6th term=−

128𝑎11

Progression

4. If there are 50 terms in an arithmetic progression, and if the

common difference is 1.5. Determine the 2nd term if the last term

is 3510.

Solution:

An=A1+(n-1)d

3510=A1+(50-1)(1.5)

A1=3436.5

An=A1+(n-1)d

A2=3436.5+(2-1)(1.5)

A2=3438

Operations on Sets

– Intersection

Let A = {1, 3, 5, 6, 7} and B = {3, 4, 5, 8}, then A ∩ B = {3, 5}.

– Union

Let A = {1, 3, 5, 6, 7}, B = {3, 4, 5, 8}, then A ∪ B = {1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}

– Universal set and complement

Quadratic Equation

▪ General Quadratic Equation: 𝐴𝑥 2 + 𝐵𝑥 + 𝐶 = 0

−𝐵± 𝐵2 −4𝐴𝐶

▪ Quadratic Formula (solving for the roots): 𝑥 =

2𝐴

– Nature of roots:

▪ 𝐵2 − 4𝐴𝐶 = 0, roots are real and equal

▪ 𝐵2 − 4𝐴𝐶 > 0, roots are real and unequal

▪ 𝐵2 − 4𝐴𝐶 < 0, roots are imaginary or complex

5. A ball is thrown straight up, from 3 m above the ground,

with a velocity of 14 m/s. When does it hit the ground?

Solution:

Ignoring air resistance, we can work out its height by

adding up these three things:

(Note: t is time in seconds)

h = 3 + 14t − 5t2

h = 3 + 14t − 5t2

▪ And the ball will hit the ground when the height is

zero:

3 + 14t − 5t2 = 0

(5t + 1)(t − 3) = 0

t = −0.2 or t = 3

The ball hits the ground after 3 seconds.

Remainder Theorem

▪ If f(x) is divided by (x-r), the remainder is f(r).

remainder is

Solution:

x-1=0 so x=1

Substitute to equation:𝑥 3 + 4𝑥 2 − 3𝑥 + 8

13 + 4(1)2 − 3(1) + 8

=10

Inequalities

▪ Inequality tells us about the relative size of two values.

Theorems on Inequalities

a>b If a-b > 0

a<b If a-b < 0

If a>b Then a+c >b+c

If a>b Then a-c > b-c

If a>b Then ac > bc for c > 0

If a>b Then ac < bc for c < 0

If a>b Then a/c > b/c for c > 0

If a>b Then a/c < b/c for c < 0

Quadratic Inequalities

7. A stuntman will jump off a 20m building. A high-speed

camera is ready to film him between 15m and 10m above

the ground. When should the camera film him?

Solution:

d = d0 + v0t + ½a0t2 , where d0=20, v0=0,

and a0=−9.81

Therefore: d = 20 − 5t2

▪ d = distance above ground (m), and

▪ t = time from jump (seconds)

▪ The distance we want is from 10 m to 15 m:

10 < d < 15

10 < 20 − 5t2 < 15 (subtract 20 from both sides)

−10 < −5t2 <−5

2 > t2 > 1(when we multiply or divide by a

negative number we must reverse the inequality)

√1 < t < √2

“Film from 1.0 to 1.4 seconds after jumping”

Proportional to...

8. A stone is dropped from the top of a high tower. The

distance it falls is proportional to the square of the time of

fall. The stone falls 19.6m after 2 seconds, how far does it

fall after 3 seconds?

Solution:

▪ Formula: d=kt^2

▪ Where: d=distance fallen and t=time of fall

19.6 = k x 2^2

k=4.9

▪ k=4.9

Therefore, d = 4.9t^2

And when t=3,

d = 4.9 x 3^2

d = 44.1

Problem Applications to Algebraic Equations

▪ Age Problems

– Modifiers of time for classification of ages:

▪ Past Age – was, were, ago, last….and verbs in the past tense

▪ Present Age – is, are, am, now, being….and verbs in the present tens

▪ Future Age – will, shall, be, further, hence…. And verbs in the future

tense

No. of years to come = Future Age – Present Age

Other modifiers of time:

10 years = decade 50 years = golden

20 years = score 75 years = diamond

25 years = silver 100 years = century or centennial

9. A girl is one-third as old as her brother and 8 years younger than her

sister. The sum of their ages is 38 years. How old is the girl?

Solution:

Let x=age of the girl

y=age of her brother

z=age of her sister

y=3x (eq. 1)

z=x+8 (eq. 2)

x+y+z=38 (eq. 3)

Substitute equations 1 and 2 in equation 3

X+3x+(x+8)=38

X=6

▪ Work Problems

– Case 1: Total man-hr to complete work = Sum of unit man-hr

– Case 2: Sum of unit work = total unit of work

1 1 1 1 1

▪ + + +⋯ =

𝑡1 𝑡2 𝑡3 𝑡𝑛 𝑇

where: 𝑡1 , 𝑡2 , 𝑡3 , 𝑡𝑛 = the time that worker 1, 2, 3…each can do

the job alone

T= the total time that worker can finish the job if all

of them work together

– Case 3: Work (unit work) Time of work done:

1 1 1 1 1 1

▪ + + + ⋯ 𝑡𝐴 + + + + ⋯ 𝑡𝐵 = 1

𝑡1 𝑡2 𝑡3 𝑡𝑥 𝑡𝑦 𝑡𝑧

Where: 𝑡𝐴 is the time where 1, 2 & 3 work together

𝑡𝐵 is the time where x, y & z work together

▪ Mixture Problems

▪ by: Composition Analysis: Ax+By=Cz

where: A, B & C are numbers of quantities by volume or weight

x, y & z are the unit cost or fractional parts

▪ Clock Problems

x = no. of minute spaces the minute hand will rotate

around the clock

hour hand = x/12 minute spaces

second hand = 60x

hands at 90 degrees = 15 minute spaces

hands opposite each other = 30 minute spaces

▪ Rate Problems (Uniform Motion)

Uniform Motion: (No acceleration)

Distance (s) = velocity (v) x time (t)

▪ Cost and Investments

Capital + Profit = Selling Price – Discount

where: Profit = % of Capital

Discount = % of Selling Price

▪ Digit Problems

10. Find the product of two numbers such that twice the first

added to the second equals 19 and three times the first is 21 more

than the second.

Solution:

Let x= the first number

y=the second number

2x+y=19

y=19-2x (eq. 1)

3x=y+21 (eq. 2)

Substitute equation 1 in equation 2

3x=(19-2x)+21

5x=40 y=19-2(8)

x=8 y=3

Products of the numbers: (8)(3)=24

Trigonometry

11. If sinA=2.511x, cosA=3.06x and sin2A=3.939x, find the

value of x?

Solution:

For double angle formula: sin2A=2sinAcosA

Substitute the values of sinA and cosA to 2sinAcosA=3.939x

2(2.511x)(3.06x)=3.939x

x=0.2563

12. A man finds the angle of elevation of the top of a tower to be 30°. He walks

85m nearer the tower and finds its angle of elevation to be 60°. What is the height

of the tower?

Solution:

By Pythagorean Theorem: tan𝜃=opposite/adjacent

ℎ

𝑡𝑎𝑛30 = 85+𝑥

h=(85+x)tan30 (eq. 1)

ℎ

𝑡𝑎𝑛60 =

𝑥

h=xtan60 (eq. 2)

Equate Eq. 1 and Eq. 2: (85+x)tan30=xtan60

𝑡𝑎𝑛60

85+x=x 𝑡𝑎𝑛30

x=42.5m

Substitute x in Eq. 2

h=42.5(tan60)

h=73.61m

13. The sides of a triangle are 195,157 and 210 respectively. What is

the area of the triangle?

Solution:

𝑎+𝑏+𝑐

Using Heron’s Formula: 𝑆 =

2

195+157+210

𝑆=

2

S=281

𝐴= 281 281 − 195 281 − 157 281 − 210

A=14,586.2 sq. units

14. cos(A+B)cosA+sin(A+B)sinA is equals to

Solution:

cos(A+B) cosA + sin(A+B) sinA

= (cosA cosB - sinA sinB) cosA + (sinA cosB + cosA sinB) sinA

= cos²A cosB - sinA cosA sinB + sin²A cosB + sinA cosA sinB

= cosB

15. Solve for x, if tan3x=5tanx.

Solution:

𝑡𝑎𝑛3𝑥 = 5𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥

𝑡𝑎𝑛(2𝑥 + 𝑥) = 5𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥

𝑡𝑎𝑛2𝑥 + 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥

= 5𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥

1 − 𝑡𝑎𝑛2𝑥𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥

𝑡𝑎𝑛2𝑥 + 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥 = 5𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥 − 5𝑡𝑎𝑛2𝑥𝑡𝑎𝑛2 𝑥

𝑡𝑎𝑛2𝑥 = 4𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥 − 5𝑡𝑎𝑛2𝑥𝑡𝑎𝑛2 𝑥

4𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥 = 𝑡𝑎𝑛2𝑥 + 5𝑡𝑎𝑛2𝑥𝑡𝑎𝑛2 𝑥

4𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥 = 𝑡𝑎𝑛2𝑥(1 + 5𝑡𝑎𝑛2 𝑥)

2𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥 2 𝑥)

4𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥 = (1 + 5𝑡𝑎𝑛

1 − 𝑡𝑎𝑛2 𝑥

4 − 4𝑡𝑎𝑛2 𝑥 = 2 + 10𝑡𝑎𝑛2 𝑥

2 = 14𝑡𝑎𝑛2 𝑥

𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑥 = 0.377964473

x=20.7048°

16. Find the values of side a and b given the following

triangle:

Given:

Angle A =35°

Angle C =62°

And side c =7

Solution:

Angle B is: B = 180° − 35° − 62° = 83°

a/sin A = c/sin C

a/sin(35°) = 7/sin(62°)

a = (7 × sin(35°))/sin(62°)

a = 4.55 to 2 decimal places

b/sin B = c/sin C

b/sin(83°) = 7/sin(62°)

b = (7 × sin(83°))/sin(62°)

b = 7.87 to 2 decimal places

17. The angle of elevation of a hot air balloon, climbing

vertically, changes from 25 degrees at 10:00 am to 60

degrees at 10:02 am. The point of observation of the angle of

elevation is situated 300 meters away from the take off point.

What is the upward speed, assumed constant, of the balloon?

Give the answer in meters per second.

Solution:

tan(25°) = h1/300

tan(60 °) = (h1+h2)/300

h1=139.89m

h1+h2= 519.62m

h2= 379.73m

If it takes the balloon 2 mins. (10:00 to 10:02) to climb h2

Therefore, s = h2/[2minutes (60)] = 3.16 m/s

18. When the top T of a mountain is viewed from point A,

2000 m from ground, the angle of depression a is equal to

15o and when it is viewed from point B on the ground the

angle of elevation b is equal to 10o. If points A and B are on

the same vertical line, find the height h of the mountain.

Solution:

Let h be the height of the mountain

tan (10°) = h/d

tan(15 °) = (2000-h)/d

Solve for d from 2 equations:

d=h/ tan(10°) and d=(2000-h)/ tan(15 °)

h/ tan(10°) = (2000-h)/ tan(15 °)

h = 793.8m

19. A ladder 5m long, leaning against a vertical wall makes an angle

of 65 with the ground. How high on the wall does the ladder reach?

How far is the foot of the ladder from the wall? What angle does the

ladder make with the wall?

Solution:

The height that the ladder reach is PQ

sin 65° = PQ/5

PQ = sin 65 ° x 5 =4.53m

wall is RQ

cos65° = RQ/5

RQ = sin 65 ° x 5 =2.11m

The angle that the ladder makes with the wall is angle

P

cos angle P = PQ / 5

cos angle P = 4.53/5 = 0.91

Angle P = cos-1 (0.91)

Angle P = 25°

20. The sun’s angle of inclination is 20 degrees, and a pole casts a 40 foot

shadow. How tall is the pole?

Solution:

Given X = 20 degrees, and y = 40 ft

tan X = x/y

tan 20 = x/40

x = 14.56 ft

Therefore the height of the pole is 14.56ft.

Geometry

Plane Geometry

Plane Geometry

Point, Line, Plane and Solid

– A Point has no dimensions, only position

– A Line is one-dimensional

– A Plane is two dimensional (2D)

– A Solid is three-dimensional (3D)

Quadrilaterals

Area of Plane Shapes

21. The parallelogram shown in the figure below has a perimeter of 44

cm and an area of 64 cm2. Find angle T in degrees.

Solve for x

x=2

Height = Area / Base

= 64 / 14 = 32/7 cm

sin(T) = opposite/hypotenuse

=(32/7) / 8 = 32/56 = 4/7,

T = arcsin(4/7) = 34.8o

22. Two sides of a triangle are 50m and 60m long. The angle included

between these sides is 30°. What is the interior angle opposite the

longest side?

Solution:

c=30.06m

𝑠𝑖𝑛𝐵 𝑠𝑖𝑛30

By sine law: =

60 30.06

B=86.38°

Polygons

Pythagoras' Theorem

Solid Geometry

Solid Geometry

Triangle Centers

Triangle Centers

Triangle Centers

Triangle Centers

23. ABC is a right triangle. AM is perpendicular to BC. The size of angle ABC is equal to 55

degrees. Find the size of angle MAC.

angle ABC + angle ACM + 90° = 180°

angle ACM = 180 - 90 - 55 = 35°

angle MAC + angle ACM + 90° = 180°

angle MAC = 180 - 90 - angle ACM = 180 - 90 - 35 = 55°

24. ABC is a triangle where AN is perpendicular to CB and BM

perpendicular to AC. The length of BC is 10, that of AC is 12 and that

of AN is 8. Find the length of BM.

The area A of the given triangle may be calculated using the two

altitudes as follows

A = (1/2)(AN)(BC) or A = (1/2)(BM)(AC)

Hence

(1/2)(AN)(BC) = (1/2)(BM)(AC)

Multiply both sides by 2 and substitute known lengths

8 * 10 = MB * 12

Multiply both sides by 2 and substitute known lengths

BM = 80 / 12 = 6.7

25. Find the angles of the triangle whose vertices are A(-1, 1), B(2, -

1), and C(6,3).

m AB = -2/3, mBC = 1, mAC = 2/7

sense,

tan A = (mAC–m AB) /(1+mACmAB) = (2/7 + 2/3) / (1- 4/21) = 20/17

26. A conical vessel has a height of 24cm and a base diameter of 12cm. it holds

water to a depth of 18cm above its vertex. Find the volume (in cm2) of its

content.

Solution:

By ratio and proportion:

6 𝑟

=

24 18

r=4.5

1 2

𝑉 = 𝜋𝑟 ℎ2

3

1

𝑉 = 𝜋 4.5 2 (18)

3

V=381.7 cm2

Analytical Geometry

27. How far is the intersection of the lines 4x-5y=26 and

3x+7y+2=0 from the origin?

Solution:

4𝑥 − 5𝑦 = 26(𝑒𝑞. 1)

3𝑥 + 7𝑦 + 2 = 0(𝑒𝑞. 2)

𝐸𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑒𝑞. 1 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑒𝑞. 2 𝑡𝑜 𝑔𝑒𝑡 𝑥 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑦 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒𝑠

4𝑥 − 26

3𝑥 + 7 +2=0

5

𝑥=4

𝑆𝑢𝑏𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑡𝑒 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑥 𝑡𝑜 𝑒𝑞. 1

4(4) − 5𝑦 = 26

𝑦 = −2

𝐷2 = 𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2

𝐷2 = 42 + −2 2

D=4.4721 units

Conic Sections

Circle

28. Find the equation of the circle with center on x+y=4 and on 5x+2y =-1

and radius 3.

Since the center (h,k) is on x+y=4 and on 5x+2y=-1, its coordinates satisfy

those equations. Thus we have,

h+k=4 and 5h + 2k = -1

Solving the first of these eqtns for k in terms of h and substituting in the

second,

5h + 2(4-h) = -1

5h + 8 – 2h = -1

3h = -9

h = -3

Consequently,

-3 + k = 4

k=7

And the equation of the circle is at (x+3)2+ (y-7) 2 = 3 2

29. What is the center of the curve𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 − 2𝑥 − 4𝑦 − 31 = 0.

Solution:

𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 − 2𝑥 − 4𝑦 − 31 = 0

Completing the square: 𝑥 2 − 2𝑥 + 1 + 𝑦 2 − 4𝑦 + 4 = 31 + 4 + 1

(𝑥 − 1)2 +(𝑦 − 2)2 = 36

𝑥 = 1 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑦 = 2

Therefore C (1, 2)

Parabola

Ellipse

Hyperbola

Conic Sections

Conic Sections

Eccentricity

Eccentricity

Locus

𝑥2 𝑦2

30. The length of the latus rectum for the ellipse + = 1 is equal to

64 16

Solution:

𝑥2 𝑦2

+ =1

64 16

(𝑥−ℎ)2 (𝑦−𝑘)2

Standard Equation: + =1

𝑎2 𝑏2

b2=16, b=4

2𝑏2

Length of Latus Rectum: 𝐿𝑅 =

𝑎

2(4)2

𝐿𝑅 =

8

LR=4

Calculus

Differential Calculus

LIMITS

Integral Calculus

31. If y = tan3 2x, find dy/dx.

Solution:

Thinking of the given equation as a series of relations in

the form y=u3 , u= tan v, v = 2x,

= 3 tan2 2x • sec22x d/dx(2x)

= 6tan2 2x sec2 2x

32. A particle moves on a line with a constant acceleration

of 4 feet per second per second. Find its equation of

motion if s = 2 feet and v = -3 feet per second, when t=2

seconds.

Solution:

From acceleration = dv/dt = 4, by integration,

v = 4t + C1

Since v=-3 when t=2, by substitution,

-3 = 4(2) + C1 , and C1 = -11

Hence, the velocity at any time t is

v = 4t - 11

From velocity= ds/dt = 4t-11, by integration,

s = 2t2 – 11t + C2

Since s=2 when t=2, by substitution,

s = 2(2)2 – 11(2) + C2

Hence, C2 = 16.

s = 2t2 – 11t + 16

From velocity= ds/dt = 4t-11, by integration,

s = 2t2 – 11t + C2

Since s=2 when t=2, by substitution,

s = 2(2)2 – 11(2) + C2

Hence, C2 = 16.

s = 2t2 – 11t + 16

33. Evaluate dx

=

34. A kite , at a height of 60 feet, is moving horizontally at a rate

of 5 feet per second away from the boy who flies it. How fast is

the cord being released when 100 feet are out?

Denoting the horizontal displacement of

the kite by x and the length of the cord y,

y2 = x2 + 60

Differentiating with respect to the time and dividing by 2,

y (dy/dt) = x (dx/dt) equation (1)

Since x = = 80 and dx/dt = 5 when y=100, by

substitution in eqtn 1,

100(dy/dt)= 80 (5)

dy/dt = 4,

Therefore, the speed at which the cord is being released is 4ft/s.

𝑥 2 −1

35. Evaluate: lim 2

𝑥→1 𝑥 +3𝑥−4

Solution:

𝑥2 − 1

lim

𝑥→1 𝑥 2 + 3𝑥 − 4

Substitute x=1:

(1)2 −1 0

𝑙𝑖𝑚 = = , indeterminate

(1)2 +3 1 −4 0

separately the numerator and denominator and substitute the value of

limit to the variable

2𝑥

𝑙𝑖𝑚 =

2𝑥 + 3

2(1)

𝑙𝑖𝑚 =

2(1)+3

𝟐

𝒍𝒊𝒎 =

𝟓

36. A particle moves around a curve y=x2+2x. At what point on the curve are the x and y coordinates of

the particles changing at the same rate?

Solution:

𝑦 = 𝑥 2 + 2𝑥

𝑑𝑦

= 2𝑥 + 2

𝑑𝑥

𝑥 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑦 𝑐𝑜𝑜𝑟𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑙𝑒 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑎𝑡 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑎𝑚𝑒 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 ℎ𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒

𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑥

=

𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡

𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑡

=

𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑡

𝑑𝑦

=1

𝑑𝑥

2𝑥 + 2 = 1

2𝑥 = −1

1

𝑥=−

2

1 2 1

𝑦 = (− ) +2(− )

2 2

1

= −1

4

3

=−

4

𝟏 𝟑

𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑓𝑒𝑜𝑟𝑒 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑠 𝑎𝑟𝑒 (− , − )

𝟐 𝟒

37. A farmer has enough money to build only 100 meters of fence.

What are the dimensions of the field he can enclose the maximum

area?

Solution:

2x+2y=100

y=50-x (eq. 1)

A=xy (eq. 2)

Substitute Eq. 1 in Eq. 2

A=x(50-x)

A=50x-x2

Differentiate:

𝑑𝐴

= 50 − 2𝑥

𝑑𝑥

0=50-2x

x=25

Substitute x=25 in Eq. 1

y=50-25

y=25

Thus, the size of the field is 25m x 25m

6

38. Evaluate 5 𝑥(𝑥 − 5)12 𝑑𝑥

Solution:

Note: 𝑣𝑢 = 𝑣𝑑𝑢 − 𝑢𝑑𝑣

12 𝑑𝑥; 𝑥−5 13

Dv= 𝑥 − 5 v=

13

6

න 𝑥(𝑥 − 5)12 𝑑𝑥

5 13

𝑥(𝑥 −5) 1

= − න(𝑥 − 5)13 𝑑𝑥

13 13

𝑥 1 𝑥 − 5 14 6

= 13

(𝑥 − 5) − ቤ

13 13 14 5

6 5 1

= (6 − 5)13 − 5 − 5 13 − 6 − 5 14 − 5 − 5 14

13 13 182

= 𝟎. 𝟒𝟓𝟔

39. What is the integral of 𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝑥𝑒 𝑠𝑖𝑛2𝑥 𝑑𝑥

Solution:

න 𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝑥𝑒 𝑠𝑖𝑛2𝑥 𝑑𝑥

Note: 𝑢 𝑒 = 𝑢𝑑 𝑢 𝑒 + 𝑐

1

𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝑥𝑒 𝑠𝑖𝑛2𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑒 𝑠𝑖𝑛2𝑥 2𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝑥 𝑑𝑥

2

𝟏 𝒔𝒊𝒏𝟐𝒙

= 𝒆 +𝒄

𝟐

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