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School of Aerospace Engineering

Numerical Modeling of
Compressor and Combustor Flows
Suresh Menon, Lakshmi N. Sankar

Won Wook Kim


S. Pannala, S. Niazi, C. Rivera, A. Stein

School of Aerospace Engineering


Georgia Tech, Atlanta, GA 30332-0150
MITE
School of Aerospace Engineering

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
• Develop first-principles based tools for
modeling flow through axial and centrifugal
compressors.
• Develop first-principles based tools for
modeling two-phase reacting flow
within combustors.
• Use these tools to explore control strategies
for stable operation of compressors and
combustors.
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School of Aerospace Engineering

Compressor Modeling: Progress To Date


• A two-dimensional rotor-stator Navier-Stokes code
has been developed, and used to model rotating stall.
• A reduced order model based on 2-D simulations
has been developed, and validated.
• 3-D Navier-Stokes simulations have been
completed for a NASA centrifugal compressor
configuration.
• Stable operation of the 3-D configuration has been
achieved at low mass flow rates using passive
control devices.

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Two-Dimensional Flow Solver
• Solves compressible Navier-Stokes
equations for Rotor-Stator Configurations.
• Can model oscillating blades, inflow
and downstream disturbances.
• Has been extensively validated. (Rivera,
Ph. D. Dissertation, May 1998.)
• Some validation studies were presented last
year.
• Forms the basis for the new Reduced Order
Model.
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REDUCED ORDER MODEL

7
4
1 8
5
2 9
6
3

Flow Field is divided into Macro-zones.


In each zone, there are 4 states - r, u, v and T
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Reduced Order Model II


Neighbor Zone

Neighbor Zone Current Zone Neighbor Zone

Neighbor Zone

In each zone, the governing equations are applied:

     Viscous Losses from


qdV    Fi  Gj   ndS  
t  CFDsimulations 

A coupled system of ODEs result.
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Reduced Order Model III


• This system of simultaneous nonlinear
ordinary differential equations
couples states from all the zones

  A q  Viscous Losses


dq
dt
• Steady state solution yields performance map.

•The unsteady solution may be used to


analyze the nonlinear dynamics of the system.
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Compressor Performance Map


0.3
Non-Dimensional Pressure

CFD
0.2 Calculations
Ratio

Measured Data

0.1 Reduced Order


Model
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6
Non-Dimensional Mass Flow Rate

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REDUCED ORDER MODEL

7
4
1 8
5
2 9
6
Throttle effects may
3 be inexpensively
modeled, and system
transients studied.

Incoming Disturbances may be inexpensively modeled.


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SIMULATION SETUP
NASA Low Speed Centrifugal Compressor

• 20 Full Blades with


55° Backsweep
• Inlet Diameter 0.87 m
• Exit Diameter 1.52 m
• Design Conditions:
– Mass Flow Rate 30 kg/sec
– 1862 RPM
– Total Pressure Ratio 1.14

Perspective View of the NASA Low Speed Centrifugal Compressor


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3-D SIMULATION SETUP
Single Passage Grid Modeling
Grid Size:
129x61x41
= 322,629 points

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3-D SIMULATION SETUP
Boundary Conditions
Inlet:
p0,T0,v,w
specified;
Characteristic
equation Diffuser Exit:
solved to pback specified;
model acoustic entropy and
waves leaving vorticity are
the domain. extrapolated
from Interior.

Periodic Boundaries: Blade Surface:


Flow properties are no-slip velocity
periodic from blade to conditions.
blade. p
 0
n
T
 0
n

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Surface Pressure Distribution
Computations Vs. Measurements
5 % B lad e S p an F ro m H u b 4 9 % B lad e S p an F ro m H u b
1 1

0 .9 8 0 .9 8

0 .9 6
p/ps td

0 .9 6

0 .9 4 0 .9 4 s u cti o n s u rfa ce -cfd


s u cti o n s i de -cfd
pre s s u re s i de -cfd pre s s u re s u rfa ce -cfd
0 .9 2 0 .9 2
s u cti o n s i de -e x p s u cti o n s u rfa ce -e x p
pre s s u re s i de -e x p
pre s s u re s u rfa ce -e x p
0 .9 0 .9
0 0 .2 0 .4 0 .6 0 .8 1 0 0 .2 0 .4 0 .6 0 .8 1

M e rid io n al D is tan c e Me r idional Dis tanc e

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Surface Pressure Distribution
Computations Vs. Measurements
7 9 % B lad e S p an F ro m H u b 9 7 % B lad e S p an F ro m H u b
1 1

0 .9 8 0 .9 8

0 .9 6
p/ps td

0 .9 6

0 .9 4
0 .9 4

0 .9 2
0 .9 2

0 .9
0 .9
0 0 .2 0 .4 0 .6 0 .8 1
0 0 .2 0 .4 0 .6 0 .8 1
Me r idional Dis tanc e
Me r idional Dis tanc e

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Compressor Performance Characteristics


1.19 CFD
Controlled,
Stable Operation
CFD with bleeding
1.17
Total Pressure Ratio

Experiment
1.15

1.13
CFD
1.11 without bleeding

1.09
10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
Mass flow (kg/s)
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Grid Sensitivity
Impeller Performance Map for LSCC
1.21
CFD - Coarse Grid
1.19

1.17
Total Pressure Ratio

CFD - Fine Grid


1.15

1.13

1.11

1.09

1.07

1.05
20 25 30 35 40 45
Mass flow (kg/s)
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RESULTS (Design Conditions)
Velocity Field (Colored by Pressure)

Diffuser
Region is Well
Behaved

No Separation

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RESULTS (Off-Design Conditions)
Velocity Field (Colored by Pressure)

Diffuser
Region Shows
Small
Separation

Onset of
Instabilities

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Effects of Bleeding on Diffuser Performance

With
Without bleed
bleed

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School of Aerospace Engineering
Compressor Simulations: Conclusions
• A new CFD based reduced order model has been
developed and validated.
• A 3-D unsteady compressible flow solver for modeling
centrifugal compressors has been developed and validated.
• Good agreement with experiments have been obtained for
a Low Speed Centrifugal Compressor (LSCC) tested at
NASA Lewis Research Center.
• For the LSCC, flow instabilities were found to originate in
the diffuser region.
• Stall control by the use of bleed valves on the diffuser
walls has been computationally demonstrated.

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Combustor Modeling- Progress To Date
• A stand-alone methodology for droplet convection,
vaporization, turbulent mixing and chemical
reaction has been developed, and was reported
last year.
• During the current period, this methodology was
successfully coupled to gas-phase unsteady flow solvers.
• Incompressible and compressible versions of the
two phase flow solvers have been developed.
• Ability of the methodology to track particles
injected into a vortex has been verified.
• Validation against Ga Tech experiments are in progress.
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Droplets below a cut-off
radius are modeled in the
subgrid till vaporization
is complete.
Energy, Mass Transferred to subgrid.

Momentum transferred
to the supergrid.

Droplets see local Droplet Trajectory


flow properties
(Temperature and Velocity).

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Features of the Present Approach
• Present subgrid approach is more efficient than
other LES schemes where a very fine multi-
dimensional subgrid is needed to model the droplets.
• In conventional Lagrangian schemes, all the coupling
between the droplet and the gas phase is via
the supergrid. In the present approach, only the
momentum of gas and liquid phase is coupled
via the supergrid.
• Conventional Lagrangian schemes assume droplets
vaporize instantaneously, below a cut-off radius.
This can give erroneous results.
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Mixing Layer Simulations with Droplets

Seed Particles

3-D Shear layer, on which diturbances


corresponding to first unstable mode are imposed.
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Present Model Correctly Models


Large and Small Particles
St=Stokes No.

Particle Response Time


Flow Response Time

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Simulation of a Mixing Layer, where the upper stream


is laden with medium size particles (Stokes No. = 1).
Experiment by Lazaros and Lasheras (1992)

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Conventional LES Scheme Vs. Present
5 Micron Cut-Off
Product mass Fraction
0.25
LEM/LES
Product Mass Fraction

0.20 Conventional LES


0.15

0.10

0.05

0.00
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
Y/Ylen

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Conventional LES Scheme Vs. Present
5 Micron Cut-Off
Temperature
LEM/LES Conventional LES
380.0

360.0
Temperature

340.0

320.0

300.0

280.0
0.0 0.2 0.4 Y/Ylen 0.6 0.8 1.0

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Conventional LES Results are sensitive to


Droplet Cut-Off Size

4 to 5 times
expensive than
present approach

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Present Approach is less sensitive to


Droplet Cut-Off Size
LEM/LES (Cut-off 5 microns)
LEM/LES (Cut-off 10 microns)
LEM/LES (Cut-off 20 microns)
Product Density (rp/r0)

1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
Y/Ylen

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Experimental Set Up for LES/LEM Validation
Honeycomb
Optical Access
main Air

Fuel
Coflow Air

Main Air Measurement


Planes
Optical Access
Turbulence
Generator
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School of Aerospace Engineering
Comparisons with GA Tech Experiments
Inflow Umean (Expt.) Inflow Umean (LES)
Inflow Urms (Expt.) Inflow Urms (LES)

30.0 3
25.0
Velocities (m/s)

20.0 2
15.0
10.0 1
5.0
0.0 0
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1
Radial Distance (m)

Measured inflow velocities, droplet distribution and turbulence


levels are input into the code
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Comparisons with Ga Tech Experiments


20.0

15.0
Axial velocity (m/s)

10.0

5.0 Umean - Expt. (X/D = 13)


Instantaneous Axial Velocity (Compt.)

0.0
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1
Radial Distance (m)

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Combustor Modeling- Conclusions


• Incompressible and Compressible Two-Phase
Reacting Flow Solvers have been developed.
• Droplet convection, evaporation, turbulent
mixing and reaction are all modeled
from first principles.
• Present approach is less expensive than
conventional LES, but more accurate.
• Flow solver has been validated with
experiments.
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Research Plans for Next Year


• Extend the new CFD based reduced order model
to 3-D centrifugal configurations. Validate.
• Study stall and surge control of the Ga Tech
centrifugal compressor configuration using
CFD, and using the 3-D reduced order model.
• Perform further validations of the LES/LEM
two-phase flow method with Georgia Tech data.
• Perform two-phase reacting flow simulations
for a dump combustor configuration.
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