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Subject: Geography

For Class: IX & XI


PRESENTED BY:
ASHUTOSH KARASHARMA MISHRA

Address: (Personal) Address: (Official)


At: Srikrisna Nagar At: JNV, Koraput
Po: Loisingha Po: OMP Line
Dist: Bolangir Dist: Koraput
Orissa-767020 Orissa

Phone No:
9437146288
E-mail:
canyon_geo@yahoo.com
Tiger_sir@rediffmail.com
► Familiarize students with the terms, key
concepts and basic principles associated with
the climate of India.
► Provide them idea about the mechanism of
Indian monsoon.
► Study the climate of India through the
understanding and analysis of local climate.
► Explore the causative factor of the spatial
variations in the climate of the country.
► Understand and analyze the variation of
climatic phenomenon in the cycle of seasons.
► Make students aware of the change in climate
(global warming) at local level to understand it
at national and global level.
Watch Out Weather News…………….

Hot weather season Monsoon season

Cold Weather Season Tropical Cyclone


Four Videos Embedded:
Please right click over the dark square to choose Play or Stop one after another.
CONTENTS OF THE LESSON
Part-I Climatic Diversity of India

Part-II
Factors Affecting Climate of India

Part-III Rhythm of Seasons

Part-IV
Distribution of Rainfall

Part-V Change of Climate

Please click on the box to navigate to the pages


Why does weather change
spatially & temporally?

Let us examine…
Drass -450C in
December night

Tawang 190C in
550C temperature June
in June

Thar desert
Diurnal range of
temperature 300C
Jaisalmer receives
9cm rainfall Cherrapunji &
Mawsynram have
1080cm rain

Tiruvanantapuram &
Chennai 200C in Kerala Diurnal
December night range of
temperature 80C

MONSOON REGIME IS THE UNITY OF INDIA


MORE DIVERSITIES…………………..

Churu in Rajasthan records a It is 19°C in Tawang


temperature of 50°C or more (Arunachal Pradesh) on the
on a June day. same day.
Snow fall over the Only rainfall over rest of
Himalayas. India.
Most parts of India receives Tamilnadu coast remains dry
rainfall during June to during these months.
September.
Tura of Meghalaya receives Very low rainfall in North west
rainfall in a single day is Himalayas and western
equal to the total rainfall of Rajastan which is equal to
Ten years in Jaisalmer of 10cm per year.
Rajastan.

MONSOON REGIME IS THE UNITY OF INDIA


► Lets divide the class into five groups namely A, B, C,
D and E.
► Collect the data of temperature and rainfall of different
cities of India from web site www.allrainfallreports.com
.
► Collect the rainfall and temperature data of your town
and compare it with the data of other cities of India.
► Make a comparative study of temperature and rainfall
data of different districts of Orissa. (Source-
Climatological survey of Orissa 1987-2003 & District
statistical handbooks)
► Write about the climate of your district and upload it to
www.climateofindia.pbwiki.com .
► Make a power point presentation of all the activities
you have done.
CLICK ON ICON TO
DOWNLOAD TEMPLATE
FAQ
FACTORS AFFECTING INDIAN CLIMATE

RELATED TO LOCATION RELATED TO AIR


& RELIEF PRESSURE & WIND

•Latitude Surface pressure & wind


•Altitude Upper air circulation
•Relief Western cyclones
•Distance from Sea
•The Himalayan Mt.
•Distribution of Land & water
LATITUDE
FAQ

High range
of Temp

High Temp
Low range

EQUATORIAL REGION
THE HIMALAYAS- CLIMATIC BARRIER
DISTRIBUTION OF LAND & WATER

FAQ

HIGH PRESSURE
IN WINTER

ARABIAN
BAY OF
SEA
BENGAL

INDIAN OCEAN
DISTANCE FROM SEA

SIMLA

DELHI

KOLKOTA
MUMBAI

CHENNAI

Coastal areas have equable climate where as


Interior parts have extreme climate.
ALTITUDE
FAQ
Temperature decreased
from low to high altitude

HIGH ALTITUDE

AGRA
160C in Jan
DARJILING
40C in January

LOW ALTITUDE
RELIEF
FAQ

Receives high
rainfall

Receives low
rainfall
SURFACE WIND

POLAR HIGH

SUB TROPICAL LOW PRESSURE NORTH-EAST


TRADE WIND
SUB TROPICAL HIGH PRESSURE

INTER TROPICAL CONVERGENCE ZONE

SUB TROPICAL HIGH PRESSURE


SOUTH-EAST
TRADE WIND
SUB TROPICAL LOW PRESSURE

POLAR HIGH
JET STREAM IN WINTER

TIBET
JET STREAM IN SUMMER
WESTERN DISTURBANCE
EL-NINO EFFECTS
FAQ

1990
Delay in
Monsoon

Equatorial Warm
Current

El-Nino

Homboldt Cold
Current
SOUTHERN OSCILLATION

Darwin
Tahiti
Prepare a ppt. answering the following:
► Collect the data on the effect of El-nino over
different parts of world and prepare a presentation
and upload it to www.climateofindia.pbwiki.com.
► Explain the factors affecting the climate of your
region in a word/pdf file and upload it to
www.think.com or www.climateofindia.pbwiki.com
page.
► Invite your friends to your www.think.com or
www.epal.com site to explain about the climate of
their region.
► Explain how jet stream affect the climate of India in
word/pdf file and upload it to the suitable web page.
► Compare how relief affect the climate of your region.
CLICK ON ICON TO
DOWNLOAD TEMPLATE
RHYTHM OF SEASONS

HOT WEATHER RETREATING MONSOON

COLD WEATHER SOUTH WEST MONSOON

Let us discuss each of them individually


COLD WEATHER SEASON

► It extends from
December to February.
► Vertical sun rays shift
towards southern
hemisphere.
► North India experiences
intense cold where as
this season is not well
defined in south India.
► Light wind blow makes
this season pleasant in
Tropical Cyclone
south India.
► Occasional tropical
cyclone visit eastern
coast in this season.

Rhythm of Seasons
TEMPERATURE- JANUARY

100C`
150C

200C

200C
250C 200C

200C
250C

Rhythm of Seasons
PRESSURE- JANUARY

HIGH
PRESSURE

1014

Rhythm of Seasons
WIND DIRECTION- WINTER

Bay of Bengal

Rhythm of Seasons
WINTER RAINFALL

RAINFALL DUE
TO WESTERN
DISTURBANCES

RAINFALL DUE
TO NORTH EAST
WIND

Rhythm of Seasons
HOT WEATHER SEASON

► It extends from March


to May.
► Vertical sun rays shift
towards Northern
hemisphere.
► Temperature rises May 480C
gradually from south
to north. April 380C
► Highest Temperature
experiences in
Karnataka in March,
March 300C
Madhya Pradesh in
April and Rajastan in
May.

Rhythm of Seasons
TEMPERATURE- JULY

250C

300C

Rhythm of Seasons
PRESSURE- JULY

Rhythm of Seasons
STORMS IN HOT WEATHER SEASON

FAQ

BARDOLI
CHHEERHA

LOO

KALBAISAKHI

MANGO
SHOWER

BLOSSOM
SHOWER
Rhythm of Seasons
SOUTH WEST MONSOON SEASON

► It extends from June


to September.
► Intense heating in
north west India
creates low pressure HIGH
LOWTEMPERATURE
PRESSURE
region.
► Low pressure attract
the wind from the
surrounding region.
► After having rains for
a few days sometime
monsoon fails to
occur for one or more
weeks is known as
break in the monsoon.
Rhythm of Seasons
MONSOON WIND

Arabian sea Bay of Bengal


Branch Branch

INTER TROPICAL
EQUATOR
CONVERGENCE ZONE

Rhythm of Seasons
ONSET OF SW MONSOON

Rhythm of Seasons
RETREATING MONSOON SEASON

► It extends from October


to November
► Vertical sun rays start
shifting towards
Northern hemisphere.
► Low pressure region LOW PRESSURE

shift from northern parts


of India towards south.
► Owing to the conditions
of high temperature and
humidity, the weather
becomes rather
oppressive. This is
commonly known as the
‘October heat’

Rhythm of Seasons
WITHDRAWAL OF MONSOON

Rhythm of Seasons
Prepare a ppt. answering the following:
► Explain the seasonal difference of climate of your
region in a word/pdf file and upload it to
www.climateofindia.pbwiki.com.
► Search friends from different parts of India and
seek their comments and compare the seasonal
difference in climate of different parts of India by
using www.think.com.
► Prepare an analysis of yearly temperature and
rainfall data by using different graphs and upload it
to www.climateofindia.pbwiki.com.
► Collect photographs of monsoon and upload to
www.think.com or www.climateofindia.pbwiki.com.

CLICK ON ICON TO
DOWNLOAD TEMPLATE
DISTRIBUTION OF RAINFALL

> 200cm

100-200cm

50-100 cm

< 50cm
VARIABILITY OF RAINFALL
► The variability of rainfall is
computed with the help of
the following formula:
C.V.= Standard Deviation/
Mean * 100
► Variability of less than 25%
exist in Western coasts,
Western Ghats,
northeastern peninsula,
eastern plain of the Ganga,
northern India, Uttaranchal,
SW J & K & HP.
► Variability of more then 50%
found in Western Rajastan,
J & K and interior parts of
Deccan.
► Region with high rainfall has
less variability.
Prepare a power point presentation answering
the following:
►Why there is variation of rainfall in different
parts of India? Explain in a word/pdf file and
upload.
►Calculate the variability of rainfall of your
region.
►Compare the variability of rainfall with the total
rainfall of your region.
►Measure the rainfall in your school and record
it in a spread sheet for analysis.
►Read out the rainfall and temperature data of
your school daily in the morning assembly.
CLICK ON ICON TO
DOWNLOAD TEMPLATE
CLIMATE CHANGE

IMPACT OF GLOBAL WORMING

FOREST FLOOD
FIRE

SPREAD OF SINKING
TROPICAL SEA LEVEL
RISE COAST
DISEASES

INCREASE IN RISE
TSUNAMI &
GREEN HOUSE IN
EARTHQUAKE
GASES TEMPERATURE

EXCESSIVE
SUN STROKE

LOSS OF
BIODIVERSITY
SOME INTERESTING FACTS
► Temperature increased by 0.60C in 20th century. FAQ
► Eleven out of twelve hottest years are within
1995 to 2006.
► Annual rate of increase of CO2 is 1.9ppm after
1995.
► Concentration of methane increased from
700ppb in 1750 to 1745ppb at present and
Nitrous Oxide from 270ppb to 314ppb where as
CFC increased from zero to 533ppb.
► Rising of temperature to 30C will lead to melting
of all ice on earth surface and sea level rise upto
15 feet.
► Existence of large cities like Venis, Bankok,
Sanghai, Kolkota and Dhaka will be in danger.
CLIMATE CHANGE & INDIA

► India has long coast line


and rise of sea level will
submerge large area.
► A population of 7.1
million living in coastal
areas will be affected.
► Production of crops like
wheat, rice etc will KOLKOTA
decrease. MUMBAI
► The natural disasters
like cyclone, floods and CHENNAI
drought will increase in
frequency as well as
intensity.
WHAT CAN BE DONE???
►Switch off the light, fan, TV and other
energy using gadgets when they are not in
use.
►Do not use those equipments that pollute or
consume more energy.
►create public awareness.
►use renewable energy resources like solar,
wind, biomass etc.
►International conferences like Earth
Summit, 1992, Kyoto protocol, Copenhegen
summit, 2009 are some steps to bring
consensus for crusade against Climate
Change.
► Ask elders of your family or village about their
perception of change in climate and explain it in
a word/pdf file and upload it to
www.climateofindia.pbwiki.com .
► Give an analysis of change in temperature of
your region by collecting data of fifteen years
from climatological survey of orissa.
► Explain what you can do to reduce the impact of
climate change.
► Ask your friends through www.think.com about
their contribution to reduce the impact of climate
change.
► Prepare a power point presentation explaining
all above.

CLICK ON ICON TO
DOWNLOAD TEMPLATE
TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE
1. Name the factors affecting climate of Answer
India .
2. What is meant by El-nino? Answer

3. Why the south western part of


peninsular India receives high rainfall? Answer

4. Name the important green house gases. Answer

5. How altitude affects climate? Answer

6. How distance from sea affect climate? Answer

7. What is meant by mango shower? Answer

8. What is meant by Inter Tropical


Answer
Convergence Zone?
EVALUATION RUBRIC
Sl Evaluation
No. points Excellent Very Good Good
Participation All the members have Some Members have Few members have
of all members participated participated. participated.
1 of the group (5 Marks) (3 Marks) (2 Marks)
Technology used for
Efficient use presentation, collection of Technology used for
of technology information and presentation and collection Technology used for
in self- understanding. of information. presentation only.
2 learning (5 Marks) (3 Marks) (2 Marks)
Collection of Information collected are new, Information collected are Information collected are
new relevant and latest. new and relevant. new only.
3 information (5 Marks) (3 Marks) (2 Marks)
Presentation of topic was clear, Presentation of topic was
Presentation able to clarify doubts and with clear and able to clarify Presentation of topic was
of Topic in the proper flow of topic. doubts. clear only.
4 classroom (5 Marks) (3 Marks) (2 Marks)
Innovation in presentation, Innovation in presentation
Development collection of new information and collection of new Innovation in
of Innovative and use of technology. information. presentation only.
5 Thinking (5 Marks) (3 Marks) (2 Marks)
Total 25 15 10
Mark
Obtained

Evaluate the classroom presentation of other groups and assign marks.


CITATION
► Abraham, K.R.; Dash, S.K. and Mohanty, U.C., 1996: Simulation of
monsoon circulation and cyclones with different types of orography;
Mausam, 47, 235-248.
► Ashok K., S. Lizuka, S.A Rao, N. H. Saji and W. Lee, 2009 :
Processes and boreal summer impacts of the 2004 El Nino Modoki: An
AGCM study. Geophysical Research Letters, 36, L04703,
doi:10.1029/2008GL036313, 1-5.
► Bannerji, S. K., 1950 : Methods of forecasting monsoon and winter
rainfall in India. Ind. J. Met. and Geophys., 4, 343-346.
► Bhalme, H.N. and Jadhav, S.K., 1984: The southern oscillation and its
relation to the monsoon rainfall. J.Climatol., 4, 509-520.
► Krishnakumar V. and K. -M. Lau, 1997 : Symmetric Instability of
Monsoon Flows. Tellus 49 A, 228-245.
► Physical Geography of India, NCERT, class-IX
► Economic & Commercial Geography of India, C.B. Memoria.
► Regional Geography of India, R.L. Singh.
► www.imd.gov.in
► http://tinyurl.com/q4a6mg
► http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/4755025.cms
► http://www.nws.noaa.gov/ost/climate/STIP
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Heartiest Thanks to
Mr. S. K. Tripathy, Principal
JNV, Koraput
Mr. R. P. Maharana, TGT-
English, JNV, Koraput
Project Learning, Microsoft,
for providing me training.