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A 3-DIMENSIONAL NON-

LINEAR FE MODELING OF
COMPOSITE CONNECTION
HARSHIL D. DEVANI
COMPOSITE STRUCTURE

Design of structure meaning Except in some long span And it is


Provision and support of structure Mentioned horizontal called slab
load-bearing Horizontal surfaces surface Is made of conc. Due to
no other Material is cheap Strong
and corrosion resistance

For span more than few meters, it Is The economical span of


cheaper to support slab with beam RCC slab is little more Than
Than to thicken it, where beam are at which it’s thickness become
Also made up of concrete so to have sufficient to resist The
t-action point load it is subjected to

At first, it was customary to design the steel work


At span more than 10m To carry weight of whole slab, but after 1950 the
When steel beam will not Development of shear connector made it possible
Lose it’s strength from fire To connect steel beam with slab and to have t-action
Steel beams are cheaper And THAT IS COMPOSITE SLAB AND
COMPOSITE STRUCTURE
COMPOSITE CONNECTION

 A composite connection is a combination of the bare steel connection and a reinforced


concrete slab with a proper shear transfer mechanism.[6]

 Used to transfer forces between composite members and to maintain integrity of a composite
structure under applied loads.[3]

 Behaviour of a composite connection, is characterised by its moment–rotation curve.

 Slope of its moment–rotation curve is rotational stiffness of a composite connection .


M-Ø CURVE

 For every load level, it provides bending moment and the relative rotation between connected
members.

 A complete M-Ø curve, allows the realization of non-linear structural analysis techniques,
where joints are actively simulated similar to the members without traditional idealization of
rigid or pinned joint.[4]

 Benefits[4]
 Improves ductility of structure, due to formation of plastic hinges inside the joints becomes
possible.
 More accurate approximation of actual response of structure.
 Financial savings.
 Increase the redundancy of structure.
Rotation of Composite Joint M-Ø Curve AND Connection
Characteristics
SOME DEFINITIONS

 CONNECTION[1] :
 Location at which two or more elements meet.
 For design purposes it is the assembly of the
basic components required to represent the
behaviour during the transfer of the relevant
internal forces and moments at the connection.

 JOINT[1] :
 Zone where two or more members are
interconnected. Extended end plate connection
 For design purposes it is the assembly of all
the basic components required to represent the
behaviour during the transfer of the relevant
internal forces and moments between the
connected members.
STRUCTRAL PROPERTIES OF JOINT [1]

1. Resistance to internal forces and


moments in the connected members.

2. ROTATIONAL CAPACITY :
i. The angle through which the joint
can rotate for a given resistance level
without failing.
ii. Or the rotation of joint at maximum
Loading.

3. ROTATIONAL STIFFNESS :
 The moment required to produce unit
rotation in a joint.
CONNECTION CHARACTERISTICS

 It should not be assumed that a moment connection, be it composite or not, is adequate simply
because it is capable of resisting the bending moment, shear and axial forces predicted by a frame
analysis.[5]
 It is also necessary to consider either rotation capacity or the rotational stiffness of the
connection. [5]
 These characteristics are,[5]
 Moment Capacity :
 Full strength or
 Partial Strength or
 nominally pinned (negligible moment of resistance)
 Rotational Stiffness :
 Rigid,
 Semi-Rigid
 Nominally pinned (negligible rotational Stiffness).
 Rotation Capacity :
 Connection needs to be ductile. This is necessary when a connection needs to rotate plastically
during loading cycle. And if frame is analyzed plastically, than considerable connection ductility
may be needed.
CLASSIFICATION OF CONNECTION

 BASED ON CONFIGURATION[1] :
 Based on stiffness :
 Rigid ( Take up Considerable moment for a little rotation.)
 Semi-Rigid.
 Nominally pinned.
 Based on strength :
 Full strength (moment capacity of the connection is equal to or large than the capacity
of the connected member. )
 Partial-Strength (the moment capacity of the connection is less than that of the
connected member.)
 Nominally pinned (Negligible Moment Capacity.)
 CONVENTIONAL ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF STEEL AND COMPOSITE
STRUCTURES CONSIDERS THE BEHAVIOUR OF THE BEAM TO COLUMN
CONNECTIONS AS BEING EITHER RIGID OR PINNED, BUT IN REALITY MOST
CONNECTION ARE NEITHER FULLY RIGID NOR PERFECTLY PINNED BUT THEY
EXHIBIT SEMIRIGID BEHAVIOUR WHICH CAN SIGNIFICANTALY AFFECT THE
RESPONSE OF THE STRUCTURE .

 AND THAT IS OUR AIM….TO QUANTIFY SEMI-


RIGIDITY OF THE CONNECTION.
METHODS TO PLOT M-Ø CURVE

1. Mathematical model [7]:

 Linear models (most straightforward)


 Bilinear/piece-wise linear models
 Polynomial model (By Frye and Morris, Accepted by IS:800-2007)
 Multi-parameter exponential model
 Three-parameters power model

2. Experimental method

3. Numerical method
 Finite Element Modeling
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

Solution domain is For each element the Assembled into


divided into small stiffness matrix is the global stiffness
(finite) elements. developed. matrix.

From the displacements, Displacement Applied load is


element stresses and at every nodal arranged in as
nodal stresses are point is calculated. the load matrix.
calculated.
NON-LINEAR FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

 In cases of
 Buckling or
 Failure analysis or
 For large deformation
 Non-linear finite element analysis is required.

 Types of non-linearity
i. Material non-linearity
ii. Geometric non-linearity
iii. Combined material and Geometric non-linearity
iv. Boundary non-linearity (the deformations and stresses at contacting bodies are
not linearly dependent on the applied load.)

 Semi-rigid composite connections possess material, geometric and


boundary nonlinearity.[6]
WHY FEM MODELING ?

 Experiments are not possible every time.


 They are expensive.
 For parametric study.

 HOW ??
 Using general-purpose Finite-Element software ABAQUS.

 WHY ABAQUS ??
 Results are in with close agreement with experiments ( already proven by so many
researchers )
 Easy interface.
 Nice simulation.
 Can model basic nonlinear and buckling problems.
 Less memory problems
LITERATURE REVIEW

1) The effects of partial shear connection in composite flush end plate joints Part
I experimental study. ( 2006 )
H.Y. Loh, B. Uy, M.A. Bradford, Australia.

ABSTRACT :
 Five sub-assemblages of cruciform composite joints that simulate the internal region
of a semi-continuous frame were tested.
 Joints were constructed using blind bolting a flush end plate to concrete-filled
square hollow columns.
 Variables are reinforcement area and degree of shear connection.
 A bare steel joint was also tested to act as comparison specimen.
 The intrinsic (Essential) behaviour of the joints in terms of strength, stiffness and
ductility was assessed.
 CONCLUSION :
 A notable effect on the connection behaviour by varying the reinforcement levels.
 The benefits of partial shear connection, increase the joint ductility, which is extremely
advantageous for plastic design purposes

Heighest rfm

Lowest rfm

Bare steel
As the level of shear connection in
the composite joints was reduced,
the maximum moment was Can be observed that a sudden drop of
attained at a higher rotational
moment resistance occurred in specimen CJ4
value
at a limited rotation capacity.
2. FE modelling of semi-rigid flush end plate joints with concrete-filled steel
tubular columns. ( 2013 )
A. Ataei & M.A. Bradford, The University of New SouthWales, Sydney, Australia.

ABSTRACT :
 A semi-rigid beam-to-column composite blind bolted connection is
modelled using ABAQUS software.
 The model simulates a connection in hogging bending moment.
 Partial shear connection is considered, as well as the non-linear
material properties of all constitutive components.
3. Moment-Rotation Model for Blind-Bolted Flush End-Plate Connections in
Composite Frame Structures. ( 2014 )
A. Ataei, Mark A. Bradford, Hamid R. Valipour, Australia.

ABSTRACT :
 This paper develops both a three-parameter power model and a Ramberg-Osgood
model for quantifying the moment—rotation characteristics of a blind-bolted flush
end-plate system.
 A detailed three-dimensional (3D) nonlinear-continuum–based finite element
model of the connection region.
 This sophisticated FE model can capture the pertinent physical, geometrical, and
contact nonlinearities, and its accuracy is verified against experimental data
 The calibrated FE model is then employed for a parametric study in which the
effects of the slab reinforcement ratio, the thickness of the slab, the degree of the
shear connection, the diameter of the blind bolts as well as the pretension force in
them and their yield stress, the depth of the beam, and the thickness of the flush
end-plate are investigated.
 CONCLUSION :
 It was shown that the 3D FE models can
able to capture accurately the response
of the composite connections at the
global level (the moment-rotation and
load-deflection responses), at the local
level (the load-slip and reinforcement
strains), as well as predicting the mode
of failure.
4. Experimental and analytical behaviour of blind bolted moment connections
( 2012 ).
Jingfeng Wang, B.F. Spencer Jr.

ABSTRACT :
 Four full-scale sub assemblages representing interior or exterior beam-to-column
joints were tested under monotonic loading.
 The failure modes, moment–rotation relation curves and connection classification of
the joints were evaluated.
 FEA modelling of the tested specimens was developed, and the results obtained
verified against those from the test results.
 Parametric studies were conducted to investigate the influence of axial load level,
steel ratio, slenderness ratio of column, and bolt pretension force etc.
 CONCLUSION :
 The blind bolted end plate joint for square CFST columns exhibits favourable
strength and stiffness, and its rotation capacity satisfies the ductility requirement
for earthquake resistance in seismic region.

 The FEA modelling can be used to predict the performance of the blind bolted
moment joints with a proper precision.

 Extensive parametric study exhibits that the ultimate moment capacity is


significantly influenced by steel strength, bolt diameter, bolt pretension force, end
plate thickness and beam to column yield strength ratio.
5. Behaviour of bolted endplate composite joints to square and circular CFST
columns. (2016)
Huu-Tai Thai, Brian Uy, Yamesri, Farhad Aslani, Australia

ABSTRCT :
 This is an experimental study on the structural performance of blind bolted
endplate composite connections to CFST columns under static loading.
 Four full-scale sub assemblages of cruciform composite joints were tested.
 The parameters varied were the shape of column sections (Circular and Square)
and the type of endplates.
 Rotational stiffness, moment resistance and rotation capacity was evaluated to
explore the effects of the shape of column sections and endplate types.
 An analytical model was also developed to predict the moment-rotation behaviour
of composite joints.
BOLT INSTALLATION

INSTALLATION OF STRAIN GAUGES INSIDE OF HOLLOW COLUMNS


 CONCLUSION :
 All tested joints exhibited ductile behaviour with a rotation capacity exceeding the
ductility requirement.

 In terms of rigidity, all the tested connections behaved in a semi-rigid manner.

 The use of circular columns in composite joints can enhance the moment capacity
and initial stiffness of connections up to 13.5% and 18.3%, respectively.

 The use of extended endplate in composite joints can enhance the moment of
resistance and initial stiffness up to 15.0% and 22.6% for moment capacity and
initial stiffness, respectively.
SCOPE

 Different types of moment connection can be modeled, like


 Partial depth end plate connection
 Steel beam to RCC column connection
 Steel beam to concrete encased composite column connection
 Double web angle with top and seat angle connection

 As an extension of the work done by Hasmit prajapati ( FE modeling of Steel Connection


using Indian standard Sections, 2017 ) under the guidance of DR N.K.Solanki, we can model
composite connection using Indian standard section.

 Can model shear-deformation curve for shear (pin) connections like,


 Fin-plate connection

 Can compare M-Ø curve for different types of moment connection and also with existing
model like a three-parameter power model and a Ramberg-Osgood model etc…
 Can model Base connection/Beam splice/column splice.

 Can apply semi rigid behavior of joint to design software like ETABS (G+30 by Dishant
Prajapati guided by Dr. D R Panchal, 2017)

 Parametric study can also be done by changing,


 Reinforcement ratio
 Slab thickness
 Concrete grade
 Steel yield strength
 Bolt pretension force
 End plate thickness and width
 Interior joint / exterior joint
 Column location, column cross section, thickness of CFST column
 Cyclic loading
 Number of bolt, bolt diameter, type of bolt
Now, What will I “TRY” to do ?

1) First validation of modeling done by The effects of partial shear


connection in composite flush end plate joints Part I
experimental study. ( 2006 )
H.Y. Loh, B. Uy, M.A. Bradford, Australia.

2) Modeling of composite connection using Indian standard sections.

3) Will perform parametric study over that.

4) Will use that results in the design software like Etabs and compare
multistory building with rigid, pin and semi-rigid connection.
REFRENCES

1. BS EN 1993-1-8:2005 -Design of steel structures - Part 1-8: Design of joints.


2. BS EN 1994-1-1:2004 - Design of composite steel and concrete structures. General rules and
rules for buildings.
3. Analysis and Design of Steel and Composite Structures by Qing Quan Liang.
4. Minas Lemonis, Charis Gantes, Evaluation of the complete Moment Rotation Curve of
Bolted beam to Column Connection using mechanical model. (2008)
5. Steel Construction Institute, Publication number 213, “JOINTS IN STEEL
CONSTRUCTION—COMPOSITE CONNECTION”
6. Numerical Modelling of Connections in Composite Frames, Bashir Ahmed, 1996, University
of Nottingham for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
7. http://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/html/10.11648.j.ajce.20170501.17.html#paper-
content-3
8. Comparative study of seismic analysis & design of multistorey composite steel-concrete
building using is 1893 & EC 8, Dishant r. PRAJAPATI , Dr. D. R. Panchal.
REFRENCES

9. FE MODELING OF STRUCTURAL STEEL CONNECTIONS, HASMIT K. PRAJAPATI,


DR. N. K. SOLANKI.
10. IS-800:2007 GENERAL CONSTRUCTION IN STEEL — CODE OF PRACTICE (Third
Revision)
11. Behaviour of bolted endplate composite joints to square and circular CFST columns. (2016)
Huu-Tai Thai, Brian Uy, Yamesri, Farhad Aslani, Australia
12. Experimental and analytical behaviour of blind bolted moment connections (2012).
Jingfeng Wang, B.F. Spencer Jr.
13. Moment-Rotation Model for Blind-Bolted Flush End-Plate Connections in Composite
Frame Structures. (2014) A. Ataei, Mark A. Bradford, Hamid R. Valipour, Australia.
14. FE modelling of semi-rigid flush end plate joints with concrete-filled steel tubular columns.
(2013) A. Ataei & M.A. Bradford, The University of New SouthWales, Sydney, Australia.
15. The effects of partial shear connection in composite flush end plate joints Part I
experimental study. (2006) H.Y. Loh, B. Uy, M.A. Bradford, Australia.
REFRENCES

16. ABAQUS 6.14, ABAQUS/CAE USER’S GUIDE


17. Moment Rotation Curves for Semi Rigid Connections, Venkatesh Patnana, A.Y. Vyavahare,
Dept. of Applied Mechanics VNIT, Nagpur, India
18. Composite Structures of Steel and Concrete Beams, slabs, columns, and frames for buildings
Third Edition, R P Johnson.
19. IS 11384:1985 Code of Practice for Composite Construction in Structural Steel and Concrete
THANK YOU