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Rhizopoda

Parasitology Department
Medical Faculty
University of Sumatera Utara
Entamoeba histolytica
• Phylum : Sarcomastigophora
• Class : Lobosea
• Order : Amoebida
• Family : Endamoebidae
• Genus : Entamoeba
• Species : histolytica
Entamoeba histolytica
• E. histolityca frequently lives as a commensal
in the lumen of the large intestine without
causing disease.
• May invade the colon wall, produce ulceration
& migrate via the blood stream to the liver,
where it produces hepatic abcesses.
• Very rarely infect the : lungs, brain, etc
DISTRIBUTION
• E. histolityca is an enteric protozoan parasite
that infects 500 million people per year
• Cosmopolitan, temperate and tropical
climates.
• More prevalent in tropical areas
associated with poor economic status,
poor nutrition, poor hygiene and sanitation
MORPHOLOGY
• Several successive stages occur in the lifecycle of
E. histolityca : trophozoite, precyst metacyst,
metacystic trophozoites & cyst.
• Trophozoite :
- size : 10-60 µm
- single nucleus, peripheral chromatine, central
karyosome
- endoplasm contain food vacuoles, rbc, &
other phagocytosed elements
MORPHOLOGY
• Trophozoite

Figure 1. Trophozoite E. histolytica4


MORPHOLOGY
• Pre cyst
- shape : ovoid, ussually spheroid
- size : 10-20 µm
- RBC : (-)
MORPHOLOGY
• Cyst
- size : 10-20 µm
- mature cyst has 4
nuclei, round shape
- chromatoidal body (+)

Figure 2. Cyst E. histolytica5


LIFE CYCLE

Figure 3. Lifecycle E. histolytica6


TRANSMISSION
• Ingestion of the mature cyst
• Food handler
• Flies, cockroaches
• Sexual transmission
• Reservoir host
EPIDEMIOLOGY
• All ages are susceptible to infection but the
rate is lower in infants and young children
• Cysts are sensitive to dessication and to
temperatures above 40C or below –5C,
resistent to chlorine.
References
1. Sutanto I, Adjung, SA. Entamoeba histolytica. Dalam : Sutanto I,
Ismid IS, Sjarifuddin PK, Sungkar S (eds.). Buku Ajar Parasitologi
Kedokteran. Edisi ke-4. Jakarta:FK-UI;2008.p.107-18
2. Sandjaja B. Sarcodina. Parasitologi Kedokteran Buku I Protozoologi
Kedokteran. Ed.1. Jakarta:Prestasi Pustaka. 2007. p. 87-106
3. Schmidt GD, Robert LS. Foundations of parasitology. 7th ed. New
York:Mc Graw Hill;2005.p.107-13
4. Entamoeba histolytica. Available from
http://www.dhs.state.tx.us/lab/par_parasites.shtm&usg
(accessed on 21st of July, 2010)
5. Entamoeba histolytica cyst Available from http://www.asm.org
(accessed on 26th of August 2010)
6. Entamoeba histolytica Available from
http://www.arthusclipart.org (accessed on 21st of July, 2010)
Entamoeba coli
• Phylum : Sarcomastigophora
• Class : Lobosea
• Order : Amoebida
• Family : Endamoebidae
• Genus : Entamoeba
• Species : coli
Entamoeba coli
• The living trophozoite of E. coli as observed in
diarrheic or dysenteric stools
• Transmitted in its viable cystic stage through
fecal contamination
• E. coli as a lumen parasite is non pathogenic
MORPHOLOGY
• Trophozoite
- Size : 15-50 µm
- Endoplasm : food vacuoles (+)
- Nuclei : karyosome eccentrically
• Cyst
- Size : 10-35 µm
- Nuclei : 2-8
- Chromatoid body (+)
MORPHOLOGY

Figure 1. Trophozoite & Cyst E. coli4


REFERENCES
1. Schmidt GD, Robert LS. Foundations of parasitology.
7th ed. New York:Mc Graw Hill;2005.p.113-14
2. Adjung SA, Manan WS. Entamoeba coli. Dalam :
Sutanto I, Ismid IS, Sjarifuddin PK, Sungkar S (eds.).
Buku Ajar Parasitologi Kedokteran. Edisi ke-4.
Jakarta:FK-UI;2008.p.119
3. Sandjaja B. Sarcodina. Parasitologi Kedokteran Buku I
Protozoologi Kedokteran. Ed.1. Jakarta:Prestasi
Pustaka. 2007. p. 87-106
4. Entamoeba coli. Available from
http://img.tamtay.vn/filesfoto2/2009 (accessed on
21st of July, 2010)
Acanthamoeba spp.
• Sub phylum : Sarcodina
• Class : Lobosea
• Order : Amoebida
• Family : Acanthamoebidae
• Genus : Acanthamoeba
Acanthamoeba spp.
• Free living amoeba widely distributed in
nature
• Facultative parasite of man and animal
• Recent increase in the number of cases of CNS
infection as well as cases of keratitis
• The lifecycle stages are the trophozoite form &
cyst, no flagellate form
MORPHOLOGY
• Trophozoite • Cyst
- Size : ± 10-45 µm - Shape : angular,
- Acanthopodia (+) wrinkled, starlike
- Single nucleus - Size : ± 20 µm
- Large karyosome - Thick double wall
MORPHOLOGY
MORPHOLOGY
LIFE CYCLE
Risk factors
• Contact lens wear esp extended wear
• Trauma to the eye
• Use of home made saline
• Use of tap water to rinse lens
• Swimming while wearing CL
• Poor hygienic care of CL system
EPIDEMIOLOGY
• 200 cases of CNS infections due to these
amebas have occurred world-wide.
• They have been isolated from a variety of
habitats including fresh water, thermal
discharges of power plants, soil, sewage and
also from the nose and throats of patients
with respiratory illness as well as healthy
persons.
• Cysts are resistant to chlorine
REFERENCES
1. Schmidt GD, Robert LS. Foundations of parasitology. 7th ed. New
York:Mc Graw Hill;2005.p.118-19
2. Ahmad MF, Gandahusada S. Ameba hidup bebas. Dalam : Sutanto
I, Ismid IS, Sjarifuddin PK, Sungkar S (eds.). Buku Ajar Parasitologi
Kedokteran. Edisi ke-4. Jakarta:FK-UI;2008.p.126-27
3. Sandjaja B. Sarcodina. Parasitologi Kedokteran Buku I Protozoologi
Kedokteran. Ed.1. Jakarta:Prestasi Pustaka. 2007. p. 111-13
4. Acanthamoeba sp. Available from
http://images.loverhythm.multiply.com/image (accessed on 21st
of July, 2010)
5. Trophozoit Acanthamoeba sp. Available from http://atlas.or.kr
(accessed on 26t hof July, 2010)
Iodamoeba butschlii
• Phylum : Sarcodina
• Class : Lobosea
• Order : Amoebida
• Family : Entamoebida
• Genus : Iodamoeba
• Species : butschlii
Iodamoeba butschlii
• The genus Iodamoeba has only 1 species
• Its distribution is worldwide
• The prevalence of I. butschlii in humans is
tipically 4%-8%
• Reservoir hosts : pig, primates
• I. butschlii lives in the large intestine, mainly in
the cecal area
• It feeds on the intestinal flora
MORPHOLOGY
• Trophozoite • Cyst
- Size : 6-25 µm - Size : 6-15 µm
- Blunt pseudopodia - Glycogen masse
- Large nucleus - Large eccentric
karyosome
MORPHOLOGY
REFERENCES
• Taxonomy Iodamoeba butschlii Available from
http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN
&search_value=43902 (accessed on 21st of July, 2010)
• Astuti H. Iodamoeba butschlii. Dalam : Sutanto I, Ismid IS,
Sjarifuddin PK, Sungkar S (eds.). Buku Ajar Parasitologi Kedokteran.
Edisi ke-4. Jakarta:FK-UI;2008.p.121-22
• Sandjaja B. Sarcodina. Parasitologi Kedokteran Buku I Protozoologi
Kedokteran. Ed.1. Jakarta:Prestasi Pustaka. 2007. p. 93-97
• Schmidt GD, Robert LS. Foundations of parasitology. 7th ed. New
York:Mc Graw Hill;2005.p.115-16
• Iodamoeba butschlii Available from
http://www.parasitologie.nl./asset/image (accessed on 21st of July,
2010)