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Amrina Ramadhayanti
Bella Ananda Putri
Indah yuni maulina

Medical Laboratory Techlologist

T 1 Reguler A
of bacteria

Structure of
beneficial Bacteria Bacteria

of Bacteria

 Bacteria (from the Latin word bacterium, plural: bacteria) is a group of

organisms that have no cell nucleus membrane. multiply by dividing and
the genetic material is not enclosed in the nuclear membrane.

 Several groups of bacteria are known as infectious agents and diseases,

while others can provide benefits in the fields of food, medicine and
industry. The structure of bacterial cells is relatively simple: without
nucleus / cell nucleus, cell skeletons, and other organelles such as
mitochondria and chloroplasts. This is the basis for the difference
between prokaryotic cells and more complex eukaryotic cells

 Bacteria can be found in almost all places: in soil, water, air, in

symbiosis with other organisms as well as parasitic agents (pathogens),
even in the human body.

It has no nuclear membrane.

It has a peptidoglycan cell wall.
It has organelles that have membrane cells.
Its nucleic acid (DNA) material is in the form of a plasmid.
Breed by splitting.
Can only be seen through a microscope.
The cell wall is rigid.
Prokaryotes, prokaryotes have single chromosomes and do not
have nuclei.
can be round, stem, or spiral.

Generally, bacteria are 0.5-5 μm in size, but there are certain

bacteria that can be up to 700 μm in diameter, Thiomargarita. They
generally have cell walls, such as plant cells and fungi, but with very
different forming agents (peptidoglycan). Some types of bacteria are
motile (capable of movement) and their mobility is caused by flagella.
Generally bacterial cells are round in diameter about 0.7 - 1.3
microns. While the rod-shaped bacterial cell width of about 0.2 to
2.0 μm and length of 0.7 to 3.7 μm.
 Cell membrane
Cell membrane is a membrane covering the cytoplasm and its contents,
located inside the cell wall, but not tightly bound to the cell wall.
 Ribosome
Ribosomes are part of the cell that serves as a place of protein synthesis.
The form is a small grain and not shrouded membrane.
 DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)
DNA is a genetic material, present in the cytoplasm. Bacterial DNA is a
circular (circular) yarn
 Cell wall
The bacterial cell wall is composed of peptidoglycan macromolecules
composed of tetrapeptidaglycan monomers (polysaccharides and amino acids)
 Flagel
Flagel is a means of motion for bacteria, although not all bacterial
movements are caused by flagella.
 Pilus
On the surface of the gram-negative cell cell there are often many parts
like short threads called pilus or fimbria (plural of the pilus)
 Capsule
Capsule is a layer of mucus that envelops the bacterial cell wall. In general,
the capsule is composed of polysaccharide compounds, polypeptides or
polysaccharide proteins (glycoproteins).
 Endospores
Among the bacteria there are forming endospores. The formation of
endospores is a bacterial way of overcoming unfavorable environmental
A. Based on body shape
1. Bacteria Coccus (Spherical)
2. Basil bacteria (stem)
3. Spiral Bacteria (arch)
B. Based on the location of Flagella on his body
C.Based on Gram staining (Gram strain)
 Gram-positive bacteria
Gram-positive bacteria have simpler cell walls, many
containing peptidoglycan. For example bacteria Micrococcus,
Staphylococcus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus and Aerococcus.
 Gram-negative bacteria
Gram-negative bacteria have more complex cell walls, less
peptidoglycan content. For example, bacteria Escherichia,
Citrobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Enterobacter, Vibrio,
Aeromonas, Photobacterium, Chromabacterium, Flavobacterium
D.Based on the Need for Oxygen
Based on the need for oxygen, bacteria are grouped into 2 groups:
 Anaerobic bacteria
It is a bacteria that does not require free oxygen to get energy,
for example Micrococcus denitrificans,Shigella dysentrioe.

 Aerobic Bacteria
It is a bacterium that requires free oxygen to get energy, for
example Nitrosomonas, Nitrobacter, Nitrosococcus.
 Aerobic Bacteria
It is a bacterium that requires free oxygen to get energy, for
example Nitrosomonas, Nitrobacter, Nitrosococcus.
E. Based on how to obtain food (organic matter)
 Autotrof
Bacteria that can make their own food from inorganic materials.
Based on the energy source the autotrophic bacteria can be
divided into:
a.Fotoautotrof (energy source of light)
b.Chemoautotroph (the energy source of the chemical reaction)

 Heterotrophs
Bacteria that can not make their own food. These bacteria
utilize organic material so that comes from other organisms.
Bacteria belonging to heterotrophic bacteria are parasitic and
saprophytic bacteria, ie bacteria that get food by decomposing
the remains of the organism
The Beneficial Bacteria
Many bacteria are beneficial in human life. There are bacteria that play a
role in agriculture, marine, industry, health and much more. One is in

 Bacillus cereus which is able to control the growth rate of Spodoptera litura
pest on cabbage plants

 Leuconostoc mesenteroides Pbac1 is a bacterium capable of producing

bacteriocin that acts as a bactericide and also a natural food preservative.

 Lactobacillus Bulgaricus which helps in the process of making cheese from the
milk of green beans

 Enterobacter sp that plays an important role in inhibiting the growth of

Curvularia sp fungi that causes leaf spot disease in cucumber plants
In addition to some of the above, the following is a benefit of the bacteria in
human life.
No. Bacterial Name Role

1 Lactobacillus bulgarius Ferment milk into fat

2 Lactobacillus sp The production of pickled fruit
3 Streptococcus thermophilus Butter production
4 Pediococccus cereviceae Production of sausage
5 Streptococcus tactis Production of kefir
6 Acetobacter xylinium Production of nata de coco
7 Acetobacter sp Production of vinegar
8 Bacillus brevis Produce terotrisin (antibiotics)
9 Bacillus subtilis Produce basitrasin (antibiotics)
10 Polymyka Produce polymixin (antibiotics)
11 Lactobacillus cassei Produce polymixin (antibiotics)
12 Thiobacillus thiozidans Production of sulfuric acid
13 Entamoeba coli Rotting the rest of the digestion
14 Rhizopus oligosporus Making tempe
15 Aspergillus oryzae Making tauco
16 Neurospora crassa Making oncom
17 Streptococcus laktis Making cheese
18 Streptococcus cremoris Making cheese
19 Rhizobium leguminosarum Fixation of nitrogen in the roots of nuts

20 Entero bakteria Bacterial decomposers