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Smart Tranducers

introduction
• The word smart has been added as prefix to many things that are perceived to
possess some form of intelligence.
• The term smart sensor was adopted in the mid-1980s in the sensor fields to
differentiate this class of sensors from conventional sensors.
• A conventional sensor measures a physical, biological, or chemical parameters, such
as displacement, acceleration, pressure, temperature, humidity, oxygen, or carbon
monoxide content, and converts them into an electrical signal, either voltage or
current.
• However, a smart sensor with some form of intelligence, provided by an additional
microcontroller unit or microprocessor, can convert this raw signal into a level or
form which makes it more convenient to use.
• This might include signal amplification, conditioning, processing, or conversion. In
addition, over time, smart functions were not only built into sensors, but applied to
actuators as well.
• Therefore, the term smart transducers as used in this section refers to smart sensors
or smart actuators.
Smart Tranducers
Smart Tranducers
• A smart transducer is either a sensor or an actuator that is
instrumented or integrated with signal conditioning and conversion
and a microcontroller or microprocessor to provide intelligent
functions.
• Its output is migrating from an analog to a digital format for added
capability to communicate with a host or a network.
• As sensors and actuators become more complex they provide support
for various modes of operation and interfacing.
• Some applications require additionally fault tolerance and distributed
computing.
Smart Tranducers [2]
• Such high-level functionality can be achieved by adding an embedded
microcontroller to the classical sensor/actuator, which increases the
ability to cope with complexity at a fair price.
• In the machine vision field, a single compact unit which combines the
imaging functions and the complete image processing functions is
often called a smart sensor.
• They are often made using CMOS, VLSI technology and may contain
MEMS Devices leading to lower cost.
• They may provide full digital outputs for easier interface or they may
provide quasi-digital outputs like pulse width modulation.
Advantages of Smart Transducers
1. Compact
2. Higher reliability
3. Lower cost
4. Can be done using existing CMOS processes
5. Ease of use
6. Electronic data storage
7. Self diagnosis and remote calibration
8. Self correction
9. Auto display
SMART TRANSMITTER
• The input and output of both of these types of transmitters is an
analog signal -- either a mA current or air pressure, both of which are
continuously variable. There is another kind of transmitter -- the
"smart" transmitter.
SMART TRANSMITTER
The figure was illustrated functions of a smart
transmitter. They can convert analog signals to digital
signals (A/D), making communication swift and easy
and can even send both analog and digital signals at
the same time as denoted by D/A.
A smart transmitter has a number of other
capabilities as well. For instance, inputs can be
varied, as denoted by A/D. If a temperature
transmitter is a smart transmitter, it will accept
millivolt signals from thermocouples and resistance
signals from resistance temperature devices (RTDs)
and thermistors.
• Components of the smart transmitter are illustrated
in the figure. The transmitter is built into a housing
about the size of a softball as seen on the lower left.
• The controller takes the output signal from the
transmitter and sends it back to the final control
element. The communicator is shown on the right.
• The communicator is a hand-held interface device
that allows digital "instructions“ to be delivered to
the smart transmitters. Testing, configuring , and
supply or acquiring data are all accomplished through
the communicator.
• The communicator has a display that lets the
technician see the input or output information. The
communicator can be connected directly to the smart
transmitter, or in parallel any where on the loop.
SMART TRANSMITTER WITH HART COMMUNICATOR

Fig. 4.3. Smart transmitter signal chain.


HART Comm [1]
• Modern field instruments, otherwise known as smart transmitters, are
intelligent microprocessor-based field instruments that monitor process
control variables (e.g., temperature, mass flow rate, and pressure).
• Such field devices are becoming more intelligent, as some processing
capabilities are being distributed into the field domain from centralized
control rooms.
• This has simultaneously increased the complexity of the smart transmitter
signal chain and added additional challenges to the design of the end
product.
• The incorporation of extra intelligence, functionality, and diagnostic
capabilities, while developing a system which can operate effectively within
the limited power available from the 4 mA to 20 mA loop, is the immediate
challenge facing system designers.
• A sample solution developed by Analog Devices, Inc., and registered with
the HART® Communication Foundation focuses on such a design.
HART Comm [2]
• The two sensors shown in Figure 4.3 are common to smart transmitter designs,
whereby the primary variable is dependent on a secondary variable (e.g.,
temperature compensation of a primary variable).
• The ADuCM360 on-chip ADC 0 measures the field instrument primary sensor: in
this case, it‘s a resistive bridge pressure sensor, while the ADC 1 is used to
measure the secondary temperature sensor signal.
• This allows for temperature compensation of the primary sensor.
• As with the ADCs, both instrumentation amplifiers are also integrated onto the
ADuCM360, along with excitation current sources, voltage reference, and other
support analog circuitry.
• All the field instrument digital functions are provided by the low power 32-bit
ARM Cortex™M3 RISC processor.
• The microcontroller is, thus, a complex component, with the potential to require
a lot of power, so the more processing that can be done per milliwatt, the better.
HART Comm [3]
• Therefore, the clock frequency at which the controller is operated is
adjusted to maintain the required operation and still operate within
the low power budget.
• The same is true of the clock signal for any of the microcontroller
peripherals/interfaces.
• Another crucial aspect for the ADuCM360 to stay within its allocated
power budget is the ability to dynamically switch the power to the
individual blocks. Such a power gating feature ensures that power is
provided to each functional block, as and when it is required, but is
switched off when that particular functional block is not in use.
• As well as processing the measurements, the ADuCM360 is used to
control the DAC, which, in turn, controls the loop current.
HART Comm [4]
• This AD5421 is a complete, loop powered, digital-to-4 mA-to-20 mA
converter that incorporates the reference, loop interface stage, and
programmable voltage regulation circuitry necessary to extract a low
power supply from the loop, to power both itself and the rest of the
transmitter signal chain.
• The DAC also provides a number of on-chip diagnostic features, all of
which can be configured and read by the microcontroller, but can also
operate autonomously. As an example, if the communication between
the microcontroller and the DAC fails, the on-chip watchdog timer will
automatically set the DAC analog output to a 3.2 mA “alarm” current
after a defined period. This indicates to the host that the field
instrument failed to operate.
Instrumentasi bioproses
Sulit memprediksi
PEMODELAN
dengan akurat meski
MATEMATIKA
PROSES BIOLOGIS cukup bermanfaat

PENGUKURAN SAAT
PROSES BERLANGSUNG

KOMPLEKS

KINETIKA REAKSI TIDAK KARAKTERISASI REAKSI


MULTIVARIABEL
DAPAT/SULIT DITENTUKAN BIOKIMIA KOMPETITIF

VARIASI PROPERTIES
INOKULAN TINGGI (Vogel and Todaro, 1997)
Pengukuran adalah kunci UNTUK MEMAHAMI
BIOPROSES!
Teknologi Pengukuran dapat diklasifikasikan menjadi tiga kategori besar
(dapat pula merupakan klasifikasi variabel proses fermentasi):
1. Biological: laju pertumbuhan, florescence, dan laju sintesis protein;
2. Chemical: konsentrasi glukosa, DO – oksigen terlarut, pH,
konsentrasi gas keluaran CO2, O2, N2, ethanol, ammonia dan
bermacam konsentrasi substansi organik;
3. Physical: Temperatur, level, tekanan, flow rate dan massa.
Metode-metode pengukuran parameter
bioproses
1. Biosensor 7. Pengukuran kemurnian air
2. Pengukuran massa/kepadatan 8. Pengukuran Temperatur
sel/jumlah bakteri
9. Pengukuran tekanan
3. Pengukuran komposisi bahan
kimia 10. Pengukuran massa

4. Pengukuran DO 11. Pengukuran laju massa dan volume


(flow rate)
5. Pengukuran/analisis exhaust
gas 12. Pengukuran broth level

6. Pengukuran pH
Beberapa hal yang harus diperhatikan dalam
pengukuran parameter proses biologi
1. Pengkondisian Lingkungan yang STERIL  mencegah kontaminasi
2. Alat pengukuran INLINE harus memenuhi “AAA Sanitary Standard”, untuk
spesifikasi permukaan luar dan material pada bagian “basah” (dalam)
3. Material harus tahan terhadap sterilisasi dengan uap panas (steam
sterilization) yang diperlukan secara periodik untuk mencegah
penumpukan bakteri
4. Alat yang terletak pada line proses harus sesuai dengan koneksi sanitari
untuk memfasilitasi pemindahan selama pembersihan ekstensif dan
operasi steril.
5. Port untuk pengambilan sampel, yang digunakan untuk pengambilan
bagian kecil dari isi reaktor untuk analisis laboratorium harus dilengkapi
dengan sistem sterilisasi untuk mencegah kontaminasi mikroorganisme
dari luar selama pengambilan sampel
Contoh sensor untuk pengukuran parameter
fermentasi
Culture parameters Sensor Range Accuracy
Temperature Pt-100 0-150C 0.1C
Pressure Piezoresistor 0-2 bar 20 mbar
Gas flow Thermal mass Upto 2 v v-1 min 0.1%
flow meter Based on bioreactor
volume
pH pH electrode 2-12 0.02
pO2 Polarografic 0-400 mbar 2 mbar
electrode
pCO2 Membrane 0-100 mbar 2 mbar
covered pH
electrode
Peletakan sensor pada bioreaktor
Application Lower ports Upper ports Headplate ports
measurement
Temp./pH/DO/ DCO2/ + (for pilot scale - + (only for small scale
Turbidity probes/substrate bioreactors) bioreactors / Glass bioreactors)
(s) on-line
Pressure gauge or - - +
Pressure sensor
Line to outgas analysis - - + (after condenser and out-gas
fileter)
Feeding / acid-based / - Highly suitable (Small scale pilot) Highly suitable (Large scale)
Antifoam addition Less Suitable (Large scale) Less Suitable (Small scale pilot)

Harvest + - -
(Continuous Culture)
(Repeated batch)
Sampling + - -
Biosensor
biosensor
• Biosensors adalah istilah untuk mengkombinasikan substrat biologis pada
rangkaian elektronik. Hal ini merupakan generasi baru untuk pengukuran
analitis interaksi biomolekular spesifik.
• "...a self-contained integrated device which is capable of providing specific
quantitative or semi-quantitative analytical information using biological
recognition element which is in direct spatial contact with a transducer
element." – IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry)

Immobilize one of Substrat is bounded onto


interacting molecul (Ligand) metal surface (gold or Convert to electricity signal
onto inert substrate platinum)
Metode teknik transduser biosensor

1. Potentiometric or amperometric, where a chemical or


biological reaction produces a potential difference or current
flow across a pair of electrodes.
2. Enzyme thermistors, where the thermal effect of the
chemical or biological reaction is transduced into an electrical
resistance change.
3. Optoelectronic, where a chemical or biological reaction evokes
a change in light transmission.
4. Electrochemically sensitive transistors whose signal depends
upon the chemical reactions underway.
Prinsip kerja biosensor
Problem 1
• Sebutkan contoh jenis BIOSENSOR dan
penerapannya untuk sistem instrumentasi
bioproses!
massa sel
Cell mass measurement
• Pengukuran massa sel antara lain dapat dilakukan dengan
metode optical density. Pengukuran jenis ini paling efektif untuk
bakteri yang memiliki bentuk spheris misal E. coli.
• Metode lain yang digunakan diantaranya adalah titrasi
spektrofotometri

Optical density (OD) = A / L


Where A refers to absorbance
L refers to thickness of sample
Online cell mass determination method

Principle Advantages Disadvantages


Optical density Wide linear range Some interference

Culture fluorescence Measurement of cellular activity Singanal interpretation is


difficult
Capacitance Wide measurement range Interferance from aeration and
aeration
Measurement of cellular activity Signal interpretation is difficult

Ultrasonic Wide linear range Interference from aeration and


agitation
Self cleaning Temperature sensitive
Online cell mass and viability measurement

Theory:

Cells with intact plasma membranes act like


tiny capacitors under the influence of electric
field. The non-conducting nature of plasma
membranes allows charge to build up. The
resulting capacitance can be measured and is
usually expressed in pico-farad per
centimeter (pF/cm). It depends on the cell
type and is directly proportional to
membrane bound volume of viable cells.
Komposisi kimia
Pengukuran komposisi kimia
• Metode yang paling banyak digunakan adalah kromatografi
• Gas chromatography
• Liquid Chromatography
• Low Pressure
• High Pressure
• Thin Layer
Dissolved oxygen
DO
• DO merupakan salah satu parameter terpenting yang perlu
diamati dalam proses fermentasi. Parameter ini
mengindikasikan potensi kembang biak bakteri.
• Dua prinsip operasi digunakan pada probe pengukuran DO
yaitu: reaksi elektrokimia dan prinsip amperometrik
(polarographic).
DO-meter
Prinsip kerja probe do
• In the amperometric (polarographic) approach, oxygen again permeates a
diffusion barrier and encounters an electrochemical cell immersed in basic
aqueous solution. A potential difference of approximately 1.3 V is
maintained between the anode and cathode. As the oxygen encounters the
cathode, an electrochemical reaction occurs:

• The hydroxyl ion then travels to the anode where it completes the
electrochemical reaction process:

• The concentration of oxygen is directly proportional to the amount of


current passed through the cell.
Hubungan antara do dan temperatur
Exhaust gas analysis
Analisis gas exhaust

• Banyak yang bisa dipelajari dari gas hasil


metabolisme seperti CO2, O2, N2, NH3 dan
ethanol. Faktanya analisis prediktif didasarkan
pada penghitungan Laju uptake oksigen, laju
pertukaran karbon dioksida yang
menggambarkan proses respirasi.
• Metode yang digunakan secara luas adalah
spektrometri massa. Dua metode operasi
digunakan yaitu:
• Magnetic
• Quadrapole
magnetic
quadrapole

• Menggunakan elektron beam untuk


ionisasi partikel.
• The quadrapole is a set of four similar
and parallel rods (see Fig. 4) with
opposite rods electrically connected. A
radio frequency and dc charge of equal
potential, but opposite charge, is applied
to each set of the rods. By varying the
absolute potential applied to the rods, it
is possible to eliminate all ions except
those of a specific mass-to-energy ratio.
Pengukuran ph
Nilai ph untuk beberapa cairan
pH dan konsentrasi ion hidrogen
Pengukuran PH
Efek temperatur pada pengukuran ph
Tabel error temperatur
Jurnal –
pengukuran ph fermentasi – NDT ULTRASONIK
Broth level

• As the broth in a fermenter or bioreactor becomes more viscous and is


subjected to agitation from sparging (the introduction of tiny sterilized air
bubbles at the bottom of the liquid) and from mixing by the impeller, it has
a tendency to foam. This can be a serious problem as the level may rise to
the point where it enters the exhaust gas lines clogging the ultrafilters and
possibly jeopardizing the sterile environment within the reactor. Various
antifoam strategies can be employed to correct this situation, however,
detection of the condition is first required.
Sensor antifoam standar

Type of foam:
Early foaming
Late foaming

Antifoam effects on:


DO
Growth morphology
(Filamentous MO)

Foam sensors:
Low foam sensor
High foam sensor
Problem 2

• Jelaskan mengapa strategi antifoam diperlukan,


dan jelaskan cara kerja sensor untuk
pengukurannya!
Instrumentasi untuk pengukuran proses
fermentasi aktif
CONTOH DATA HASIL PENGUKURAN
Penggunaan data pengukuran bioproses
• Data hasil monitoring bioproses antara lain digunakan untuk:
1. FAULT ANALYSIS
2. PROCESS MODELING
3. STATE ESTIMATION
4. CONTROL SYSTEM
FAULT ANALYSIS
FAULT ANALYSIS
• Faults in reactor operation affect 15-20% of fermentations [25]. Fermentation
measurements can be used to detect faults; for example, signals from a flow sensor
could be used to detect blockages in a pipe and trigger an alarm in the factory
control room. Normally however, the sensors themselves are the most likely
components to fail; rates of failure of some fermentation instruments are listed in
Table 13.2.
PEMODELAN BIOPROSES
PEMODELAN BIOPROSES

• Model secara umum adalah hubungan matematika dari variabel2


proses.
• As an example, a frequently-used mathematical model for batch
fermentation consists of the Monod equation for growth and
an expression for rate of substrate consumption as a function
of biomass concentration:
State estimation
Pendugaan kondisi proses
• Terkadang ada beberapa variabel yang tidak
dapat diukur secara langsung pada bioproses
maka diperlukan estimasi.
• Often, considerable delays are involved in off-
line measurement of important variables such
as biomass, substrate and product
concentrations. Such delays make effective
control of the reactor difficult if control action
is dependent on the value of these parameters,
but must be undertaken more quickly than
off-line analysis allows. One approach to this
problem is to use available on-line
measurements in conjunction with
mathematical models of the process to
estimate unknown variables.
• Program komputer yang dikembangkan untuk ini
dinamakan software sensor, estimator atau
observer.
Sistem kontrol umpan balik
PEMODELAN BIOPROSES

• Jenis sistem kontrol yang digunakan umumnya adalah feedback


control system.
MICRO-ELECTRO-MECHANICAL SYSTEMS