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p238 : 6.3.2 The Unit Step Function
The unit step function U(ta) is defined :
´ )

´

>
· ·
=
a t
a t
a t U
, 1
0 , 0
2
When a function f is multiplied by U(ta), the unit
step function " turns OFF " the portion of the graph
of f from
a t e e 0
.
Unit Step Function
3
Example :
Given
1 ! t t f
, then
t f t U 5
means that the
ONLY portion of
t f
from
5 0 t
is " turn OFF ".
Unit Step Function
4
Another very useful unit step function is
U( a )  U( b).
´ ) ´ )
´
· ·
otherwise , 0
, 1 b t a
b t a t
Unit Step Function
5
When a function f is multiplied by [U(ta)  U(t )],
only the portion of the graph of f from
t a e e
is
" turn ON ".
Unit Step Function
6
Example :
Given
1 ! t t f
, t en
? A t f t t 5
means t at NLY t e rti n f
t f
fr m
5 0 t
is
" t rn N ".
Unit Step Function
7
A i wi ti , f (t) i i i t
 ti i t i t v l t.
Ex mpl 1 :
´ )
other ise
7 4
4 2
2 0
0
, 1
, 11 2
, 5
·
·
·

´

+
+
=
t
t
t
t
t
t
t f
subfunction
Unit Step Function
8
Any piecewise function can be expressed as a single
equation by :
1. applying unit step function on each subfunction
2. add each result obtained from 1.
Unit Step Function
9
Example 2 :
Express piecewise f ncti n t f fr exa le 1
sing nit ste f ncti n.
1. a l ing nit ste f ncti n n each s f ncti n
r
2 e t
,
? A 5 5 5 ! t U t U t t
? A 4 2 11 2 11 2 ! t U t U t t
For
4 2 e t
,
? A 7 4 1 1 ! t U t U t t
For
7 4 t
,
u t
,
0
´ )
otherwise
7 4
4 2
2 0
0
, 1
, 11 2
, 5
·
·
·
´
t
t
t
t
t
t
t f
Unit Step Function
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2. Add each result obtained from 1.
! t f
? A 4 2 11 2 t U t U t
? A 7 4 1 t U t U t
Unit Step Function
? A 2 5 t U t U t
1 .t a ! ¯ tua °1 .
the unit step function " turns OFF " the portion of the graph of f from 0 e t e a .Unit Step Function When a function f is multiplied by U(ta). 2 .
Unit Step Function Example : Given f .
t ! t 1 . then U .
t 5 f .
t means that the ONLY portion of f .
t from 0 t 5 is " turn OFF ". 3 .
Unit Step Function Another very useful unit step function is U( a ) .U( b). .
t a .
0. aet eb otherwise 4 .t b ¯ 1.
is 5 . only the portion of the graph of f from a e t e " turn ON ".)].U(t.Unit Step Function When a function f is multiplied by [U(ta) .
Unit Step Function Example : Given f .
t ! t 1 . ? . means t at " t rn N ".
t .
t 5 A f .
t t en NLY t e rti n f f .
t fr m 0 t 5 is 6 .
t Ex mpl 1 : ® ± t 5 . ± f .Unit Step Function A i  wi ti ti . f (t) i i i ti t v l i t.
± t 1 .t ! ¯ 2t 11. ± ° 0 0 t 2 2 t 4 4 t 7 other ise subfunction 7 .
Unit Step Function Any piecewise function can be expressed as a single equation by : 1. applying unit step function on each subfunction 2. add each result obtained from 1. 8 .
Unit Step Function Example 2 : t 5. 0et 2 Express piecewise f ncti n f .
t fr f .
a l ing nit ste f ncti n n each s f ncti n r et 2 ..t ¯ 2t 11. 2 e t 4 sing nit ste f nctit n. t 5 ! . 4et 7 1 0 otherwise exa le 1 1.
t 5 ? .
t U .
t U 5 A For 2 e t For 4 t tu . 4. 2t 11 ! .
2t 11 ? .
t 2 U .
t 4 A U 7. t 1 ! .
t 1 ? .
t 4 U .
t 7 A U 9 0 .
Unit Step Function 2. f . Add each result obtained from 1.
t ! .
t 5 ? .
t U .
t 2 A U .
2t 11 ?U .
t 2 U .
t 4 A .
t 1 ? .
t 4 U .
t 7 A U 10 .